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1.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(7): 443-458, ago.-sept. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-2000

RESUMO

Objetivo: El tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2 (DM2) es complejo y su propósito es reducir la morbimortalidad, por lo que su manejo tiene que incluir: un control glucémico individualizado precoz (mediante una adecuada educación diabetológica, modificaciones del estilo de vida y tratamiento farmacológico), el control de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular (CV), la detección y tratamiento precoz de las complicaciones y la evaluación de las comorbilidades asociadas. El objetivo fue elaborar un documento para unificar los aspectos necesarios para el abordaje integral de las personas con DM2. Participantes: Miembros del Grupo de trabajo de Diabetes Mellitus de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la evidencia disponible relativa a cada aspecto del manejo de la diabetes: objetivos de control glucémico, dieta y ejercicio, tratamiento farmacológico, tratamiento y control de factores de riesgo, detección de complicaciones y manejo del paciente frágil con DM2. Las recomendaciones se formularon según los grados de evidencia recogidos en los Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2018. Tras la formulación de las recomendaciones el documento fue consensuado por los miembros del Grupo de trabajo de Diabetes Mellitus de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Conclusiones: El objetivo de este documento es proporcionar, desde el punto de vista del endocrinólogo clínico, unas recomendaciones prácticas basadas en la evidencia acerca de todos los aspectos necesarios para el abordaje integral de la DM2


Objective: Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is complex and is intended to decrease morbidity and mortality. Management should therefore include adequate diabetes education, lifestyle changes, drug treatment to achieve early blood glucose control and reduction of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, early detection and treatment of complications, and assessment of associated comorbidities. The objective was to prepare a document including all aspects required for a comprehensive approach to T2DM. Participants: Members of the Diabetes Mellitus Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology. Methods: The available evidence regarding each aspect of diabetes management (blood glucose control goals, diet and exercise, drug treatment, risk factor management and control, detection of complications, and management of frail patients) was reviewed. Recommendations were formulated based on the grades of evidence stated in the 2018 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Recommendations were discussed and agreed by the working group members. Conclusions: This document is intended to provide evidence-based practical recommendations for comprehensive management of T2DM by clinical endocrinologists

2.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; : 1932296819841911, 2019 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081362

RESUMO

The flash glucose monitoring (FGM) system FreeStyle Libre® is a device that measures interstitial glucose in a very simple way and indicates direction and speed of glucose change. This allows persons with diabetes to prevent hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic events. Scientific evidence indicates that the system can improve glycemic control and quality of life. To obtain the maximum benefit, it is necessary to properly handle glucose values and trends. Due to the generalization of the system use, the purpose of the document is to provide recommendations for the optimal use of the device, not only in the management of glucose values and trends but also in the prevention of hypoglycemia, actuation in exercise, special situations, and retrospective analysis of the glucose data, among others.

3.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 66(7): 443-458, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is complex and is intended to decrease morbidity and mortality. Management should therefore include adequate diabetes education, lifestyle changes, drug treatment to achieve early blood glucose control and reduction of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, early detection and treatment of complications, and assessment of associated comorbidities. The objective was to prepare a document including all aspects required for a comprehensive approach to T2DM. PARTICIPANTS: Members of the Diabetes Mellitus Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology. METHODS: The available evidence regarding each aspect of diabetes management (blood glucose control goals, diet and exercise, drug treatment, risk factor management and control, detection of complications, and management of frail patients) was reviewed. Recommendations were formulated based on the grades of evidence stated in the 2018 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Recommendations were discussed and agreed by the working group members. CONCLUSIONS: This document is intended to provide evidence-based practical recommendations for comprehensive management of T2DM by clinical endocrinologists.

