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1.
Clin Nutr ; 41(7): 1600-1604, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with colon cancer who prematurely discontinue postoperative chemotherapy may have an increased risk of disease recurrence and death. This study tested the hypothesis that the quantity and distribution of abdominal adipose tissue predict premature chemotherapy discontinuation. METHODS: This cohort study included 533 patients with stage II-III colon cancer who initiated a planned regimen of 24-weeks of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) chemotherapy. The primary exposures were body mass index (BMI) and computed tomography-derived abdominal adiposity measures (e.g., visceral, subcutaneous, and intramuscular adipose tissue). The primary endpoint was premature chemotherapy discontinuation, defined as receiving <6 cycles of FOLFOX. Generalized linear models quantified the relative risk (RR) of premature chemotherapy discontinuation adjusted for age, sex, cancer stage, height, and muscle area, using two-sided statistical tests. RESULTS: Forty-two patients [7.9% (95% CI: 5.7, 10.5)] prematurely discontinued chemotherapy. Visceral adipose tissue [RR: 3.27 (95% CI: 1.26, 8.49)] and intramuscular adipose tissue [RR: 2.79 (95% CI: 1.09, 7.12)] were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of premature chemotherapy discontinuation. BMI [RR: 2.07 (95% CI: 0.75, 5.73)] and subcutaneous adipose tissue [RR: 2.32 (95% CI: 0.91, 5.94)] were not statistically significantly associated with premature chemotherapy discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Among patients with stage II-III colon cancer who initiate postoperative chemotherapy, excess visceral and intramuscular adiposity may be risk factors for the premature discontinuation of chemotherapy.

2.
BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med ; 8(2): e001353, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722047

RESUMO

Objectives: This study determined the feasibility of delivering a 12-week structured physical activity programme during chemotherapy to older adults recently diagnosed with metastatic gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Methods: This study used a single-cohort design. Older adults (aged ≥65 years) diagnosed with metastatic oesophageal, gastric, pancreatic or colorectal cancer who planned to initiate chemotherapy were enrolled. The physical activity programme included a combination of aerobic, flexibility, strength and balance modalities delivered by a certified cancer exercise trainer during chemotherapy infusion appointments, then translated and sustained at home by participants. The co-primary endpoints included: (1) accrual of 20 participants in 12 months and (2) physical activity adherence of ≥50%. Results: Between March and October 2018, 29 participants were screened, and 20 were enrolled within 12 months (recruitment rate: 69% (90% CI: 55% to 83%); p<0.001), meeting the first co-primary endpoint. The median age of participants was 73.3 years (IQR: 69.3-77.2). At week 12, 67% (90% CI: 48% to 85%) of participants adhered to ≥50% of the prescribed physical activity (p=0.079 (statistically significant)), meeting the second co-primary endpoint. From baseline to week 12, accelerometer-measured light-intensity and moderate-intensity to vigorous-intensity physical activity increased by 307.4 (95% CI: 152.6 to 462.2; p<0.001) and 25.0 min per week (95% CI: 9.9 to 40.1; p=0.001), respectively. There were no serious or unexpected adverse events. The median overall survival was 16.2 months (8.4-22.4). Conclusion: These results establish the feasibility of a larger scale randomised controlled trial that enrols older adults with metastatic GI cancer and delivers a structured physical activity programme during chemotherapy. Trial registration number: NCT03331406.

3.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am ; 36(3): 471-489, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504785

