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J Chem Ecol ; 46(4): 387-396, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274623


Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits (ATSB) are used in a "lure-and-kill" approach for management of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, but the active chemicals were previously unknown. Here we collected volatiles from a mango, Mangifera indica, juice bait which is used in ATSBs in Tanzania and tested mosquito responses. In a Y-tube olfactometer, female mosquitoes were attracted to the mango volatiles collected 24-48 h, 48-72 h and 72-96 h after preparing the bait but volatiles collected at 96-120 h were no longer attractive. Volatile analysis revealed emission of 23 compounds in different chemical classes including alcohols, aldehydes, alkanes, benzenoids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and oxygenated terpenes. Coupled GC-electroantennogram (GC-EAG) recordings from the antennae of An. gambiae showed robust responses to 4 compounds: humulene, (E)-caryophyllene, terpinolene and myrcene. In olfactometer bioassays, mosquitoes were attracted to humulene and terpinolene. (E)-caryophyllene was marginally attractive while myrcene elicited an avoidance response with female mosquitoes. A blend of humulene, (E)-caryophyllene and terpinolene was highly attractive to females (P < 0.001) when tested against a solvent blank. Furthermore, there was no preference when this synthetic blend was offered as a choice against the natural sample. Our study has identified the key compounds from mango juice baits that attract An. gambiae and this information may help to improve the ATSBs currently used against malaria vectors.

Malar J ; 18(1): 83, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885205


BACKGROUND: Mosquito biting rates and host preferences are crucial determinants of human exposure to vector-borne diseases and the impact of vector control measures. The human landing catch (HLC) is a gold standard method for measuring human exposure to bites, but presents risks to participants by requiring some exposure to mosquito vectors. Mosquito electrocuting traps (METs) represent an exposure-free alternative to HLCs for measuring human exposure to malaria vectors. However, original MET prototypes were too small for measuring whole-body biting rates on humans or large animals like cattle. Here a much larger MET capable of encompassing humans or cattle was designed, and its performance was evaluated relative to both the original small MET and HLC and for quantifying malaria vector host preferences. METHODS: Human landing catch, small human-baited METs (MET-SH), and large METs baited with either a human (MET-LH) or calves (MET-LC) were simultaneously used to capture wild malaria vectors outdoors in rural southern Tanzania. The four capture methods were compared in a Latin-square design over 20 nights. Malaria vector host preferences were estimated through comparison of the number of mosquitoes caught by large METs baited with either humans or cattle. RESULTS: The MET-LH caught more than twice as many Anopheles arabiensis than either the MET-SH or HLC. It also caught higher number of Anopheles funestus sensu lato (s.l.) compared to the MET-SH or HLC. Similar numbers of An. funestus sensu stricto (s.s.) were caught in MET-LH and MET-SH collections. Catches of An. arabiensis with human or cattle-baited large METs were similar, indicating no clear preference for either host. In contrast, An. funestus s.s. exhibited a strong, but incomplete preference for humans. CONCLUSIONS: METs are a sensitive, practical tool for assessing mosquito biting rates and host preferences, and represent a safer alternative to the HLC. Additionally these findings suggest the HLC underestimate whole-body human exposure. MET collections indicated the An. funestus s.s. population in this setting had a higher than expected attack rate on cattle, potentially making eliminating of this species more difficult with human-targetted control measures. Supplementary vector control tools targetted at livestock may be required to effectively tackle this species.