4.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 138: 44-46, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382586

RESUMO

The relationship between glycaemia, arrhythmia and changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) has been addressed showing mixed results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in ECG, evaluated by Holter monitoring, induced by clinical hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), aged 50 or older, with high cardiovascular risk. Five-lead Holter monitoring (BL-900 Braemar, Inc, Norav Medical NH301-2.4.5 software), and blinded interstitial continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) (Dexcom G4-Platinum, range 40-400 mg/dl) was performed with time synchronization. In the Holter registry, in patients with hypoglycemic episodes, mean QTc during hypoglycaemia was longer compared to mean QTc in total group (+4.6 ms, p = 0.037) and T1DM patients (+5.5 ms, p = 0.048) but not in T2DM patients (+3 ms, p = 0.459). During hypoglycaemia, non-clinical significant disturbances in heart rhythm were observed. In conclusion, we observed a prolongation in QTc during hypoglycemia, mainly in T1DM. However, our study does not show a relationship between episodes of hypoglycaemia and clinical arrhythmias, at least in T1DM and T2DM patients with high cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Hipoglicemia/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
6.
Diabetes Ther ; 8(4): 899-913, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28653237

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An analysis was conducted to estimate the economic burden of insulin-related hypoglycemia in adults in Spain, derived from a novel concept developed for the UK known as the Local Impact of Hypoglycemia Tool. METHODS: Costs per severe and non-severe hypoglycemic episode were calculated for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The costs per episode were applied to the population of adults with T1DM and T2DM using insulin in Spain according to the number of severe and non-severe episodes experienced per year. Costs were calculated using Spanish-specific resource costs and published values for resource utilization, including ambulance, accident and emergency (A&E) department, hospitalization, healthcare professional visits, and extra self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) tests used in the week following the episode. A one-way sensitivity analysis on all model inputs was then performed. RESULTS: The cost of insulin-related hypoglycemia in Spain is estimated as €662.0 m per year, €292.6 m of which is due to severe episodes and €369.4 m to non-severe episodes. The cost per episode varies from €1.25 for patients with T1DM and €1.48 for patients with T2DM for a non-severe episode where extra SMBG testing after the episode is the only action taken, to €4378.22 for T1DM and €3005.74 for T2DM for a severe episode that was treated in hospital and requires an ambulance, A&E visit, hospitalization, and a diabetes specialist visit. A reduction in severe and non-severe hypoglycemia rates of just 20% could lead to considerable cost savings of €284,925 per 100,000 general population. CONCLUSION: This analysis highlights the substantial economic burden of hypoglycemia in Spain, and gives budget holders the ability to assess the costs of new treatments or patient education programs in relation to the potential cost savings due to lower hypoglycemia rates.

7.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 17(6): 587-595, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of insulin degludec versus insulin glargine, from the Spanish NHS in three groups of patients. METHODS: A short-term cost utility model was developed to estimate effectiveness results in terms of the total number of hypoglycaemic events and their disutility impact throughout the year on the initial level of quality of life for patients in each treatment. RESULTS: Degludec was the dominant strategy for T2DM BOT and exhibited an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 52.70€/QALY and 11,240.88€/QALY for T1DM B/B and T2DM B/B, respectively. Lower costs are primarily driven by lower nocturnal and severe hypoglycaemic events, which were reduced versus IGlar. Improvements in clinical outcomes in all three patient groups are result of the reduced number of hypoglycaemic events showing 0.0211, 0.0328 and 0.0248 QALYs gained when compared to IGlar for T1DM B/B, T2DM BOT and T2DM B/B, respectively. Different scenario analyses showed that the ICERS were stable to plausible variations in the analysed parameters, except when the same number of SMBG for both treatments is used, with T2DM B/B showing an ICER over the accepted threshold. CONCLUSION: This analysis demonstrates that degludec is a cost-effective option in the Spanish NHS, when used in patients currently treated with long-acting insulin.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/economia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/economia , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/economia , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Diabetes Ther ; 8(2): 401-415, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28224463

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are used successfully in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes as they are associated with low hypoglycemia rates, weight loss and improved glycemic control. This study compared, in the Spanish setting, the cost-effectiveness of liraglutide 1.8 mg versus lixisenatide 20 µg, both GLP-1 receptor agonists, for patients with type 2 diabetes who had not achieved glycemic control targets on metformin monotherapy. METHODS: The IMS CORE Diabetes Model was used to project clinical outcomes and costs, expressed in 2015 Euros, over patient lifetimes. Baseline cohort data and treatment effects were taken from the 26-week, open-label LIRA-LIXI™ trial (NCT01973231). Treatment and management costs of diabetes-related complications were retrieved from published sources and databases. Future benefits and costs were discounted by 3% annually. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Compared with lixisenatide 20 µg, liraglutide 1.8 mg was associated with higher life expectancy (14.42 vs. 14.29 years), higher quality-adjusted life expectancy [9.40 versus 9.26 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)] and a reduced incidence of diabetes-related complications. Higher acquisition costs resulted in higher total costs for liraglutide 1.8 mg (EUR 42,689) than for lixisenatide 20 µg (EUR 42,143), but these were partly offset by reduced costs of treating diabetes-related complications (EUR 29,613 vs. EUR 30,636). Projected clinical outcomes and costs resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of EUR 4113 per QALY gained for liraglutide 1.8 mg versus lixisenatide 20 µg. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term projections in the Spanish setting suggest that liraglutide 1.8 mg is likely to be cost-effective compared with lixisenatide 20 µg in type 2 diabetes patients who have not achieved glycemic control targets on metformin monotherapy. Liraglutide 1.8 mg presents a clinically and economically attractive treatment option in the Spanish setting.

