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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African descent minority groups experience disproportionately higher asthma morbidity compared to other racial groups suggesting that genetic variation from a common ancestry could influence exacerbation risk. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated clinical trial measures in the context of self-reported race and genetic ancestry to identify risk factors for asthma exacerbations. METHODS: 1,840 multi-ethnic individuals from 12 ACRN and AsthmaNet trials were analyzed for incident asthma exacerbations with Poisson regression models that included clinical measures, self-reported race (Black, non-Hispanic White, and other), and estimates of global genetic African ancestry in a subgroup (N=760). RESULTS: 24% of 1,840 individuals self-identified as Black. Blacks and Whites had common risk factors for exacerbations, including a history of ≥2 exacerbations in the previous year and FEV1%predicted, while chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, and GERD were only associated with increased exacerbation risk in Blacks. In the combined, multi-ethnic cohort, neither race (p=0.30) nor percentage genetic African ancestry as a continuous variable associated with exacerbation risk (adjusted rate ratio [RR]=1.26, 95%CI=0.94-1.70, p=0.13; RR per one SD change [32% ancestry]=0.97, 95%CI=0.78-1.19, p=0.74). However, in 161 Blacks with genetic data, those with African ancestry greater than the median (≥82%) had a significantly greater risk of exacerbation (RR=3.06, 95%CI=1.09-8.6, p=0.03). CONCLUSION: Blacks have unique risk factors for asthma exacerbations, of which global African genetic ancestry had the strongest effect.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513878

RESUMO

Combination of IL-6 (non-Type 2 asthma) and FeNO or blood eosinophil count (Type 2 asthma) identified asthma endotypes related to asthma severity, exacerbations, and responsiveness to corticosteroids and potential for response to anti-Type 2 and anti-IL-6 treatment.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 381(13): 1227-1239, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morbidity from asthma is disproportionately higher among black patients than among white patients, and black patients constitute the minority of participants in trials informing treatment. Data indicate that patients with inadequately controlled asthma benefit more from addition of a long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) than from increased glucocorticoids; however, these data may not be informative for treatment in black patients. METHODS: We conducted two prospective, randomized, double-blind trials: one involving children and the other involving adolescents and adults. In both trials, the patients had at least one grandparent who identified as black and had asthma that was inadequately controlled with low-dose inhaled glucocorticoids. We compared combinations of therapy, which included the addition of a LABA (salmeterol) to an inhaled glucocorticoid (fluticasone propionate), a step-up to double to quintuple the dose of fluticasone, or both. The treatments were compared with the use of a composite measure that evaluated asthma exacerbations, asthma-control days, and lung function; data were stratified according to genotypic African ancestry. RESULTS: When quintupling the dose of fluticasone (to 250 µg twice a day) was compared with adding salmeterol (50 µg twice a day) and doubling the fluticasone (to 100 µg twice a day), a superior response occurred in 46% of the children with quintupling the fluticasone and in 46% of the children with doubling the fluticasone and adding salmeterol (P = 0.99). In contrast, more adolescents and adults had a superior response to added salmeterol than to an increase in fluticasone (salmeterol-low-dose fluticasone vs. medium-dose fluticasone, 49% vs. 28% [P = 0.003]; salmeterol-medium-dose fluticasone vs. high-dose fluticasone, 49% vs. 31% [P = 0.02]). Neither the degree of African ancestry nor baseline biomarkers predicted a superior response to specific treatments. The increased dose of inhaled glucocorticoids was associated with a decrease in the ratio of urinary cortisol to creatinine in children younger than 8 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to black adolescents and adults, almost half the black children with poorly controlled asthma had a superior response to an increase in the dose of an inhaled glucocorticoid and almost half had a superior response to the addition of a LABA. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; BARD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01967173.).


