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1.
Autoimmun Rev ; : 102774, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609798

RESUMO

Systemic autoinflammatory disorders comprise an expanding group of rare conditions. They are mediated by dysfunction of the innate immune system and share a core of phenotypic manifestations including recurrent attacks of fever, cutaneous signs, chest or abdominal pain, lymphadenopathy, vasculopathy, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Diagnosis is often established in childhood, but a growing number of adult patients are being recognized with systemic autoinflammatory disorders, including adult-onset disease. In this review, we provide a concise update on the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnostic approach of systemic autoinflammatory disorders with an emphasis on the adult patient population. Despite the recent advances in genetic testing, the diagnosis of autoinflammatory disease in adult patients is often based on a thorough knowledge of the clinical phenotype. Becoming acquainted with the clinical features of these rare disorders may assist in developing a high index of suspicion for autoinflammatory disease in patients presenting with unexplained episodes of fever or inflammation.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598806

RESUMO

The most recent updated classification of inborn errors of immunity/primary immunodeficiencies, compiled by the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee, was published in January 2020. Within days of completing this report, it was already out of date, evidenced by the frequent publication of genetic variants proposed to cause novel inborn errors of immunity. As the next formal report from the IUIS Expert Committee will not be published until 2022, we felt it important to provide the community with a brief update of recent contributions to the field of inborn errors of immunity. Herein, we highlight studies that have identified 26 additional monogenic gene defects that reach the threshold to represent novel causes of immune defects.

3.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502599

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with distinct cytopenias in observational studies; the most consistent and strongest association is seen with alternations in the lymphocytic lineages. Although the underlying mechanism of these associations is unclear, it has been hypothesized to be secondary to sequestration of white blood cells in cystic organs, or related to the uremic environment in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, since mutations in PKD1 or -2 affect several immunomodulating pathways, cytopenia may well be an unrecognized extrarenal manifestation of ADPKD. Furthermore, many important questions on the clinical implications of this finding and the effect on the disease course in these patients are unanswered. In this review article, we provide an overview of the current evidence on cytopenia in ADPKD and explore the underlying mechanisms of this association and its potential prognostic implications. Based on the current literature, we hypothesize that polycystin deficiency can disturb immune cell homeostasis and that cytopenia is thus an intrinsic feature of ADPKD, related to genetic factors. Taken together, these findings warrant further investigation to establish the exact etiology and role of cytopenia in patients with ADPKD.

4.
J Clin Invest ; 131(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393505

RESUMO

Human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis can be caused by inborn errors of the TLR3 pathway, resulting in impairment of CNS cell-intrinsic antiviral immunity. Deficiencies of the TLR3 pathway impair cell-intrinsic immunity to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and HSV-1 in fibroblasts, and to HSV-1 in cortical but not trigeminal neurons. The underlying molecular mechanism is thought to involve impaired IFN-α/ß induction by the TLR3 recognition of dsRNA viral intermediates or by-products. However, we show here that human TLR3 controls constitutive levels of IFNB mRNA and secreted bioactive IFN-ß protein, and thereby also controls constitutive mRNA levels for IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in fibroblasts. Tlr3-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts also have lower basal ISG levels. Moreover, human TLR3 controls basal levels of IFN-ß secretion and ISG mRNA in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons. Consistently, TLR3-deficient human fibroblasts and cortical neurons are vulnerable not only to both VSV and HSV-1, but also to several other families of viruses. The mechanism by which TLR3 restricts viral growth in human fibroblasts and cortical neurons in vitro and, by inference, by which the human CNS prevents infection by HSV-1 in vivo, is therefore based on the control of early viral infection by basal IFN-ß immunity.

5.
JCI Insight ; 6(4)2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497357

RESUMO

Four endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are commonly associated with acute respiratory infection in humans. B cell responses to these "common cold" viruses remain incompletely understood. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of CoV-specific antibody repertoires in 231 children and 1168 adults using phage immunoprecipitation sequencing. Seroprevalence of antibodies against endemic HCoVs ranged between approximately 4% and 27% depending on the species and cohort. We identified at least 136 novel linear B cell epitopes. Antibody repertoires against endemic HCoVs were qualitatively different between children and adults in that anti-HCoV IgG specificities more frequently found among children targeted functionally important and structurally conserved regions of the spike, nucleocapsid, and matrix proteins. Moreover, antibody specificities targeting the highly conserved fusion peptide region and S2' cleavage site of the spike protein were broadly cross-reactive with peptides of epidemic human and nonhuman coronaviruses. In contrast, an acidic tandem repeat in the N-terminal region of the Nsp3 subdomain of the HCoV-HKU1 polyprotein was the predominant target of antibody responses in adult donors. Our findings shed light on the dominant species-specific and pan-CoV target sites of human antibody responses to coronavirus infection, thereby providing important insights for the development of prophylactic or therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and vaccine design.