13.
Diabetes Ther ; 6(2): 173-85, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26055216

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A limitation with randomized controlled trials is that, while they provide unbiased evidence of the efficacy of interventions, they do so under unreal conditions and in a very limited and highly selected patient population. Our aim was to provide data about the effectiveness of liraglutide treatment in a real-world and clinical practice setting. METHODS: In a retrospective and observational study, data from 753 patients with type 2 diabetes were recorded through an online tool (eDiabetes-Monitor). RESULTS: Mean baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was 8.4 ± 1.4% and mean body mass index (BMI) was 38.6 ± 5.4 kg/m(2). After 3-6 months of treatment with liraglutide, we observed a change in HbA1c of -1.1 ± 1.2%, -4.6 ± 5.3 kg in weight and -1.7 ± 2.0 kg/m(2) in BMI (p < 0.001 for all). Compared to baseline, there was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (-5.9 mmHg, p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (-3.2 mmHg, p < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (-0.189 mmol/l, p < 0.001) and triglycerides (-0.09 mmol/l, p = 0.021). In patients switched from DPP-4 inhibitors, liraglutide induced a decrease of -1.0% in HbA1c (p < 0.001) and a reduction in weight (-4.5 kg, p < 0.001). In patients treated with liraglutide as an add-on therapy to insulin a decrease of -1.08% in HbA1c (p < 0.001) and a weight reduction of -4.15 kg (p < 0.001) were observed. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms the effectiveness of liraglutide in a real-life and clinical practice setting. FUNDING: Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition.

14.
Diabetes Ther ; 6(1): 61-74, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25742705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Metformin is the first-line therapy for most patients with type 2 diabetes, but the majority require treatment intensification at some stage due to the progressive nature of the disease. The 1860-LIRA-DPP-4 trial showed that liraglutide exhibited greater improvements compared with sitagliptin in glycated hemoglobin and body mass index in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy. As a follow-up to a previously published cost-effectiveness analysis of 1.2 mg liraglutide versus sitagliptin in Spain, the aim of this analysis was to compare long-term projections of the clinical and cost implications associated with 1.8 mg liraglutide and sitagliptin. METHODS: For the modeling analysis, 52-week treatment effect data (as opposed to 26-week data in the previous analysis) were taken from the 1860-LIRA-DPP-4 trial, for adults with type 2 diabetes receiving 1.8 mg liraglutide or 100 mg sitagliptin daily in addition to metformin. Long-term (patient lifetime) projections of clinical outcomes and direct costs (2012 EUR) were made using a published and validated model of type 2 diabetes, with modeling assumptions as per the 1.2 mg liraglutide analysis. RESULTS: Liraglutide was associated with increased life expectancy (14.24 versus 13.87 years) and quality-adjusted life expectancy [9.24 versus 8.84 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)] over sitagliptin. Improved clinical outcomes were attributable to the improvement in glycemic control, leading to a reduced incidence of diabetes-related complications, including renal disease, cardiovascular disease, ophthalmic and diabetic foot complications. Liraglutide was associated with increased direct costs (EUR 56,628 versus EUR 52,450), driven by increased pharmacy costs. Based on these estimates, liraglutide was associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of EUR 10,436 per QALY gained versus sitagliptin. CONCLUSIONS: A previous analysis has suggested that 1.2 mg liraglutide is cost-effective from a healthcare payer perspective in Spain, and the present analysis suggests that the 1.8 mg dose is also likely to be cost-effective.

