Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 103
Filtrar
1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 423, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypertension is high and rising in China, but most people with hypertension do not have their blood pressure under control. This study investigated hypertension awareness, treatment, and control and their associated factors among Chinese adults. METHODS: Data collected from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 12,991 Chinese adults were used. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, self-reported prior diagnosed hypertension, or taking antihypertensive medications. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control were defined as a self-reported diagnosis of hypertension, current use of antihypertensive medication, and blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine factors associated with hypertension awareness, treatment, and control. RESULTS: Overall, 3579 (27.6%) of the CHNS adult participants had hypertension, of whom 55.7% were aware of their diagnosis, 46.5% were treated with antihypertensive medications, but only 20.3% had their blood pressure under control. Higher hypertension treatment was associated with older age (OR = 2.57; 95%CI, 1.65-4.02), urban residency (1.50; 1.14-1.97), living in the Eastern region (1.52; 1.14-2.01), and being overweight/obese (1.99; 1.39-2.84). Hypertension awareness was associated with similar factors as hypertension treatment but was also associated with being female (1.37, 1.12-1.66). Poor hypertension control was associated with being overweight/obese (0.56; 0.42-0.76) and minority ethnicity (0.52; 0.31-0.86). CONCLUSION: Hypertension is a major public health challenge in China. The prevalence of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control are still low despite existing public health policies and programs to reduce the burden of hypertension. More intensive hypertension screening and treatment programs are warranted in China.

2.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 528: 111224, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675865

RESUMO

Intermedin(IMD) is a novel member of the calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CT/CGRP) family that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptosis properties. This study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective effects of IMD on podocyte apoptotic loss and slit diaphragm protein deficiency the kidneys of rats with in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in high glucose-exposed podocytes. Our results showed that IMD significantly attenuated proteinuria, and alleviated the abnormal alterations in glomerular ultrastructure in vivo. IMD also improved the induction of slit diaphragm proteins, and restored the decreased Bcl-2 expression and suppressed Bax and caspase-3 induction in the diabetic glomeruli. In addition, IMD attenuated podocyte apoptosis and filamentous actin (F-actin) rearrangement in high glucose-exposed podocytes. Exposure to high glucose elevated the unfolded protein response (UPR) to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in renal podocytes, and IMD treatment blocked such ER stress responses pertinent to podocyte apoptosis and reduced synthesis of slit diaphragm proteins in vivo and in vitro. These observations demonstrate that targeting ER stress is an underlying mechanism of IMD-mediated amelioration of diabetes-associated podocyte injury and dysfunction.

3.
Preprint | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-434928

RESUMO

A safe, efficacious and deployable vaccine is urgently needed to control COVID-19 pandemic. We report here the preclinical development of a COVID-19 vaccine candidate, ZF2001, which contains tandem-repeat dimeric receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein with alum-based adjuvant. We assessed vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in both mice and non-human primates (NHPs). ZF2001 induced high levels of RBD-binding and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody in both mice and NHPs, and also elicited balanced TH1/TH2 cellular responses in NHPs. Two doses of ZF2001 protected Ad-hACE2-transduced mice against SARS-CoV-2 infection, as detected by reduced viral RNA and relieved lung injuries. In NHPs, vaccination of either 25 g or 50 g ZF2001 prevented infection with SARS-CoV-2 in lung, trachea and bronchi, with milder lung lesions. No evidence of disease enhancement is observed in both models. ZF2001 is being evaluated in the ongoing international multi-center Phase 3 trials (NCT04646590) and has been approved for emergency use in Uzbekistan.

4.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) on neonatal weight outcomes of twin infants who were conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART). SUBJECTS/METHODS: A 10-year (2006-2015) Chinese sample of 3431 mothers and their twin infants conceived by ART from a retrospective cohort were included. The effects of pre-pregnancy maternal BMI on gestational age and birth weight were assessed by generalized linear model and generalized estimating equation model. RESULTS: Compared with a normal weight group, pre-pregnancy maternal underweight was associated with lower birth weight and increased risk of small for gestational age (SGA) in twins conceived by ART (birth weight: difference -59.22 g, 95% CI -93.16 to -25.27 g; SGA: RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.43). Pre-pregnancy maternal obesity was associated with higher birth weight and increased risk of preterm birth (birth weight: difference 65.82 g, 95% CI 10.66 to 120.99 g; preterm birth: RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.37). A nonlinear relationship between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and SGA was observed. The risk of SGA decreased with the pre-pregnancy maternal BMI up to the turning point (BMI = 21) (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Among mothers undergoing ART, pre-pregnancy maternal obesity is associated with higher birth weight and higher risk of preterm birth for twin pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy maternal underweight is associated with lower birth weight and higher risk of SGA. Women preparing for ART should maintain a normal BMI to lower the chances of adverse neonatal outcomes.