6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 575219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133092

RESUMO

STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) is an autosomal dominant disorder due to gain-of-function mutations in STING1, also known as TMEM173, encoding for STING. It was reported as a vasculopathy of infancy. However, since its description a wider spectrum of associated manifestations and disease-onset has been observed. We report a kindred with a heterozygous STING mutation (p.V155M) in which the 19-year-old proband suffered from isolated adult-onset ANCA-associated vasculitis. His father suffered from childhood-onset pulmonary fibrosis and renal failure attributed to ANCA-associated vasculitis, and died at the age of 30 years due to respiratory failure. In addition, an overview of the phenotypic spectrum of SAVI is provided highlighting (a) a high phenotypic variability with in some cases isolated manifestations, (b) the potential of adult-onset disease, and (c) a novel manifestation with ANCA-associated vasculitis.

8.
9.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011939

RESUMO

Ras-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disorder (RALD) is a clinical entity initially identified in patients evaluated for an autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS)-like phenotype. It remains a matter of debate whether RALD is a chronic and benign lymphoproliferative disorder or a pre-malignant condition. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl diagnosed with RALD due to somatic KRAS mutation who progressed to a juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia phenotype and finally evolved into acute myeloid leukemia. The case report prompted a literature review by a search for all RALD cases published in PubMed and Embase. We identified 27 patients with RALD. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1 and median age at disease onset was 2 years (range 3 months-36 years). Sixteen patients (59%) harbored somatic mutations in KRAS and 11 patients (41%) somatic mutations in NRAS. The most common features were splenomegaly (26/27 patients), autoimmune cytopenia (15/16 patients), monocytosis (18/24 patients), pericarditis (6 patients), and skin involvement (4 patients). Two patients went on to develop a hematopoietic malignancy. In summary, the current case documents an additional warning about the long-term risk of malignancy in RALD.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in individuals with rare inborn errors of immunity (IEI), a population at risk of developing severe coronavirus disease 2019. This is relevant not only for these patients but also for the general population, because studies of IEIs can unveil key requirements for host defense. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the presentation, manifestations, and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in IEI to inform physicians and enhance understanding of host defense against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: An invitation to participate in a retrospective study was distributed globally to scientific, medical, and patient societies involved in the care and advocacy for patients with IEI. RESULTS: We gathered information on 94 patients with IEI with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Their median age was 25 to 34 years. Fifty-three patients (56%) suffered from primary antibody deficiency, 9 (9.6%) had immune dysregulation syndrome, 6 (6.4%) a phagocyte defect, 7 (7.4%) an autoinflammatory disorder, 14 (15%) a combined immunodeficiency, 3 (3%) an innate immune defect, and 2 (2%) bone marrow failure. Ten were asymptomatic, 25 were treated as outpatients, 28 required admission without intensive care or ventilation, 13 required noninvasive ventilation or oxygen administration, 18 were admitted to intensive care units, 12 required invasive ventilation, and 3 required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Nine patients (7 adults and 2 children) died. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that (1) more than 30% of patients with IEI had mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and (2) risk factors predisposing to severe disease/mortality in the general population also seemed to affect patients with IEI, including more younger patients. Further studies will identify pathways that are associated with increased risk of severe disease and are nonredundant or redundant for protection against SARS-CoV-2.