Anopheles/fisiologia , Entomologia/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Adulto , Animais , Bovinos , Entomologia/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205358, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296287


BG-Malaria (BGM) trap is a simple adaptation of the widely-used BG-Sentinel trap (BGS). It is proven to be highly effective for trapping the Brazilian malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi, in field conditions, and the African vector, Anopheles arabiensis, under controlled semi-field environments, but has not been field-tested in Africa. Here, we validated the BGM for field sampling of malaria vectors in south-eastern Tanzania. Using a series of Latin-Square experiments conducted nightly (6pm-7am) in rural villages, we compared mosquito catches between BGM, BGS and human landing catches (HLC). We also compared BGMs baited with different attractants (Ifakara-blend, Mbita-blend, BG-Lure and CO2). Lastly, we tested BGMs baited with Ifakara-blend from three odour-dispensing methods (BG-Cartridge, BG-Sachet and Nylon strips). One-tenth of the field-collected female Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus were dissected to assess parity. BGM captured more An. gambiae s.l. than BGS (p < 0.001), but HLC caught more than either trap (p < 0.001). However, BGM captured more An. funestus than HLC. Proportions of parous An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus consistently exceeded 50%, with no significant difference between methods. While the dominant species caught by HLC was An. gambiae s.l. (56.0%), followed by Culex spp. (33.1%) and Mansonia spp. (6.0%), the BGM caught mostly Culex (81.6%), followed by An. gambiae s.l. (10.6%) and Mansonia (5.8%). The attractant-baited BGMs were all significantly superior to un-baited controls (p < 0.001), although no difference was found between the specific attractants. The BG-Sachet was the most efficient dispenser for capturing An. gambiae s.l. (14.5(2.75-42.50) mosquitoes/trap/night), followed by BG-Cartridge (7.5(1.75-26.25)). The BGM caught more mosquitoes than BGS in field-settings, but sampled similar species diversity and physiological states as BGS. The physiological states of malaria vectors caught in BGM and BGS were similar to those naturally attempting to bite humans (HLC). The BGM was most efficient when baited with Ifakara blend, dispensed from BG-Sachet. We conclude that though BGM traps have potential for field-sampling of host-seeking African malaria vectors with representative physiological states, both BGM and BGS predominantly caught more culicines than Anopheles, compared to HLC, which caught mostly An. gambiae s.l.

Anopheles/parasitologia , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Anopheles/patogenicidade , Brasil , Culex/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0186696, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29045484


Odour-baited technologies are increasingly considered for effective monitoring of mosquito populations and for the evaluation of vector control interventions. The BG-Malaria trap (BGM), which is an upside-down variant of the widely used BG-Sentinel trap (BGS), has been demonstrated to be effective to sample the Brazilian malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi. We evaluated the BGM as an improved method for sampling the African malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis. Experiments were conducted inside a large semi-field cage to compare trapping efficiencies of BGM and BGS traps, both baited with the synthetic attractant, Ifakara blend, supplemented with CO2. We then compared BGMs baited with either of four synthetic mosquito lures, Ifakara blend, Mbita blend, BG-lure or CO2, and an unbaited BGM. Lastly, we compared BGMs baited with the Ifakara blend dispensed via either nylon strips, BG cartridges (attractant-infused microcapsules encased in cylindrical plastic cartridge) or BG sachets (attractant-infused microcapsules encased in plastic sachets). All tests were conducted between 6P.M. and 7A.M., with 200-600 laboratory-reared An. arabiensis released nightly in the test chamber. The median number of An. arabiensis caught by the BGM per night was 83, IQR:(73.5-97.75), demonstrating clear superiority over BGS (median catch = 32.5 (25.25-37.5)). Compared to unbaited controls, BGMs baited with Mbita blend caught most mosquitoes (45 (29.5-70.25)), followed by BGMs baited with CO2 (42.5 (27.5-64)), Ifakara blend (31 (9.25-41.25)) and BG lure (16 (4-22)). BGM caught 51 (29.5-72.25) mosquitoes/night, when the attractants were dispensed using BG-Cartridges, compared to BG-Sachet (29.5 (24.75-40.5)), and nylon strips (27 (19.25-38.25)), in all cases being significantly superior to unbaited controls (p < 000.1). The findings demonstrate potential of the BGM as a sampling tool for African malaria vectors over the standard BGS trap. Its efficacy can be optimized by selecting appropriate odour baits and odour-dispensing systems.

Anopheles/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Odorantes