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Afro-Americanos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Fluticasona/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Xinafoato de Salmeterol/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
JCI Insight ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550242

RESUMO

Severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) defines a subset of human asthmatics with allergy to one or more fungal species and difficult to control asthma. We have reported that human asthmatics sensitized to fungi have worse lung function and a higher degree of atopy, which was associated with higher IL-1RA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. IL-1RA further demonstrated a significant negative association with bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Here, we show that IL-1α and IL-1ß are elevated in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and sputum from human asthmatics sensitized to fungi, implicating an association with IL-1α, IL-1ß or IL-1RA in fungal asthma severity. In an experimental model of fungal-associated allergic airway inflammation, we demonstrate that IL-1R1 signaling promotes type 1 (IFN-γ, CXCL9, CXCL10) and type 17 (IL-17A, IL-22) responses that were associated with neutrophilic inflammation and increased airway hyperreactivity. Each of these were exacerbated in the absence of IL-1RA. Administration of human recombinant IL-1RA (Kineret/Anakinra) during fungal-associated allergic airway inflammation improved airway hyperreactivity and lowered type 1 and type 17 responses. Taken together, these data suggest that IL-1 receptor signaling contributes to fungal asthma severity via immunopathogenic type 1 and type 17 responses and can be targeted for improving allergic asthma severity.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339356

RESUMO

Rationale Interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) are associated with the highest genetic risk locus for IPF; however, the extent to which there is additional overlap with IPF, or unique associations among those with ILA is not known. Objectives To perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ILA. Methods: ILA and the subpleural-predominant subtype were assessed on chest computed tomography (CT) scans in the AGES, COPDGene, Framingham Heart, ECLIPSE, MESA, and SPIROMICS studies. We performed a GWAS of ILA in each cohort and combined the results using a meta-analysis. We assessed for overlapping associations in independent GWASs of IPF. Measurements and Main Results Genome-wide genotyping data were available in 1,699 ILA cases and 10,274 controls. The MUC5B promoter variant rs35705950 was significantly associated with both ILA (p=2.6x10-27) and subpleural ILA (p=1.6x10-29). We discovered novel genome-wide associations near IPO11 (rs6886640, p=3.8x10-8) and FCF1P3 (rs73199442, p=4.8x10-8) with ILA, and HTRE1 (rs7744971, p=4.2x10-8) with subpleural-predominant ILA. These novel associations were not associated with IPF. Of 12 previously reported IPF GWAS loci, 5 (DPP9, DSP, FAM13A, IVD, and MUC5B) were significantly associated (p<0.05/12) with ILA. Conclusions In a GWAS of ILA in six studies, we confirmed the association with a MUC5B promoter variant and found strong evidence for an effect of previously described IPF loci; however, novel ILA associations were not associated with IPF. These findings highlight common and suggest distinct genetically-driven biologic pathways between ILA and IPF.

7.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(7): 837-856, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161938

RESUMO

Rationale: Gene expression of BAL cells, which samples the cellular milieu within the lower respiratory tract, has not been well studied in severe asthma.Objectives: To identify new biomolecular mechanisms underlying severe asthma by an unbiased, detailed interrogation of global gene expression.Methods: BAL cell expression was profiled in 154 asthma and control subjects. Of these participants, 100 had accompanying airway epithelial cell gene expression. BAL cell expression profiles were related to participant (age, sex, race, and medication) and sample traits (cell proportions), and then severity-related gene expression determined by correlating transcripts and coexpression networks to lung function, emergency department visits or hospitalizations in the last year, medication use, and quality-of-life scores.Measurements and Main Results: Age, sex, race, cell proportions, and medications strongly influenced BAL cell gene expression, but leading severity-related genes could be determined by carefully identifying and accounting for these influences. A BAL cell expression network enriched for cAMP signaling components most differentiated subjects with severe asthma from other subjects. Subsequently, an in vitro cellular model showed this phenomenon was likely caused by a robust upregulation in cAMP-related expression in nonsevere and ß-agonist-naive subjects given a ß-agonist before cell collection. Interestingly, ELISAs performed on BAL lysates showed protein levels may partly disagree with expression changes.Conclusions: Gene expression in BAL cells is influenced by factors seldomly considered. Notably, ß-agonist exposure likely had a strong and immediate impact on cellular gene expression, which may not translate to important disease mechanisms or necessarily match protein levels. Leading severity-related genes were discovered in an unbiased, system-wide analysis, revealing new targets that map to asthma susceptibility loci.

