Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 34
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Ment Health Phys Act ; 21: 100407, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804201

RESUMO

Background: While lockdown restrictions in response to COVID-19 indisputably mitigated virus transmission, the aim of this longitudinal study was to establish indirect effects on vulnerable young people's mental well-being and physical activity (PA) levels. Methods: Surveys conducted at time 1 (February 2020), and time 2 (April 2020) comprised of the short Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and self-reported moderate and vigorous PA levels. Repeated measures analyses established changes pre-post lockdown restrictions, and differences between sub-groups. Associations between changes in well-being, self-esteem and PA over time were explored through further regression analyses. Results: 65 respondents completed the survey at time 1, and 50 respondent at time 2. Wellbeing increased significantly over time, yet remained significantly lower than the population average. Self-esteem increased significantly post-lockdown, however remained significantly lower for females, compared with males. Overall, PA levels increased-whereby 'inactive' participants at time 1 reported significant increases in moderate and total activity levels at time 2. Increased PA levels significantly predicted increased well-being: F(1, 48) = 4.15, p < .05; while participants who had become less active accounted for 69.2% with low self-esteem at time 2. Conclusions: Findings indicate that increased PA accounted for improved mental well-being, while decreased PA was associated with reduced levels of self-esteem. PA may represent a modifiable means of mitigating risk, and promoting resilience for vulnerable young people experiencing adverse conditions.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 265: 475-485, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite a vast evidence-base advocating the psychological benefits of physical activity, relatively little is understood about how combining physical activity with psychological therapies may influence these positive effects. The aim of this paper is to systematically analyse evidence from studies adopting a combined approach, and identify potential mechanisms of action on clinical outcomes. METHODS: The Embase, PsycINFO and Medline (PubMed and OVID) databases were searched for applicable trials published up to December 2018. Relevant data was extracted from eligible studies, and the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) tool was utilised to objectively assess the quality of each study. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria, seven of which were rated as methodologically `strong'. Combining physical activity with psychological therapy consistently engendered positive effects on outcomes compared with treatment as usual. Similar improvements in psychological outcomes were observed in most (7/8) groups receiving physical activity alone. Increased levels of physical activity were observed in psychologically-informed interventions, however this effect was unrelated to changes in psychological outcomes. LIMITATIONS: Clinical and methodological heterogeneity precluded meta-analyses of results, while risk of bias detected in the studies may compromise overall validity of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity interventions may be a viable alternative to psychological therapies, provided psychological approaches are incorporated into the implementation design (i.e. behavioural activation). Improved psychological outcomes may be observed regardless of `dose' received, however further research is required to ascertain whether psychosocial mechanisms of change mediate positive effects.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Saúde Mental , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Psicoterapia
4.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(7): 1987-1995, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242140

RESUMO

Meyers, RW, Moeskops, S, Oliver, JL, Hughes, MG, Cronin, JB, and Lloyd, RS. Lower-limb stiffness and maximal sprint speed in 11-16-year-old boys. J Strength Cond Res 33(7): 1987-1995, 2019-The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between vertical stiffness, leg stiffness, and maximal sprint speed in a large cohort of 11-16-year-old boys. Three-hundred thirty-six boys undertook a 30-m sprint test using a floor-level optical measurement system, positioned in the final 15-m section. Measures of speed, step length, step frequency, contact time, and flight time were directly measured while force, displacement, vertical stiffness, and leg stiffness, were modeled from contact and flight times, from the 2 fastest consecutive steps for each participant over 2 trials. All force, displacement, and stiffness variables were significantly correlated with maximal sprint speed (p ≤ 0.05). Relative vertical stiffness had a very large (r > 0.7) relationship with sprint speed, whereas vertical center of mass displacement, absolute vertical stiffness, relative peak force, and maximal leg spring displacement had large (r > 0.5) relationships. Relative vertical stiffness and relative peak force did not significantly change with advancing age (p > 0.05), but together with maximal leg spring displacement accounted for 96% of the variance in maximal speed. It seems that relative vertical stiffness and relative peak force are important determinants of sprint speed in boys aged 11-16 years, but are qualities that may need to be trained because of no apparent increases from natural development. Practitioners may wish to use training modalities such as plyometrics and resistance training to enable adaptation to these qualities because of their importance as predictors of speed in youth.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Desempenho Atlético , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Humanos , Masculino
5.
J Psychoactive Drugs ; 51(5): 431-440, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088277