15.
Endocrinol. nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 61(4): 202-208, abr. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-121545

RESUMO

En el contexto actual de recursos económicos y sanitarios limitados tiene una gran importancia la eficiencia de los tratamientos farmacológicos, analizando sus efectos clínicos y sus costes directos asociados. La liraglutida es un agonista del receptor del péptido de tipo 1 similar al glucagón (GLP-1) aprobada para el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), que además de su acción normoglucemiante induce mejorías significativas en el peso corporal y sobre diversos factores de riesgo cardiovascular. El objetivo de esta revisión breve es resumir la evidencia disponible acerca de los efectos de la liraglutida sobre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y cómo estos mejoran su perfil de coste-efectividad. A pesar de su coste farmacológico, relativamente superior al de otras alternativas terapéuticas, la liraglutida ha demostrado ser coste-efectiva cuando se analizan los indicadores clínicos y los costes totales asociados al abordaje de la DM2 (AU)


In the current context of limited economic and health resources, efficiency of drug treatments is of paramount importance, and their clinical effects and related direct costs should therefore be analyzed. Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which, in addition to its normoglycemic effects, induces a significant improvement in body weight and several cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the available evidence about the effects of liraglutide upon cardiovascular risk factors and how these improve its cost-effectiveness profile. Despite the relatively higher cost of liraglutide as compared to other alternative therapies, liraglutide has been shown to be cost-effective when clinical indicators and total costs associated to T2DM management are analyzed (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Avaliação de Custo-Efetividade , Índice Glicêmico
16.
Diabetes Ther ; 5(1): 155-68, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24515748

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypoglycemia is a common side effect of insulin therapy and has negative implications for quality of life and healthcare resources. The authors investigated the self-reported frequency of non-severe and severe hypoglycemic events (NSHEs and SHEs), hypoglycemia awareness, patient-physician communication, health-related effects and economic impact on people with insulin-treated diabetes (Type-1 and Type-2) in Spain. METHODS: People with Type-1 (T1DM) or insulin-treated Type-2 (T2DM) diabetes older than 15 years of age completed up to 4 questionnaires at weekly intervals. NSHE was an event which respondents could manage without assistance. SHE needed help from a third party to manage. RESULTS: In total, 630 respondents completed questionnaires covering 2,235 weeks. Mean self-reported NSHEs per respondent-week were 1.7 (T1DM) and 0.4-0.8 (T2DM). Impaired hypoglycemia awareness or unawareness was reported by 55% of T1DM and 39% of T2DM respondents. Overall, 31% of T1DM and 20% of T2DM respondents rarely/never informed their physician about NSHEs. Respondents reported feeling tired/fatigued after 67% of NSHE and less alert after 45% of NSHE. Over the week following an NSHE, blood glucose measurement test-strip use increased by 5.3 (mean). In employed respondents (43%), 18% of NSHEs were reported to lead to lost work time (mean 1.5 h per event). After an SHE, 49% of respondents required emergency visits and/or hospital admission. CONCLUSION: NSHE are a common occurrence with T1DM and insulin-treated T2DM in Spain and are associated with a cost burden and negative impact on well-being. Patient-physician communication is higher in Spain than Europe overall; however, many patients expressed reluctance to discuss their hypoglycemia.

17.
Endocrinol Nutr ; 61(4): 202-8, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24071060

RESUMO

In the current context of limited economic and health resources, efficiency of drug treatments is of paramount importance, and their clinical effects and related direct costs should therefore be analyzed. Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which, in addition to its normoglycemic effects, induces a significant improvement in body weight and several cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the available evidence about the effects of liraglutide upon cardiovascular risk factors and how these improve its cost-effectiveness profile. Despite the relatively higher cost of liraglutide as compared to other alternative therapies, liraglutide has been shown to be cost-effective when clinical indicators and total costs associated to T2DM management are analyzed.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/economia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Liraglutida , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Endocrinol. nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 60(9): 517e1-517e18, nov. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-117449