8.
JCI Insight ; 4(8)2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996135

RESUMO

Bacterial permeability family member A1 (BPIFA1), also known as short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1), is a protein involved in the antiinflammatory response. The goal of this study was to determine whether BPIFA1 expression in asthmatic airways is regulated by genetic variations, altering epithelial responses to type 2 cytokines (e.g., IL-13). Nasal epithelial cells from patients with mild to severe asthma were collected from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program centers, genotyped for rs750064, and measured for BPIFA1. To determine the function of rs750064, cells were cultured at air-liquid interface and treated with IL-13 with or without recombinant human BPIFA1 (rhBPIFA1). Noncultured nasal cells with the rs750064 CC genotype had significantly less BPIFA1 mRNA expression than the CT and TT genotypes. Cultured CC versus CT and TT cells without stimulation maintained less BPIFA1 expression. With IL-13 treatment, CC genotype cells secreted more eotaxin-3 than CT and TT genotype cells. Also, rhBPIFA1 reduced IL-13-mediated eotaxin-3. BPIFA1 mRNA levels negatively correlated with serum IgE and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Baseline FEV1% levels were lower in the asthma patients with the CC genotype (n = 1,016). Our data suggest that less BPIFA1 in asthma patients with the CC allele may predispose them to greater eosinophilic inflammation, which could be attenuated by rhBPIFA1 protein therapy.

9.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(6): 721-731, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925230

RESUMO

Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been associated with numerous genetic variants, yet the extent to which its genetic risk is mediated by variation in lung structure remains unknown.Objectives: To characterize associations between a genetic risk score (GRS) associated with COPD susceptibility and lung structure on computed tomography (CT).Methods: We analyzed data from MESA Lung (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Lung Study), a U.S. general population-based cohort, and SPIROMICS (Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study). A weighted GRS was calculated from 83 SNPs that were previously associated with lung function. Lung density, spatially matched airway dimensions, and airway counts were assessed on full-lung CT. Generalized linear models were adjusted for age, age squared, sex, height, principal components of genetic ancestry, smoking status, pack-years, CT model, milliamperes, and total lung volume.Measurements and Main Results: MESA Lung and SPIROMICS contributed 2,517 and 2,339 participants, respectively. Higher GRS was associated with lower lung function and increased COPD risk, as well as lower lung density, smaller airway lumens, and fewer small airways, without effect modification by smoking. Adjustment for CT lung structure, particularly small airway measures, attenuated associations between the GRS and FEV1/FVC by 100% and 60% in MESA and SPIROMICS, respectively. Lung structure (P < 0.0001), but not the GRS (P > 0.10), improved discrimination of moderate-to-severe COPD cases relative to clinical factors alone.Conclusions: A GRS associated with COPD susceptibility was associated with CT lung structure. Lung structure may be an important mediator of heritability and determinant of personalized COPD risk.

10.
JCI Insight ; 4(5)2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730306

RESUMO

Although type-2-induced (T2-induced) epithelial dysfunction is likely to profoundly alter epithelial differentiation and repair in asthma, the mechanisms for these effects are poorly understood. A role for specific mucins, heavily N-glycosylated epithelial glycoproteins, in orchestrating epithelial cell fate in response to T2 stimuli has not previously been investigated. Levels of a sialylated MUC4ß isoform were found to be increased in airway specimens from asthmatic patients in association with T2 inflammation. We hypothesized that IL-13 would increase sialylation of MUC4ß, thereby altering its function and that the ß-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6GAL1) would regulate the sialylation. Using human biologic specimens and cultured primary human airway epithelial cells (HAECs),we demonstrated that IL-13 increases ST6GAL1-mediated sialylation of MUC4ß and that both were increased in asthma, particularly in sputum supernatant and/or fresh isolated HAECs with elevated T2 biomarkers. ST6GAL1-induced sialylation of MUC4ß altered its lectin binding and secretion. Both ST6GAL1 and MUC4ß inhibited epithelial cell proliferation while promoting goblet cell differentiation. These in vivo and in vitro data provide strong evidence for a critical role for ST6GAL1-induced sialylation of MUC4ß in epithelial dysfunction associated with T2-high asthma, thereby identifying specific sialylation pathways as potential targets in asthma.