RESUMO

Treatment retention and engagement of emerging adults with opioid use disorders can be particularly challenging. This study compares treatment outcomes of young adults with primary opioid use (OU) to those with primary marijuana or alcohol use (MAU), who received the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA), an evidence-based therapy for the treatment of substance use. The MAU and OU groups were comprised of an outcome sample of 419 young adults ages 18-25. Groups were compared on intake demographics, clinical characteristics, and measures of treatment retention and other associated factors, including treatment initiation and engagement. Outcome measures were administered at A-CRA intake and at 3, 6, and 12 months post-intake. Both groups were similar in treatment retention, initiation, and engagement. Both groups showed a similar decrease in alcohol (p < .001) and marijuana use (p < .001). The OU group had significantly less opioid use at 3 months (p < .001) and maintained this decrease, but did not improve to the level observed in the MAU group at the 12-month follow-up. The Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach merits further study as a behavioral treatment for young adults with opioid use.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/terapia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Abuso de Maconha/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 31(7): 818-827, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28836796

RESUMO

Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) assists family members with a treatment-resistant loved one. The most consistent outcome of CRAFT is increased treatment entry of the identified treatment-resistant person (IP). This led us to question whether all 6 components of CRAFT are necessary. In a randomized clinical trial, 115 concerned significant others (CSOs) of an IP received 12-14 sessions of the full CRAFT intervention, 4-6 sessions focused on Treatment Entry Training (TEnT), or 12-14 sessions of Al-Anon/Nar-Anon Facilitation (ANF). We monitored treatment entry, attendance, and substance use of the IP and the CSO's mood and functioning. Data were collected at baseline and 4, 6, and 9 months after the baseline. We found significant reductions in time to treatment entry (χ(2)2 = 8.89, p = .01) and greater treatment entry rates for CRAFT (62%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-6.9) and TEnT (63%; OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.2-7.5) compared with ANF (37%), but CRAFT and TEnT did not differ significantly from each other (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.4-2.7). No between-group differences in IP drug use were reported by CSOs, but days of drug use decreased over time for all groups (F(3, 277) = 13.47, p < .0001). Similarly, CSO mood and functioning did not differ between the 3 conditions but improved over time (p < .0001 for all significant measures). We replicated the results of previous trials demonstrating that CRAFT produces greater treatment entry rates than ANF and found similar treatment entry rates for CRAFT and TEnT. This suggests that treatment entry training is sufficient for producing the best established outcome of CRAFT. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Terapia Familiar/métodos , Família , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Reforço Psicológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 174: 9-16, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28282523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper compares adolescents with primary opioid problem use (OPU) to those with primary marijuana or alcohol problem use (MAPU) who received up to six months of Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA), an empirically supported treatment. METHODS: Intake clinical characteristics, treatment implementation measures, and clinical outcomes of two substance problem groups (OPU and MAPU) were compared using data from 1712 adolescents receiving A-CRA treatment. Data were collected at intake and 3, 6, and 12 months post-intake. RESULTS: At intake, adolescents in the OPU group were more likely than those in the MAPU group to be Caucasian, older, female, and not attending school; report greater substance and mental health problems; and engage in social and health risk behaviors. There was statistical equivalence between groups in rates of A-CRA treatment initiation, engagement, retention, and satisfaction. Both groups decreased significantly on most substance use outcomes, with the OPU group showing greater improvement; however, the OPU group had more severe problems at intake and continued to report higher frequency of opioid use and more days of emotional problems and residential treatment over 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The feasibility and acceptability of A-CRA for OPUs was demonstrated. Despite significantly greater improvement by the OPU group, they did not improve to the level of the MAPU group over 12 months, suggesting that they may benefit from A-CRA continuing care up to 12 months, medication to address opioid withdrawal and craving, and the inclusion of opioid-focused A-CRA procedures.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Reforço Psicológico , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Alcoolismo/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Pediatr Exerc Sci ; 29(1): 94-102, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27045205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of age and maturation upon magnitude of asymmetry in the force, stiffness and the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprint speed in a large cohort of boys. METHODS: 344 boys between the ages of 11 and 16 years completed an anthropometric assessment and a 35 m sprint test, during which sprint performance was recorded via a ground-level optical measurement system. Maximal sprint velocity, as well as asymmetry in spatiotemporal variables, modeled force and stiffness data were established for each participant. For analysis, participants were grouped into chronological age, maturation and percentile groups. RESULTS: The range of mean asymmetry across age groups and variables was 2.3-12.6%. The magnitude of asymmetry in all the sprint variables was not significantly different across age and maturation groups (p > .05), except relative leg stiffness (p < .05). No strong relationships between asymmetry in sprint variables and maximal sprint velocity were evident (rs < .39). CONCLUSION: These results provide a novel benchmark for the expected magnitude of asymmetry in a large cohort of uninjured boys during maximal sprint performance. Asymmetry in sprint performance is largely unaffected by age or maturation and no strong relationships exist between the magnitude of asymmetry and maximal sprint velocity.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Marcha , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Masculino , Valores de Referência
9.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 31(1): 117-129, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27736146