RESUMO

The evidence is consistent that certain dietary and lifestyle factors modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development and differential survival outcomes. Emerging prospective data in addition to earlier studies largely support the notion that specific dietary products or patterns and physical activity are associated with protection against CRC development and mortality. However, few randomized controlled trials evaluating causal relationships exist, and much of the current data remain limited to nonmetastatic CRC. More widespread integration of assessment of dietary and lifestyle factors on disease-related outcomes across clinical and interventional trials as well as behavioral intervention trials are needed for the development of more definitive care guidelines.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2200687, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide guidance on exercise, diet, and weight management during active cancer treatment in adults. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature identified systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials evaluating the impact of aerobic and resistance exercise, specific diets and foods, and intentional weight loss and avoidance of weight gain in adults during cancer treatment, on quality of life, treatment toxicity, and cancer control. PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched from January 2000 to May 2021. ASCO convened an Expert Panel to review the evidence and formulate recommendations. RESULTS: The evidence base consisted of 52 systematic reviews (42 for exercise, nine for diet, and one for weight management), and an additional 23 randomized controlled trials. The most commonly studied types of cancer were breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal. Exercise during cancer treatment led to improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, fatigue, and other patient-reported outcomes. Preoperative exercise in patients with lung cancer led to a reduction in postoperative length of hospital stay and complications. Neutropenic diets did not decrease risk of infection during cancer treatment. RECOMMENDATIONS: Oncology providers should recommend regular aerobic and resistance exercise during active treatment with curative intent and may recommend preoperative exercise for patients undergoing surgery for lung cancer. Neutropenic diets are not recommended to prevent infection in patients with cancer during active treatment. Evidence for other dietary and weight loss interventions during cancer treatment was very limited. The guideline discusses special considerations, such as exercise in individuals with advanced cancer, and highlights the critical need for more research in this area, particularly regarding diet and weight loss interventions during cancer treatment.Additional information is available at www.asco.org/supportive-care-guidelines.