11.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 880, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787307

RESUMO

Asthma is a complex disease with striking disparities across racial and ethnic groups. Despite its relatively high burden, representation of individuals of African ancestry in asthma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been inadequate, and true associations in these underrepresented minority groups have been inconclusive. We report the results of a genome-wide meta-analysis from the Consortium on Asthma among African Ancestry Populations (CAAPA; 7009 asthma cases, 7645 controls). We find strong evidence for association at four previously reported asthma loci whose discovery was driven largely by non-African populations, including the chromosome 17q12-q21 locus and the chr12q13 region, a novel (and not previously replicated) asthma locus recently identified by the Trans-National Asthma Genetic Consortium (TAGC). An additional seven loci reported by TAGC show marginal evidence for association in CAAPA. We also identify two novel loci (8p23 and 8q24) that may be specific to asthma risk in African ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Asma/epidemiologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2052-2061, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in asthma care, disparities persist. Black patients are disproportionally affected by asthma and also have poorer outcomes compared with white patients. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine associations between black and white patients and asthma-related health care use, accounting for complex relationships. METHODS: This study was completed as part of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Severe Asthma Research Program, a prospective observational cohort. Between November 2012 and February 2015, it enrolled 579 participants 6 years and older with 1 year of observation time and complete data. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to balance racial groups with respect to community and family socioeconomic variables and environmental exposure variables. The primary outcome was emergency department (ED) use for asthma. Secondary outcomes included inhaled corticosteroid use, outpatient physician's office visits for asthma, and asthma-related hospitalization. RESULTS: Black patients had greater odds of ED use over 1 year (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.43-3.35) but also differed in the majority (>50%) of baseline variables measured. After statistical balancing of the racial groups, the difference between black and white patients with respect to ED use no longer reached the level of significance. Instead, in secondary analyses black patients were less likely to see an outpatient physician for asthma management (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38-0.85). CONCLUSIONS: The disparity in ED use was eliminated after consideration of multiple variables. Social and environmental policies and interventions tailored to black populations with a high burden of asthma are critical to reduction (or elimination) of these disparities.

16.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 199(11): 1358-1367, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682261

RESUMO

Rationale: Corticosteroids (CSs) are the most effective asthma therapy, but responses are heterogeneous and systemic CSs lead to long-term side effects. Therefore, an improved understanding of the contributing factors in CS responses could enhance precision management. Although several factors have been associated with CS responsiveness, no integrated/cluster approach has yet been undertaken to identify differential CS responses. Objectives: To identify asthma subphenotypes with differential responses to CS treatment using an unsupervised multiview learning approach. Methods: Multiple-kernel k-means clustering was applied to 100 clinical, physiological, inflammatory, and demographic variables from 346 adult participants with asthma in the Severe Asthma Research Program with paired (before and 2-3 weeks after triamcinolone administration) sputum data. Machine-learning techniques were used to select the top baseline variables that predicted cluster assignment for a new patient. Measurements and Main Results: Multiple-kernel clustering revealed four clusters of individuals with asthma and different CS responses. Clusters 1 and 2 consisted of young, modestly CS-responsive individuals with allergic asthma and relatively normal lung function, separated by contrasting sputum neutrophil and macrophage percentages after CS treatment. The subjects in cluster 3 had late-onset asthma and low lung function, high baseline eosinophilia, and the greatest CS responsiveness. Cluster 4 consisted primarily of young, obese females with severe airflow limitation, little eosinophilic inflammation, and the least CS responsiveness. The top 12 baseline variables were identified, and the clusters were validated using an independent Severe Asthma Research Program test set. Conclusions: Our machine learning-based approaches provide new insights into the mechanisms of CS responsiveness in asthma, with the potential to improve disease treatment.

17.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(1): 1-16, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592451

RESUMO

High-throughput, "next-generation" sequencing methods are now being broadly applied across all fields of biomedical research, including respiratory disease, critical care, and sleep medicine. Although there are numerous review articles and best practice guidelines related to sequencing methods and data analysis, there are fewer resources summarizing issues related to study design and interpretation, especially as applied to common, complex, nonmalignant diseases. To address these gaps, a single-day workshop was held at the American Thoracic Society meeting in May 2017, led by the American Thoracic Society Section on Genetics and Genomics. The aim of this workshop was to review the design, analysis, interpretation, and functional follow-up of high-throughput sequencing studies in respiratory, critical care, and sleep medicine research. This workshop brought together experts in multiple fields, including genetic epidemiology, biobanking, bioinformatics, and research ethics, along with physician-scientists with expertise in a range of relevant diseases. The workshop focused on application of DNA and RNA sequencing research in common chronic diseases and did not cover sequencing studies in lung cancer, monogenic diseases (e.g., cystic fibrosis), or microbiome sequencing. Participants reviewed and discussed study design, data analysis and presentation, interpretation, functional follow-up, and reporting of results. This report summarizes the main conclusions of the workshop, specifically addressing the application of these methods in respiratory, critical care, and sleep medicine research. This workshop report may serve as a resource for our research community as well as for journal editors and reviewers of sequencing-based manuscript submissions in our research field.