RESUMO

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 31(1) of Psychology of Addictive Behaviors (see record 2016-59284-001). In the article, the disclosed interest for Mark D. Godley in the author note is misrepresented. The accurate representation is that the organization employing Mark D. Godley, Chestnut Health Systems, receives fees for A-CRA training. In addition, the disclosed interest statement for Jane Ellen Smith and Robert J. Meyers should read Jane Ellen Smith and Robert J. Meyers each have private consulting businesses that conduct workshops on CRA or A-CRA; they also receive royalties on the CRA book. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Central to the debate over the implementation of empirically supported treatments is whether therapist skill has a measurable, positive relationship with client outcome. The fidelity and skill with which therapists deliver treatments have been studied under the constructs of adherence and competence. Evidence for a relationship between adherence and competence and client outcomes has been mixed, possibly due to small sample sizes, potentially inadequate measures for rating therapists' skill, and limited statistical methods. The current study used a data set in which 91 therapists provided services to 384 clients from the Assertive Adolescent and Family Treatment project. Therapists trained to deliver the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) submitted audiorecorded sessions to independent raters during their training process. Measures of adherence and competence derived from session ratings were examined in a multilevel model for associations with client substance use outcomes at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Therapist competence was significantly predictive of decreases in clients' days of substance use. Therapist adherence was not predictive of client substance use outcomes in the full sample; however, when only those clients who completed the 12-month follow-up were included, between-therapists adherence was found to be predictive of a decrease in client substance use. This study adds to the evidence that competence in the delivery of treatment is associated with better client treatment outcomes. Adherence may be associated with better treatment outcomes as it was in follow-up completers. Future research should investigate the nature of the relationship between protocol-specific adherence and competence and client outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Competência Clínica/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Psicoterapia/normas , Reforço Psicológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
J Strength Cond Res ; 31(4): 1009-1016, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26694506