5.
Oncologist ; 27(6): e494-e505, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited and conflicting findings have been reported regarding the association between social support and colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes. We sought to assess the influences of marital status and living arrangement on survival outcomes among patients with stage III colon cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of 1082 patients with stage III colon cancer prospectively followed in the CALGB 89803 randomized adjuvant chemotherapy trial. Marital status and living arrangement were both self-reported at the time of enrollment as, respectively, married, divorced, separated, widowed, or never-married, and living alone, with a spouse or partner, with other family, in a nursing home, or other. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 7.6 years, divorced/separated/widowed patients experienced worse outcomes relative to those married regarding disease free-survival (DFS) (hazards ratio (HR), 1.44 (95% CI, 1.14-1.81); P =.002), recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR, 1.35 (95% CI, 1.05-1.73); P = .02), and overall survival (OS) (HR, 1.40 (95% CI, 1.08-1.82); P =.01); outcomes were not significantly different for never-married patients. Compared to patients living with a spouse/partner, those living with other family experienced a DFS of 1.47 (95% CI, 1.02-2.11; P = .04), RFS of 1.34 (95% CI, 0.91-1.98; P = .14), and OS of 1.50 (95% CI, 1.00-2.25; P =.05); patients living alone did not experience significantly different outcomes. CONCLUSION: Among patients with stage III colon cancer who received uniform treatment and follow-up within a nationwide randomized clinical trial, being divorced/separated/widowed and living with other family were significantly associated with greater colon cancer mortality. Interventions enhancing social support services may be clinically relevant for this patient population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00003835.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Estado Civil , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico
6.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(2)2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the time to progression (TTP) and survival outcomes of second-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer among adults aged 70 years and older compared with younger adults following progression on first-line clinical trials. METHODS: Associations between clinical and disease characteristics, time to initial progression, and rate of receipt of second-line therapy were evaluated. TTP and overall survival (OS) were compared between older and younger adults in first- and second-line trials by Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status, number of metastatic sites and presence of metastasis in the lung, liver, or peritoneum. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Older adults comprised 16.4% of patients on first-line trials (870 total older adults aged >70 years; 4419 total younger adults aged ≤70 years, on first-line trials). Older adults and those with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status >0 were less likely to receive second-line therapy than younger adults. Odds of receiving second-line therapy decreased by 11% for each additional decade of life in multivariable analysis (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.21, P = .01). Older and younger adults enrolled in second-line trials experienced similar median TTP and median OS (median TTP = 5.1 vs 5.2 months, respectively; median OS = 11.6 vs 12.4 months, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Older adults were less likely to receive second-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer, though we did not observe a statistical difference in survival outcomes vs younger adults following second-line therapy. Further study should examine factors affecting decisions to treat older adults with second-line therapy. Inclusion of geriatric assessment may provide better criteria regarding the risks and benefits of second-line therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Retais , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos
7.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266791, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to emergency measures to continue patient care and research at a comprehensive cancer center while protecting both employees and patients. Determining exposure and infection rates with SARS-CoV-2 were important to adjust workplace policies over time. METHODS: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) has over 7,000 employees. Participation was voluntary. After consent, participants completed questionnaire of demographics, exposures and risk factors for COVID-19 illness at each time point (baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months) along with blood draws for SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing. Primary measure was determination of titers of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG over time. RESULTS: In total, 745 employees enrolled from May 2020 to February 2021 (mean [SD] age, 40[14] years; 572[80%] women). From May to July 2020, 47 of 519 employees (9.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.7-12.0%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG antibodies. Three months later, 40 of 428 employees had positive antibodies (8.5%, 95% CI 6.0-11.0%) with 17 newly positive. At month 6, 78.5% of participants reported having received at least one dose of vaccine and the positivity rate for those vaccinated was 98% (95% CI, 95-100%). Spike protein IgG titers for those vaccinated were 7.9 times higher than participants not vaccinated (median IgG titer = 0.28 for positive antibody but not vaccinated versus 2.2 for vaccinated) but demonstrate evidence of waning over time. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity remained less than 10% at a single comprehensive cancer center prior to vaccination and there is evidence of waning IgG titers over time after vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
8.
Oncologist ; 27(4): 292-298, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combination irinotecan and cetuximab is approved for irinotecan-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). It is unknown if adding bevacizumab improves outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial, patients with irinotecan-refractory RAS-wildtype mCRC and no prior anti-EGFR therapy were randomized to cetuximab 500 mg/m2, bevacizumab 5 mg/kg, and irinotecan 180 mg/m2 (or previously tolerated dose) (CBI) versus cetuximab, irinotecan, and placebo (CI) every 2 weeks until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: The study closed early after the accrual of 36 out of a planned 120 patients due to changes in funding. Nineteen patients were randomized to CBI and 17 to CI. Baseline characteristics were similar between arms. Median PFS was 9.7 versus 5.5 months for CBI and CI, respectively (1-sided log-rank P = .38; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-1.66). Median OS was 19.7 versus 10.2 months for CBI and CI (1-sided log-rank P = .02; adjusted HR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.15-1.09). ORR was 36.8% for CBI versus 11.8% for CI (P = .13). Grade 3 or higher AEs occurred in 47% of patients receiving CBI versus 35% for CI (P = .46). CONCLUSION: In this prematurely discontinued trial, there was no significant difference in the primary endpoint of PFS between CBI and CI. There was a statistically significant improvement in OS in favor of CBI compared with CI. Further investigation of CBI for the treatment of irinotecan-refractory mCRC is warranted.Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02292758.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Colorretais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Cetuximab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fluoruracila , Humanos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 115(6): 1481-1489, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent preclinical research strongly suggests that dietary sugars can enhance colorectal tumorigenesis by direct action, particularly in the proximal colon that unabsorbed fructose reaches. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine long-term consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and total fructose in relation to incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) by anatomic subsite. METHODS: We followed 121,111 participants from 2 prospective US cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2014) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014), for incident CRC and related death. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute HRs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: During follow-up, we documented 2733 incident cases of CRC with a known anatomic location, of whom 901 died from CRC. Positive associations of SSB and total fructose intakes with cancer incidence and mortality were observed in the proximal colon but not in the distal colon or rectum (Pheterogeneity ≤ 0.03). SSB consumption was associated with a statistically significant increase in the incidence of proximal colon cancer (HR per 1-serving/d increment: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.34; Ptrend = 0.02) and a more pronounced elevation in the mortality of proximal colon cancer (HR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.72; Ptrend = 0.002). Similarly, total fructose intake was associated with increased incidence and mortality of proximal colon cancer (HRs per 25-g/d increment: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.35; and 1.42; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.79, respectively). Moreover, SSB and total fructose intakes during the most recent 10 y, rather than those from a more distant period, were associated with increased incidence of proximal colon cancer. CONCLUSIONS: SSB and total fructose consumption were associated with increased incidence and mortality of proximal colon cancer, particularly during later stages of tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Bebidas/análise , Carcinogênese , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Açúcares da Dieta , Seguimentos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Açúcares
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 840198, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392092