RESUMO

Objetivo Proporcionar unas recomendaciones prácticas para la evaluación y el manejo de la hipoglucemia en pacientes con diabetes mellitus. Participantes Miembros del Grupo de Trabajo de Diabetes Mellitus de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición (SEEN).Métodos Las recomendaciones se formularon de acuerdo al sistema Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation para establecer tanto la fuerza de las recomendaciones como el grado de evidencia. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en MEDLINE (PubMed) de la evidencia disponible para cada tema, y se revisaron artículos escritos en inglés y castellano con fecha de inclusión hasta el 15 de febrero de 2013. Para las recomendaciones acerca del uso de fármacos, se consideraron tratamientos aprobados por la Agencia Europea de Medicamentos con esa misma fecha. Tras la formulación de las recomendaciones estas se discutieron conjuntamente por el Grupo de trabajo. Conclusiones El documento establece unas recomendaciones prácticas basadas en la evidencia acerca de la evaluación y manejo de la hipoglucemia en pacientes con diabetes mellitus (AU)


Objective To provide practical recommendations for evaluation and management of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. Participants Members of the Diabetes Mellitus Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition. Methods Recommendations were formulated according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (PubMed). Papers in English and Spanish with publication date before 15 February 2013 were included. For recommendations about drugs only those approved by the European Medicines Agency were included. After formulation of recommendations, they were discussed by the Working Group. Conclusions The document provides evidence-based practical recommendations for evaluation and management of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos
19.
Diabetes Ther ; 4(2): 417-30, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24132613

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, which target the incretin axis, has the potential to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients without the weight gain associated with traditional therapies. To evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of incretin therapies, the present study aimed to compare the long-term clinical and cost implications associated with liraglutide and sitagliptin in type 2 diabetes patients in Spain. METHODS: Data were taken from a randomized, controlled trial (NCT00700817) in which adults with type 2 diabetes failing metformin monotherapy were randomly allocated to receive either liraglutide 1.2 mg or sitagliptin 100 mg daily in addition to metformin. Long-term projections of clinical outcomes and direct costs (2012 EUR) based on observed treatment effects were made using a published and validated type 2 diabetes model. Costs were taken from published sources. Future costs and clinical benefits were discounted at 3% annually. Sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Liraglutide was associated with improved discounted life expectancy (14.05 versus 13.91 years) and quality-adjusted life expectancy [9.04 versus 8.87 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)] compared to sitagliptin. Improved clinical outcomes were driven by improved glycemic control, leading to reduced incidence of diabetes-related complications, including renal disease, cardiovascular disease, ophthalmic and diabetic foot complications. Liraglutide was associated with increased direct costs of EUR 2,297, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of EUR 13,266 per QALY gained versus sitagliptin. CONCLUSIONS: Liraglutide was projected to improve life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy and reduce incidence of diabetes-related complication. Liraglutide is likely to be cost-effective versus sitagliptin from a healthcare payer perspective in Spain.

20.
Endocrinol. nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 60(supl.2): 1-7, oct. 2013. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-144490

RESUMO

En el contexto actual de recursos económicos y sanitarios limitados tiene una gran importancia la eficiencia de los tratamientos farmacológicos, analizando sus efectos clínicos y sus costes directos asociados. La liraglutida es un agonista del receptor del péptido de tipo 1 similar al glucagón (GLP-1) aprobada para el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), que además de su acción normoglucemiante induce mejorías significativas en el peso corporal y sobre diversos factores de riesgo cardiovascular. El objetivo de esta revisión breve es resumir la evidencia disponible acerca de los efectos de la liraglutida sobre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y cómo estos mejoran su perfil de coste-efectividad. A pesar de su coste farmacológico, relativamente superior al de otras alternativas terapéuticas, la liraglutida ha demostrado ser coste-efectiva cuando se analizan los indicadores clínicos y los costes totales asociados al abordaje de la DM2 (AU)


In the current context of limited economic and health resources, efficiency of drug treatments is of paramount importance, and their clinical effects and related direct costs should therefore be analyzed. Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which, in addition to its normoglycemic effects, induces a significant improvement in body weight and several cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the available evidence about the effects of liraglutide upon cardiovascular risk factors and how these improve its cost-effectiveness profile. Despite the relatively higher cost of liraglutide as compared to other alternative therapies, liraglutide has been shown to be cost-effective when clinical indicators and total costs associated to T2DM management are analyzed (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Incretinas/farmacocinética , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/farmacocinética , Avaliação de Custo-Efetividade , Resultado do Tratamento
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