RESUMO

Meyers, RW, Oliver, JL, Hughes, MG, Lloyd, RS, and Cronin, JB. Influence of age, maturity, and body size on the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprint speed in boys. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1009-1016, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of age, maturity, and body size on the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprint speed in boys. Three-hundred and seventy-five boys (age: 13.0 ± 1.3 years) completed a 30-m sprint test, during which maximal speed, step length, step frequency, contact time, and flight time were recorded using an optical measurement system. Body mass, height, leg length, and a maturity offset represented somatic variables. Step frequency accounted for the highest proportion of variance in speed (∼58%) in the pre-peak height velocity (pre-PHV) group, whereas step length explained the majority of the variance in speed (∼54%) in the post-PHV group. In the pre-PHV group, mass was negatively related to speed, step length, step frequency, and contact time; however, measures of stature had a positive influence on speed and step length yet a negative influence on step frequency. Speed and step length were also negatively influence by mass in the post-PHV group, whereas leg length continued to positively influence step length. The results highlighted that pre-PHV boys may be deemed step frequency reliant, whereas those post-PHV boys may be marginally step length reliant. Furthermore, the negative influence of body mass, both pre-PHV and post-PHV, suggests that training to optimize sprint performance in youth should include methods such as plyometric and strength training, where a high neuromuscular focus and the development force production relative to body weight are key foci.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Nano Life ; 6(2)2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27570546

RESUMO

Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia uses magnetically-induced heat to kill cancer cells. In an alternating magnetic field, the induced heat depends strongly on particles' absorption properties. In order to achieve and maintain therapeutic temperatures inside a tumor and to minimize damage to normal tissues due to induced eddy currents, there is a need to develop new magnetic nanoparticles with improved heating characteristics. This paper investigates the magnetic heating properties of composite iron-cobalt ferrite nanoparticles Co x FeII1-x FeIII2O4 with 0≤x≤1. These composite materials are synthesized using a precipitation method. First, the Fe-Co nanoparticle synthesis is described, then their structure, size, magnetic and heating properties are measured and analyzed. The resulting nanoparticles were treated at temperatures 100-600°C in order to study any structural transformations and changes of physical properties. Finally, an empirical model is used to calculate both the nanoparticles' coercivity and their specific absorption rates for different Co concentrations.

12.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 48(12): 2555-2562, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27434083

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined how the characteristics of maximal overground sprint performance are affected by the period of peak height velocity (PHV) in boys. METHODS: One hundred eighty-nine school-age boys completed two assessments of maximal sprint performance, separated by a 21-month period. Kinematic characteristics of sprint performance were collected during a 30-m sprint using a floor-level optical measurement system, with modeled force and stiffness characteristics also calculated. Participants were grouped according to maturation using a noninvasive predictive equation. Individuals whose maturity offset was <-0.5 yr in both assessments were classed as "pre-PHV" (n = 67), whereas those whose maturity offset developed from <-0.5 to >0.5 yr in test two were classed as "pre-to-post PHV" (n = 39). Participants with a maturity offset between >-0.5 and <0.5 yr at test 2 were removed from analysis (n = 67) to ensure that the entire pre-to-post-PHV group had experienced the PHV spurt. RESULTS: The pre-to-post-PHV group experienced significantly greater increases in speed (10.4% vs 5.6%) and relative vertical stiffness (12.1% vs 5.6%) compared with the pre-PHV group. Step frequency declined (-2.4%) and contact time increased (2.3%) in the pre-PHV group, whereas step frequency increased (2.7%) and contact time decreased (-3.6%) in the pre-PHV to post-PHV group. Changes in relative measures of vertical stiffness, maximal force, and leg stiffness accounted for 79% and 83% of the changes in speed between assessments for pre-PHV and pre-to-post-PHV groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: As boys experience PHV, there are greater increases in maximal sprint speed compared with those who remain pre-PHV. Furthermore, measures of relative stiffness and relative maximal force appear to exert an important influence on the development of maximal sprint speed in boys, regardless of maturity.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Estatura , Corrida/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
13.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 16(1): 42-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25490070