RESUMO

Background: The relationships between tumor stromal features (such as desmoplastic reaction, myxoid stroma, and keloid-like collagen bundles) and immune cells in the colorectal carcinoma microenvironment have not yet been fully characterized. Methods: In 908 tumors with available tissue among 4,465 incident colorectal adenocarcinoma cases in two prospective cohort studies, we examined desmoplastic reaction, myxoid stroma, and keloid-like collagen bundles. We conducted multiplex immunofluorescence for T cells [CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO (PTPRC), and FOXP3] and for macrophages [CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, and MRC1 (CD206)]. We used the inverse probability weighting method and the 4,465 incident cancer cases to adjust for selection bias. Results: Immature desmoplastic reaction was associated with lower densities of intraepithelial CD3+CD8+CD45RO+ cells [multivariable odds ratio (OR) for the highest (vs. lowest) density category, 0.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.29-0.62; Ptrend <0.0001] and stromal M1-like macrophages [the corresponding OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.28-0.70; Ptrend = 0.0011]. Similar relations were observed for myxoid stroma [intraepithelial CD3+CD8+CD45RO+ cells (Ptrend <0.0001) and stromal M1-like macrophages (Ptrend = 0.0007)] and for keloid-like collagen bundles (Ptrend <0.0001 for intraepithelial CD3+CD8+CD45RO+ cells). In colorectal cancer-specific survival analyses, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) were 0.32 (0.23-0.44; Ptrend <0.0001) for mature (vs. immature) desmoplastic reaction, 0.25 (0.16-0.39; Ptrend <0.0001) for absent (vs. marked) myxoid stroma, and 0.12 (0.05-0.28; Ptrend <0.0001) for absent (vs. marked) keloid-like collagen bundles. Conclusions: Immature desmoplastic reaction and myxoid stroma were associated with lower densities of tumor intraepithelial memory cytotoxic T cells and stromal M1-like macrophages, likely reflecting interactions between tumor, immune, and stromal cells in the colorectal tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Queloide , Humanos , Queloide/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Microambiente Tumoral
11.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 29(6): 335-344, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324465

RESUMO

Treatment with the MTOR inhibitor everolimus improves progression-free survival (PFS) in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs), but it is not known if the addition of a VEGF pathway inhibitor to an MTOR inhibitor enhances antitumor activity. We performed a randomized phase II study evaluating everolimus with or without bevacizumab in patients with advanced pNETs. One hundred and fifty patients were randomized to receive everolimus 10 mg daily with or without bevacizumab 10 mg/kg i.v. every 2 weeks. Patients also received standard dose of octreotide in both arms. The primary endpoint was PFS, based on local investigator review. Treatment with the combination of everolimus and bevacizumab resulted in improved progression-free survival compared to everolimus (16.7 months compared to 14.0 months; one-sided stratified log-rank P = 0.1028; hazard ratio (HR) 0.80 (95% CI 0.56-1.13)), meeting the predefined primary endpoint. Confirmed tumor responses were observed in 31% (95% CI 20%, 41%) of patients receiving combination therapy, as compared to only 12% (95% CI 5%, 19%) of patients receiving treatment with everolimus (P = 0.0053). Median overall survival duration was similar in the everolimus and combination arm (42.5 and 42.1 months, respectively). Treatment-related toxicities were more common in the combination arm. In summary, treatment with everolimus and bevacizumab led to superior PFS and higher response rates compared to everolimus in patients with advanced pNETs. Although the higher rate of treatment-related adverse events may limit the use of this combination, our results support the continued evaluation of VEGF pathway inhibitors in pNETs.


