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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 941, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503508

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite prioritization, routine antenatal influenza vaccine coverage is < 16% in South Africa. We aimed to describe maternal influenza vaccine coverage in 27 antenatal clinics (ANCs) in Gauteng and Western Cape (WC) Provinces, where in collaboration with the Department of Health (DoH), we augmented the annual influenza vaccination programme among pregnant women. METHODS: From 2015 through 2018, 40,230 additional doses of influenza vaccine were added to the available stock and administered as part of routine antenatal care. Educational talks were given daily and data were collected on women attending ANCs. We compared characteristics of vaccinated and unvaccinated women using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We screened 62,979 pregnant women during the period when Southern Hemisphere influenza vaccines were available (27,068 in Gauteng and 35,911 in WC). Vaccine coverage at the targeted clinics was 78.7% (49,355/62682), although pregnant women in WC were more likely to be vaccinated compared to those in the Gauteng (Odds ratio (OR) =3.7 p < 0.001). Women aged 25-29 and > 35 years were less likely to be vaccinated than women aged 18-24 years (OR = 0.9 p = 0.053; OR = 0.9 p < 0.001). HIV positive status was not associated with vaccination (OR = 1.0 p = 0.266). Reasons for not vaccinating included: vaccine stock-outs where ANCs depleted available stock of vaccines and/or were awaiting delivery of vaccines (54.6%, 6949/12723), refusal/indecision (25.8%, 3285), and current illness that contraindicated vaccination (19.6%, 2489). CONCLUSION: Antenatal vaccination uptake was likely improved by the increased vaccine supply and vaccine education offered during our campaign.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gestantes , África do Sul , Vacinação
2.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 12(3): 360-373, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The attributable fraction of influenza virus detection to illness (INF-AF) and the duration of symptoms as a surveillance inclusion criterion could potentially have substantial effects on influenza disease burden estimates. METHODS: We estimated rates of influenza-associated influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute (SARI-10) or chronic (SCRI-10) respiratory illness (using a symptom duration cutoff of ≤10 days) among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients attending 3 hospitals and 2 affiliated clinics in South Africa during 2013-2015. We calculated the unadjusted and INF-AF-adjusted rates and relative risk (RR) due to HIV infection. Rates were expressed per 100 000 population. RESULTS: The estimated mean annual unadjusted rates of influenza-associated illness were 1467.7, 50.3, and 27.4 among patients with ILI, SARI-10, and SCRI-10, respectively. After adjusting for the INF-AF, the percent reduction in the estimated rates was 8.9% (rate: 1336.9), 11.0% (rate: 44.8), and 16.3% (rate: 22.9) among patients with ILI, SARI-10, and SCRI-10, respectively. HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals experienced a 2.3 (95% CI: 2.2-2.4)-, 9.7 (95% CI: 8.0-11.8)-, and 10.0 (95% CI: 7.9-12.7)-fold increased risk of influenza-associated illness among patients with ILI, SARI-10, and SCRI-10, respectively. Overall 34% of the estimated influenza-associated hospitalizations had symptom duration of >10 days; 8% and 44% among individuals aged <5 and ≥5 years, respectively. CONCLUSION: The marginal differences between unadjusted and INF-AF-adjusted rates are unlikely to affect policies on prioritization of interventions. HIV-infected individuals experienced an increased risk of influenza-associated illness and may benefit more from annual influenza immunization. The use of a symptom duration cutoff of ≤10 days may underestimate influenza-associated disease burden, especially in older individuals.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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