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of playing surface on physiological and performance responses during and in the 48 h after simulated soccer match play. Blood lactate, single-sprint, repeated-sprint and agility of eight amateur soccer players were assessed throughout a 90-min soccer-simulation protocol (SSP) completed on natural turf (NT) and artificial turf. Counter-movement jump, multiple-rebound jump, sprint (10 m, 60 m), L-agility run (L-AR), creatine kinase (CK) and perception of muscle soreness (PMS) were measured before, immediately after, 24 h and 48 h after exercise. Analyses revealed significant changes in blood lactate and single-sprint performance (both P < 0.05) during the SSP but with no significant differences between surfaces. Conversely, repeated-sprint performance demonstrated an interaction effect, with reductions in performance evident on NT only (P < 0.05). Whilst L-AR and 10-m sprint performance remained unchanged, 60-m sprint and multiple-rebound jump performance were impaired, and PMS and CK were elevated immediately following the SSP (all P < 0.05) but with no surface effects. Although performance, CK and PMS were negatively affected to some degree in the 48 h after the SSP, there was no surface effect. For the artificial and natural surfaces used in the present study, physiological and performance responses to simulated soccer match play appear to be similar. Whilst a potential for small differences in performance response exists during activity, surface type does not affect the pattern of recovery following simulated match play.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Futebol/fisiologia , Futebol/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pediatr Exerc Sci ; 27(3): 419-26, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25970549

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprinting speed in boys over single and multiple steps. Fifty-four adolescent boys (age = 14.1 ± 0.7 years [range = 12.9-15.7 years]; height = 1.63 ± 0.09 m; body mass = 55.3 ± 13.3 kg; -0.31 ± 0.90 age from Peak Height Velocity (PHV) in years; mean ± s) volunteered to complete a 30 m sprint test on 3 occasions over a 2-week period. Speed, step length, step frequency, contact time, and flight time were assessed via an optical measurement system. Speed and step characteristics were obtained from the single-fastest step and average of the 2 and 4 fastest consecutive steps. Pairwise comparison of consecutive trials revealed the coefficient of variation (CV) for speed was greater in 4-step (CV = 7.3 & 7.5%) compared with 2-step (CV = 4.2 & 4.1%) and 1-step (CV = 4.8 & 4.6%) analysis. The CV of step length, step frequency and contact time ranged from 4.8 to 7.5% for 1-step, 3.8-5.0% for 2-step and 4.2-7.5% for 4-step analyses across all trials. An acceptable degree of reliability was achieved for the spatiotemporal and performance variables assessed in this study. Two-step analysis demonstrated the highest degree of reliability for the key spatiotemporal variables, and therefore may be the most suitable approach to monitor the spatiotemporal characteristics of maximal sprint speed in boys.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adolescente , Criança , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Espaço-Temporal
15.
J Child Adolesc Subst Abuse ; 24(3): 155-165, 2015 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25883523

RESUMO

We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent's treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however, there are no controlled trials for parents with a substance-abusing child. We examined the behavioral parent training literature to guide us in tailoring CRAFT for parents of adolescents. We discuss adaptations to CRAFT, outcomes and experiences gained from a brief pilot of the revised CRAFT program, and the future directions of this work.

16.
Pediatr Exerc Sci ; 27(1): 85-94, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25054903

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the natural development of the mechanical features of sprint performance in relation to maturation within a large cohort of boys. Three hundred and thirty-six boys (11-15 years) were analyzed for sprint performance and maturation. Maximal speed, stride length (SL), stride frequency (SF), flight time (FT) and contact time (CT) were assessed during a 30m sprint. Five maturation groups (G1-5) were established based on age from peak height velocity (PHV) where G1=>2.5years pre-PHV, G2 = 2.49-1.5years pre-PHV, G3 = 1.49-0.5years pre-PHV, G4 = 0.49years pre- to 0.5years post-PHV and G5 = 0.51-1.5years post-PHV. There was no difference in maximal speed between G1, G2 and G3 but those in G4 and G5 were significantly faster (p < .05) than G1-3. Significant increases (p < .05) in SL were observed between groups with advancing maturation, except G4 and G5 (p > .05). SF decreased while CT increased (both p < .05) between G1, G2 and G3, but no further significant changes (p > .05) were observed for either variable between G3, G4 and G5. While G1-3 increased their SL, concomitant decreases in SF and increases in CT prevented them from improving maximal speed. Maximal sprint speed appears to develop around and post-PHV as SF and CT begin to stabilize, with increases in maximal sprint speed in maturing boys being underpinned by increasing SL.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 43(4): 299-309, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25059561