Assuntos
Everolimo , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos/etiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
12.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red and processed meat consumption has been consistently associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the association for fish intake is unclear. Evidence using objective dietary assessment approaches to evaluate these associations is sparse. OBJECTIVES: We aim to investigate the plasma metabolite profiles related to red meat, poultry, and fish consumption and examine their associations with CRC risk. METHODS: We measured plasma metabolites among 5269 participants from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), NHSII, and Health Professionals Follow-Up study (HPFS). We calculated partial Spearman correlations between each metabolite and self-reported intake of seven red meat, poultry, and fish groups. Metabolite profile scores correlated to self-reported dietary intakes were developed using elastic net regression. Associations between self-reported intakes, metabolite profile scores, and subsequent CRC risk were further evaluated using conditional logistic regression among 559 matched (1:1) case-control pairs in NHS/HPFS and replicated among 266 pairs in Women's Health Study. RESULTS: Plasma metabolites, especially highly unsaturated lipids, were differentially associated with red meat and fish groups. Metabolite profile scores for each food group were significantly correlated with the corresponding self-reported dietary intake. A higher dietary intake of processed red meat was associated with a higher risk of CRC (pooled OR per 1 SD, 1.15; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.29). In contrast, higher metabolite profile scores for all fish groups, not dietary intakes, were consistently associated with a lower CRC risk: the pooled OR per 1 SD was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.96) for total fish, 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.96) for dark meat fish, and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.97) for canned tuna fish. No significant associations were found for other food groups. CONCLUSIONS: Red meat and fish intake exhibited systematically different plasma metabolite profiles. Plasma metabolite profile of fish intake was inversely associated with CRC risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Modelos Logísticos , Aves Domésticas , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos
13.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 72(3): 230-262, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294043

RESUMO

The overall 5-year relative survival rate for all cancers combined is now 68%, and there are over 16.9 million survivors in the United States. Evidence from laboratory and observational studies suggests that factors such as diet, physical activity, and obesity may affect risk for recurrence and overall survival after a cancer diagnosis. The purpose of this American Cancer Society guideline is to provide evidence-based, cancer-specific recommendations for anthropometric parameters, physical activity, diet, and alcohol intake for reducing recurrence and cancer-specific and overall mortality. The audiences for this guideline are health care providers caring for cancer survivors as well as cancer survivors and their families. The guideline is intended to serve as a resource for informing American Cancer Society programs, health policy, and the media. Sources of evidence that form the basis of this guideline are systematic literature reviews, meta-analyses, pooled analyses of cohort studies, and large randomized clinical trials published since 2012. Recommendations for nutrition and physical activity during cancer treatment, informed by current practice, large cancer care organizations, and reviews of other expert bodies, are also presented. To provide additional context for the guidelines, the authors also include information on the relationship between health-related behaviors and comorbidities, long-term sequelae and patient-reported outcomes, and health disparities, with attention to enabling survivors' ability to adhere to recommendations. Approaches to meet survivors' needs are addressed as well as clinical care coordination and resources for nutrition and physical activity counseling after a cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , American Cancer Society , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Sobreviventes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 13(4): 469-479, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the interaction of comorbidities and age on survival outcomes in colorectal cancer (mCRC), nor how comorbidities impact treatment tolerance. METHODS: We utilized a cohort of 1345 mCRC patients enrolled in CALGB/SWOG 80405, a multicenter phase III trial of fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus bevacizumab, cetuximab or both. Endpoints were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and grade ≥ 3 toxicities assessed using NCI CTCAE v.3.0. Participants completed a questionnaire, including a modified Charlson Comorbidity Index. Adjusted Cox and logistic regression models tested associations of comorbidities and age on the endpoints. RESULTS: In CALGB/SWOG 80405, 1095 (81%) subjects were < 70 years and >70 250 (19%). Presence of ≥1 comorbidity was not significantly associated with either OS (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.96-1.25) or PFS (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.91-1.16). Compared to subjects <70 with no comorbidities, OS was non-significantly inferior for ≥70 with no comorbidities (HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.98-1.49) and significantly inferior for ≥70 with at least one comorbidity (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.22-1.86). There were no significant associations or interactions between age or comorbidity with PFS. Comorbidities were not associated with treatment-related toxicities. Age ≥ 70 was associated with greater risk of grade ≥ 3 toxicities (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.50-3.09, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among participants in a clinical trial of combination chemotherapy for mCRC, presence of older age with comorbidities was associated with worse OS but not PFS. The association of age with toxicity suggests additional factors of care should be measured in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Retais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Comorbidade , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Support Care Cancer ; 30(5): 4557-4564, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35119520