11.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960813

RESUMO

Inborn errors of TLR3-dependent IFN-α/ß- and -λ-mediated immunity in the central nervous system (CNS) can underlie herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). The respective contributions of IFN-α/ß and -λ are unknown. We report a child homozygous for a genomic deletion of the entire coding sequence and part of the 3'UTR of the last exon of IFNAR1, who died from HSE at the age of two years. An older cousin died following vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella at 12 months of age, and another 17-year-old cousin homozygous for the same variant has had other, less severe viral illnesses. The encoded IFNAR1 protein is expressed on the cell surface but is truncated and cannot interact with the tyrosine kinase TYK2. The patient's fibroblasts and EBV-B cells did not respond to IFN-α2b or IFN-ß, in terms of STAT1, STAT2 and STAT3 phosphorylation, or the genome-wide induction of IFN-stimulated genes. The patient's fibroblasts were susceptible to viruses, including HSV-1, even in the presence of exogenous IFN-α2b or IFN-ß. HSE is therefore a consequence of inherited complete IFNAR1 deficiency. This viral disease occurred in natural conditions, unlike those previously reported in other patients with IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency. This experiment of Nature indicates that IFN-α/ß are essential for anti-HSV-1 immunity in the CNS.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(5): 1180-1193, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The molecular cause of severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is unknown in 30% to 50% of patients. SEC61A1 encodes the α-subunit of the Sec61 complex, which governs endoplasmic reticulum protein transport and passive calcium leakage. Recently, mutations in SEC61A1 were reported to be pathogenic in common variable immunodeficiency and glomerulocystic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to expand the spectrum of SEC61A1-mediated disease to include autosomal dominant SCN. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing findings were validated, and reported mutations were compared by Western blotting, Ca2+ flux assays, differentiation of transduced HL-60 cells, in vitro differentiation of primary CD34 cells, quantitative PCR for unfolded protein response (UPR) genes, and single-cell RNA sequencing on whole bone marrow. RESULTS: We identified a novel de novo missense mutation in SEC61A1 (c.A275G;p.Q92R) in a patient with SCN who was born to nonconsanguineous Belgian parents. The mutation results in diminished protein expression, disturbed protein translocation, and an increase in calcium leakage from the endoplasmic reticulum. In vitro differentiation of CD34+ cells recapitulated the patient's clinical arrest in granulopoiesis. The impact of Q92R-Sec61α1 on neutrophil maturation was validated by using HL-60 cells, in which transduction reduced differentiation into CD11b+CD16+ cells. A potential mechanism for this defect is the uncontrolled initiation of the unfolded protein stress response, with single-cell analysis of primary bone marrow revealing perturbed UPR in myeloid precursors and in vitro differentiation of primary CD34+ cells revealing upregulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein and immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein UPR-response genes. CONCLUSION: Specific mutations in SEC61A1 cause SCN through dysregulation of the UPR.

13.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226610

RESUMO

The technological advances in diagnostics and therapy of primary immunodeficiency are progressing at a fast pace. This review examines recent developments in the field of inborn errors of immunity, from their definition to their treatment. We will summarize the challenges posed by the growth of next-generation sequencing in the clinical setting, touch briefly on the expansion of the concept of inborn errors of immunity beyond the classic immune system realm, and finally review current developments in targeted therapies, stem cell transplantation, and gene therapy.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunidade
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(5): 1165-1179.e11, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe early-onset erythroderma and gut inflammation, with massive tissue infiltration of oligoclonal activated T cells are the hallmark of Omenn syndrome (OS). OBJECTIVE: The impact of altered gut homeostasis in the cutaneous manifestations of OS remains to be clarified. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of 15 patients with OS and the 129Sv/C57BL/6 knock-in Rag2R229Q/R229Q (Rag2R229Q) mouse model. Homing phenotypes of circulating lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were examined in the sera by ELISA and in skin biopsies by immunohistochemistry and in situ RNA hybridization. Experimental colitis was induced in mice by dextran sulfate sodium salt. RESULTS: We show that memory/activated T cells from patients with OS and from the Rag2R229Q mouse model of OS abundantly express the skin homing receptors cutaneous lymphocyte associated antigen and CCR4 (Ccr4), associated with high levels of chemokine C-C motif ligands 17 and 22. Serum levels of LPS are also elevated. A broad Th1/Th2/Th17 inflammatory signature is detected in the periphery and in the skin. Increased Tlr4 expression in the skin of Rag2R229Q mice is associated with enhanced cutaneous inflammation on local and systemic administration of LPS. Likewise, boosting colitis in Rag2R229Q mice results in increased frequency of Ccr4+ splenic T cells and worsening of skin inflammation, as indicated by epidermal thickening, enhanced epithelial cell activation, and dermal infiltration by Th1 effector T cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the existence of an interplay between gut and skin that can sustain skin inflammation in OS.