RESUMO

Many individuals with substance use disorders are resistant to entering formal treatment, despite the negative consequences that plague their own lives and the lives of concerned significant others (CSOs). Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) has been developed as an effective strategy for helping family members who are concerned about the alcohol/drug use of a loved one who refuses to seek treatment. The present study explored reasons and feelings that played a part in these resistant individuals' (identified patients [IPs]) decision to begin treatment. Written statements and feelings of 36 initially treatment-refusing IPs, who were engaged into treatment via their CRAFT-trained CSOs, were examined upon entering treatment. Self-report forms assessed three complementary domains about entering treatment: (1) feelings about coming for treatment, (2) important reasons for entering treatment, and (3) reasons for entering treatment narratives. It was shown that the occurrences of self-reported positive emotions and statements that expressed a positive wish for change outweighed negative feelings and statements. Although conceivably these CRAFT-exposed IPs may have provided different responses than other treatment-seeking populations, the current study's strong IP reports of positive feelings, reasons, and narrative statements regarding treatment entry nonetheless address potential concerns that treatment-refusing IPs might only enter treatment if felt coerced by family members and while experiencing salient negative feelings overall.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 46(4): 463-71, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24462478

RESUMO

This study examined the relationship between Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) participation with treatment engagement, retention, and satisfaction, and with substance use and emotional problem outcomes. Participants had substance use disorders (SUD) only or co-occurring substance use and psychiatric problems. Those with co-occurring problems reported more days of substance use and emotional problems at intake to treatment than those with SUD only. All groups received equivalent exposure to A-CRA during treatment implementation. At the 12-month follow-up, adolescents classified as externalizers (n = 468) or those with both externalizing and internalizing problems (n = 674) had significantly greater improvement in their days of abstinence and substance problems relative to adolescents with substance use disorders only (n = 666). Additionally, adolescents reporting symptoms of internalizing (n = 154), externalizing, or both externalizing and internalizing disorders had significantly greater improvements in days of emotional problems relative to adolescents with SUD only.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Reforço Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Adolescente , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Subst Abus ; 35(3): 254-61, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24417592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing awareness that the treatment of patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) should target increasing patients' involvement in alternative pleasant reinforcers that compete with the reinforcing effects of substance use. The present cross-sectional study sought to identify factors that promote or impede engaging in pleasant activities. METHODS: Patients with SUDs (N = 265) were assessed at treatment entry on sociodemographic characteristics, primary type of substance (ie, alcohol or illicit drugs), addiction severity, craving, personality factors, and psychiatric distress. RESULTS: Regression analyses identified dissimilar predictor sets underlying frequency, enjoyability, and cross-product ratings, highlighting the multifaceted behavioral nature of activity engagement. Personality measures showed the strongest associations with patients' activity engagement, with extraversion as the key predictor. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings emphasize the complexity of patients' involvement in pleasant non-substance-related activities and further investigation is necessary to gain more insight into the underlying mechanisms of activity engagement.


Assuntos
Prazer , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fissura , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Determinação da Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estatística como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Addict ; 21(1): 38-46, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22211345

RESUMO

Substance use disorders (SUDs) have a serious impact on several life areas, including family functioning. This study examined problem areas that patients with SUDs and their family members experience in terms of quality of relations, psychological problems, physical distress, and quality of life. A sample of 32 dyads--persons with SUDs and a family member--were recruited from a substance abuse treatment program, and completed the Maudsley Addiction Profile health symptoms section, EuroQol-5D, Relationship Happiness Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Dedication Scale. Family members reported that four significant others were directly affected by patients' addiction-related problems, while patients reported that less than three family members were affected by their addiction. Consistently, family members indicated that they were less content with their relationship than patients and evaluated the consequences of patients' SUDs as more negative and severe than the patients themselves. Furthermore, patients and their family members reported comparable levels of physical and psychological distress and quality of life scores. These systematically obtained findings support the notion that relationships of patients and family members are disrupted and both need help to improve their physical and psychological well-being.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Relações Familiares , Família/psicologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...