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There are over 1.3 million colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors in the USA, many of whom report lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) years after treatment. This study aimed to explore the effect of digital health tools on HRQoL in CRC survivors. METHODS: We conducted a two-arm, randomized controlled trial of 42 subjects who had completed treatment for CRC. Participants in the intervention arm received a Fitbit Flex™ and daily text messages for 12 weeks. HRQoL was assessed as a secondary endpoint in both arms at enrollment and 12 weeks using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Survey (SF-36) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C). Survey score changes from enrollment to 12 weeks were compared between the two arms using independent t tests, and scores at enrollment and 12 weeks were compared using paired t tests. RESULTS: An increase in the FACT-C functional well-being subscale was observed in individuals in the intervention arm pre- to post-intervention (median difference, 2; interquartile range (IQR), 1, 4; P = .02). Although the between-group comparison was not statistically significant, no change in the functional well-being subscale was observed in the control arm (median difference, 0; IQR, 1, 1; P = .71). No other measures of HRQoL appeared to differ within arm across time points or between arms. CONCLUSION: A 12-week digital physical activity intervention may improve functional well-being among CRC survivors. Larger randomized studies are needed to determine if digital health tools improve functional well-being among CRC survivors and if this improvement can be sustained over time. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02966054; registration date, November 17, 2016.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e220145, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35191970

RESUMO

Importance: The American Cancer Society and American Institute for Cancer Research recommend that cancer survivors limit intake of red and processed meats. This recommendation is based on consistent associations between red and processed meat intake and cancer risk, particularly risk of colorectal cancer, but fewer data are available on red and processed meat intake after cancer diagnosis. Objectives: To examine whether intake of unprocessed red meat or processed meat is associated with risk of cancer recurrence or mortality in patients with colon cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study used data from participants with stage III colon cancer enrolled in the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB 89803/Alliance) trial between 1999 and 2001. The clinical database for this analysis was frozen on November 9, 2009; the current data analyses were finalized in December 2021. Exposures: Quartiles of unprocessed red meat and processed meat intake assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire during and 6 months after chemotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for risk of cancer recurrence or death and all-cause mortality. Results: This study was conducted among 1011 patients with stage III colon cancer. The median (IQR) age at enrollment was 60 (51-69) years, 442 patients (44%) were women, and 899 patients (89%) were White. Over a median (IQR) follow-up period of 6.6 (1.9-7.5) years, we observed 305 deaths and 81 recurrences without death during follow-up (386 events combined). Intake of unprocessed red meat or processed meat after colon cancer diagnosis was not associated with risk of recurrence or mortality. The multivariable HRs comparing the highest vs lowest quartiles for cancer recurrence or death were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.58-1.23) for unprocessed red meat and 1.05 (95% CI, 0.75-1.47) for processed meat. For all-cause mortality, the corresponding HRs were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47-1.07) for unprocessed red meat and 1.04 (95% CI, 0.72-1.51) for processed meat. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, postdiagnosis intake of unprocessed red meat or processed meat was not associated with risk of recurrence or death among patients with stage III colon cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne Vermelha/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(7): 740-751, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995084

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current tools in predicting survival outcomes for patients with colon cancer predominantly rely on clinical and pathologic characteristics, but increasing evidence suggests that diet and lifestyle habits are associated with patient outcomes and should be considered to enhance model accuracy. METHODS: Using an adjuvant chemotherapy trial for stage III colon cancer (CALGB 89803), we developed prediction models of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival by additionally incorporating self-reported nine diet and lifestyle factors. Both models were assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression and externally validated using another trial for stage III colon cancer (CALGB/SWOG 80702), and visual nomograms of prediction models were constructed accordingly. We also proposed three hypothetical scenarios for patients with (1) good-risk, (2) average-risk, and (3) poor-risk clinical and pathologic features, and estimated their predictive survival by considering clinical and pathologic features with or without adding self-reported diet and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Among 1,024 patients (median age 60.0 years, 43.8% female), we observed 394 DFS events and 311 deaths after median follow-up of 7.3 years. Adding self-reported diet and lifestyle factors to clinical and pathologic characteristics meaningfully improved performance of prediction models (c-index from 0.64 [95% CI, 0.62 to 0.67] to 0.69 [95% CI, 0.67 to 0.72] for DFS, and from 0.67 [95% CI, 0.64 to 0.70] to 0.71 [95% CI, 0.69 to 0.75] for overall survival). External validation also indicated good performance of discrimination and calibration. Adding most self-reported favorable diet and lifestyle exposures to multivariate modeling improved 5-year DFS of all patients and by 6.3% for good-risk, 21.4% for average-risk, and 42.6% for poor-risk clinical and pathologic features. CONCLUSION: Diet and lifestyle factors further inform current recurrence and survival prediction models for patients with stage III colon cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Dieta , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Estatísticos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Nomogramas , Idoso , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 77: 102100, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive telomere shortening may be related to genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Prospective evidence relating telomere length (TL) with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk has been limited and inconsistent. METHODS: We examined the association between pre-diagnostic peripheral blood leukocyte TL and CRC risk in two matched case-control studies nested within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). Relative leukocyte TL was measured using qPCR among 356 incident CRC cases and 801 controls (NHS: 186/465, HPFS: 170/336). RESULTS: We did not find a significant association between pre-diagnostic TL and CRC risk [in all participants, multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for TL Quartile 1 (shortest) vs. Quartile 4 (longest) = 1.36 (0.85, 2.17), P-trend = 0.27; OR (95% CI) per 1 SD decrease in TL = 1.12 (0.92, 1.36)]. CONCLUSIONS: Our prospective analysis did not support a significant association between pre-diagnostic leukocyte TL and CRC risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Telômero , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucócitos , Fatores de Risco , Telômero/genética
19.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 37(4): 413-422, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032257