18.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455414

RESUMO

We used a deeply sequenced dataset of 910 individuals, all of African descent, to construct a set of DNA sequences that is present in these individuals but missing from the reference human genome. We aligned 1.19 trillion reads from the 910 individuals to the reference genome (GRCh38), collected all reads that failed to align, and assembled these reads into contiguous sequences (contigs). We then compared all contigs to one another to identify a set of unique sequences representing regions of the African pan-genome missing from the reference genome. Our analysis revealed 296,485,284 bp in 125,715 distinct contigs present in the populations of African descent, demonstrating that the African pan-genome contains ~10% more DNA than the current human reference genome. Although the functional significance of nearly all of this sequence is unknown, 387 of the novel contigs fall within 315 distinct protein-coding genes, and the rest appear to be intergenic.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common but complex disease with racial/ethnic differences in prevalence, morbidity, and response to therapies. OBJECTIVE: We sought to perform an analysis of genetic ancestry to identify new loci that contribute to asthma susceptibility. METHODS: We leveraged the mixed ancestry of 3902 Latinos and performed an admixture mapping meta-analysis for asthma susceptibility. We replicated associations in an independent study of 3774 Latinos, performed targeted sequencing for fine mapping, and tested for disease correlations with gene expression in the whole blood of more than 500 subjects from 3 racial/ethnic groups. RESULTS: We identified a genome-wide significant admixture mapping peak at 18q21 in Latinos (P = 6.8 × 10-6), where Native American ancestry was associated with increased risk of asthma (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34; P = .002) and European ancestry was associated with protection (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.96; P = .008). Our findings were replicated in an independent childhood asthma study in Latinos (P = 5.3 × 10-3, combined P = 2.6 × 10-7). Fine mapping of 18q21 in 1978 Latinos identified a significant association with multiple variants 5' of SMAD family member 2 (SMAD2) in Mexicans, whereas a single rare variant in the same window was the top association in Puerto Ricans. Low versus high SMAD2 blood expression was correlated with case status (13.4% lower expression; OR, 3.93; 95% CI, 2.12-7.28; P < .001). In addition, lower expression of SMAD2 was associated with more frequent exacerbations among Puerto Ricans with asthma. CONCLUSION: Ancestry at 18q21 was significantly associated with asthma in Latinos and implicated multiple ancestry-informative noncoding variants upstream of SMAD2 with asthma susceptibility. Furthermore, decreased SMAD2 expression in blood was strongly associated with increased asthma risk and increased exacerbations.

20.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 134, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify genetic loci associated with post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC and FEV1, and develop a multi-gene predictive model for lung function in COPD. METHODS: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC and FEV1 was performed in 1645 non-Hispanic White European descent smokers. RESULTS: A functional rare variant in SERPINA1 (rs28929474: Glu342Lys) was significantly associated with post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC (p = 1.2 × 10- 8) and FEV1 (p = 2.1 × 10- 9). In addition, this variant was associated with COPD (OR = 2.3; p = 7.8 × 10- 4) and severity (OR = 4.1; p = 0.0036). Heterozygous subjects (CT genotype) had significantly lower lung function and higher percentage of COPD and more severe COPD than subjects with the CC genotype. 8.6% of the variance of post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC can be explained by SNPs in 10 genes with age, sex, and pack-years of cigarette smoking (P <  2.2 × 10- 16). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to show genome-wide significant association of rs28929474 in SERPINA1 with lung function. Of clinical importance, heterozygotes of rs28929474 (4.7% of subjects) have significantly reduced pulmonary function, demonstrating a major impact in smokers. The multi-gene model is significantly associated with CT-based emphysema and clinical outcome measures of severity. Combining genetic information with demographic and environmental factors will further increase the predictive power for assessing reduced lung function and COPD severity.

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