16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 239, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153572

RESUMO

Primary Immune Regulatory Disorders (PIRD) are an expanding group of diseases caused by gene defects in several different immune pathways, such as regulatory T cell function. Patients with PIRD develop clinical manifestations associated with diminished and exaggerated immune responses. Management of these patients is complicated; oftentimes immunosuppressive therapies are insufficient, and patients may require hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) for treatment. Analysis of HCT data in PIRD patients have previously focused on a single gene defect. This study surveyed transplanted patients with a phenotypic clinical picture consistent with PIRD treated in 33 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium centers and European centers. Our data showed that PIRD patients often had immunodeficient and autoimmune features affecting multiple organ systems. Transplantation resulted in resolution of disease manifestations in more than half of the patients with an overall 5-years survival of 67%. This study, the first to encompass disorders across the PIRD spectrum, highlights the need for further research in PIRD management.

17.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 62: 79-90, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935567

RESUMO

The germline encoded innate immunity governs eukaryotic host defense through both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, whereas adaptive immunity actions mainly via T cells and B cells characterized by their somatic genetic diversification of antigen-specific responses. Human inborn errors of innate immunity typically underlie infectious diseases. Disturbed innate immunity can additionally result in auto-inflammation. Here, we review inborn errors of innate immunity that have been recently discovered as well as new insights into previously described inborn errors of innate immunity.

19.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(1): 105-113, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The correlation between different methods for the detection of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) responses to diagnose specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SAD) is poor and the criteria for defining a normal response lack consensus. We previously proposed fifth percentile (p5) values of PPV responses as a new cutoff for SAD. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association of SAD (determined by either World Health Organization (WHO)-standardized ELISA or multiplex bead-based assay) with abnormal response to Salmonella (S.) typhi Vi vaccination in a cohort of patients with recurrent infections. METHODS: Ninety-four patients with a clinical history suggestive of antibody deficiency received PPV and S. typhi Vi vaccines. Polysaccharide responses to either 3 or 18 pneumococcal serotypes were measured by either the WHO ELISA or a multiplex in-house bead-based assay. Anti-S. typhi Vi IgG were measured by a commercial ELISA kit. Allohemagglutinins (AHA) were measured by agglutination method. RESULTS: Based on the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) criteria for WHO ELISA, 18/94 patients were diagnosed with SAD and 22/93 based on serotype-specific p5 cutoffs for bead-based assay. The association between the two methods was significant, with 10 subjects showing abnormal response according to both techniques. Abnormal response to S. typhi Vi vaccination was found in 7 patients, 6 of which had SAD. No correlation was found between polysaccharide response and AHA, age, or clinical phenotype. CONCLUSION: The lack of evidence-based gold standards for the diagnosis of SAD represents a challenge in clinical practice. In our cohort, we confirmed the insufficient correlation between different methods of specific PPV response measurement, and showed that the S. typhi Vi response was not contributive. Caution in the interpretation of results is warranted until more reliable diagnostic methods can be validated.

20.
J Exp Med ; 217(2)2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841125

RESUMO

Antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases are a major health burden. However, our understanding of how self-reactive B cells escape self-tolerance checkpoints to secrete pathogenic autoantibodies remains incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that patients with monogenic immune dysregulation caused by gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD, encoding the p110δ catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), have highly penetrant secretion of autoreactive IgM antibodies. In mice with the corresponding heterozygous Pik3cd activating mutation, self-reactive B cells exhibit a cell-autonomous subversion of their response to self-antigen: instead of becoming tolerized and repressed from secreting autoantibody, Pik3cd gain-of-function B cells are activated by self-antigen to form plasmablasts that secrete high titers of germline-encoded IgM autoantibody and hypermutating germinal center B cells. However, within the germinal center, peripheral tolerance was still enforced, and there was selection against B cells with high affinity for self-antigen. These data show that the strength of PI3K signaling is a key regulator of pregerminal center B cell self-tolerance and thus represents a druggable pathway to treat antibody-mediated autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/genética , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Animais , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/sangue , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Feminino , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
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