RESUMO

How metabolome changes influence the early process of colorectal cancer (CRC) development remains unknown. We conducted a 1:2 matched nested case-control study to examine the associations of pre-diagnostic plasma metabolome (profiled using LC-MS) with risk of CRC precursors, including conventional adenomas (n = 586 vs. 1141) and serrated polyps (n = 509 vs. 993), in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We used the permutation-based Westfall and Young approach to account for multiple testing. Subgroup analyses were performed for advanced conventional adenomas (defined as at least one adenoma of ≥ 10 mm or with high-grade dysplasia, or tubulovillous or villous histology) and high-risk serrated polyps that were located in the proximal colon or with size of ≥ 10 mm. After multiple testing correction, among 207 metabolites, higher levels of C36:3 phosphatidylcholine (PC) plasmalogen were associated with lower risk of conventional adenomas, with the OR (95% CI) comparing the 90th to the 10th percentile of 0.62 (0.48-0.81); C54:8 triglyceride (TAG) was associated with higher risk of serrated polyps (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.31-2.43), and phenylacetylglutamine (PAG) was associated with lower risk (OR = 0.57, 95% CI:0.43-0.77). PAG was also inversely associated with advanced adenomas (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.36-0.89) and high-risk serrated polyps (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32-0.89), although the multiple testing-corrected p value was > 0.05. Our findings suggest potential roles of lipid metabolism and phenylacetylglutamine, a microbial metabolite, in the early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis, particularly for the serrated pathway.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Pólipos do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 97(1): 124-133, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996545

RESUMO

Given previous biologic evidence of immunomodulatory effects of coffee, we hypothesized that the association between coffee intake of colorectal cancer patients and survival differs by immune responses. Using a molecular pathologic epidemiology database of 4465 incident colorectal cancer cases, including 1262 cases with molecular data, in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we examined the association between coffee intake of colorectal cancer patients and survival in strata of levels of histopathologic lymphocytic reaction and T-cell infiltrates in tumor tissue. We did not observe a significant association of coffee intake with colorectal cancer-specific mortality (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for 1-cup increase of coffee intake per day, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.03). Although statistical significance was not reached at the stringent level (α=.005), the association of coffee intake with colorectal cancer-specific mortality differed by Crohn disease-like lymphoid reaction (Pinteraction=.007). Coffee intake was associated with lower colorectal cancer-specific mortality in patients with high Crohn disease-like reaction (multivariable HR for 1-cup increase of coffee intake per day, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.81; Ptrend=.002) but not in patients with intermediate Crohn disease-like reaction (the corresponding HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.44) or negative/low Crohn disease-like reaction (the corresponding HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.07). The associations of coffee intake with colorectal cancer-specific mortality did not significantly differ by levels of other lymphocytic reaction or any T-cell subset (Pinteraction>.18). There is suggestive evidence for differential prognostic effects of coffee intake by Crohn disease-like lymphoid reaction in colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Café , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
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