5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(2): 223-232, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420871

RESUMO

The large-scale Xi'an longitudinal mother-child cohort study has started to enroll pregnant women who attended Northwest Women's and Children's Hospital (NWCH) for antenatal care in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation) from January 2013 and the enrollment will be ended in January 2023. We aimed to investigate the role of external factors (i.e., diet and environment) and internal (i.e., biological, genetic and epigenetic) on the short- and long-term outcomes of mothers and children up to at least 12 years. Mothers completed all routine prenatal care during pregnancy and four times of follow-up at 42 days, 3, 6 and 12 years after delivery, respectively. For children, birth information were obtained from routine medical records and the follow-up information were obtained from child health care clinics of NWCH at age 42 days, 6, 12 and 24 months, then by interviewing mothers every two years until 12 years old. A range of data (including biological, demographic, birth outcomes/birth defects and nutritional factors from both maternal and off-spring) were collected by both interviews and laboratory tests. By June 30th 2019, a total of 114,946 mothers and 124,454 live births had been recruited.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417554

RESUMO

Shadow removal can significantly improve the image visual quality and has many applications in computer vision. Deep learning methods based on CNNs have become the most effective approach for shadow removal by training on either paired data, where both the shadow and underlying shadow-free versions of an image are known, or unpaired data, where shadow and shadow-free training images are totally different with no correspondence. In practice, CNN training on unpaired data is more preferred given the easiness of training data collection. In this paper, we present a new Lightness-Guided Shadow Removal Network (LG-ShadowNet) for shadow removal by training on unpaired data. In this method, we first train a CNN module to compensate for the lightness and then train a second CNN module with the guidance of lightness information from the first CNN module for final shadow removal. We also introduce a loss function to further utilise the colour prior of existing data. Extensive experiments on widely used ISTD, adjusted ISTD and USR datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods with training on unpaired data.

7.
Nanotechnology ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477129

RESUMO

Upconversion micro/nanolasers are promising in fundamental physics research and practical applications. However, due to the limitation of gain medium and cavity quality, such lasers still suffer from a high lasing threshold (Pth). Herein, upconverted whispering-gallery-mode lasing by two-photon absorption is achieved from CdS nanoplatelets with single-mode emission and low threshold (~1.2 mJ cm-2). The threshold is three times lower than the best reported value in previous CdS upconversion lasers. Moreover, wavelength-tunable upconverted single-mode lasing is demonstrated from 510.4 nm to 518.9 nm with narrow linewidths around 0.85 nm, which is further verified through numerical simulations. In addition, the size-dependent lasing behavior was realized from single-mode to multimode oscillation; the corresponding lasing threshold decreases with the increase of cavity size relationship. These results underscore the promise of CdS nanoplatelets for developing chip-level frequency upconversion lasers.

8.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2000810, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200558

RESUMO

SCOPE: Hyperglycemia-induced cardiac fibrosis is one of the main causes of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DM). Chlorogenic acid (CGA) found in many foods has excellent hypoglycemic effectiveness, but it is not known whether CGA can improve DM by inhibiting cardiac fibrosis caused by hyperglycemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Type I diabetic mice are induced by streptozotocin, and after treatment with CGA for 12 weeks, cardiac functions and fibrosis are determined. CGA significantly attenuates hyperglycemia-induced cardiac fibrosis and improves cardiac functions. The mechanism of CGA on fibrotic inhibition is further studied by immunofluorescence, western blot and RNA interference technology in vivo and in vitro. The results show CGA exerted its anti-fibrotic effects through activating the cyclic GMP/protein kinase G pathway (cGMP/PKG) to block hyperglycemia-induced nuclear translocation of p-Smad2/3, and then inhibiting pro-fibrotic gene expression in cardiac fibroblasts without depending on its hypoglycemic function. Moreover, the data also revealed that CGA increased cGMP level and activated PKG in cardiac fibroblasts by enhancing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. CONCLUSION: Besides lowering blood glucose, CGA also has an independent ability to inhibit cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, long-term consumption of foods rich in CGA for diabetic patients will have great benefits to improve diabetic cardiomyopathy.

9.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 4825-4834, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204068

RESUMO

Background: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) and increases the risk of subsequently developing chronic kidney disease. Angiogenesis has been shown to play an important role in reducing renal injury after ischemia reperfusion. In this study, we investigated whether IMD could reduce renal IRI by promoting angiogenesis. Methods: The kidneys of Wistar rats were subjected to 45 min of warm ischemia followed by 24 h of reperfusion. IMD was overexpressed in vivo using the vector pcDNA3.1-IMD transfected by an ultrasound-mediated system. The renal injury after ischemia reperfusion was assessed by detection of the serum creatinine concentration and histologic examinations of renal tissues stained by PAS and H&E. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Histological examinations were used to assess the expression of CD31, MMP2, MMP9, ET-1, VEGF and VEGFR2 in tissues. Results: Renal function and renal histological damage were significantly ameliorated in IMD-transfected rats after ischemia reperfusion. Compared to the IRI, IMD significantly promoted angiogenesis. IMD also upregulated the protein and mRNA expression levels of VEGF and VEGFR2 and downregulated the expression level of MMP2, MMP9 and ET-1. Conclusion: IMD could protect the kidney after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by promoting angiogenesis and reducing the destruction of the perivascular matrix.

10.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 257, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of various treatment planning parameters to identify the optimal gap distance for precise two-segment total body irradiation (TBI) using helical tomotherapy (HT) with fixed jaw mode. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data of a treatment plan for 8 acute leukemia patients (height range: 109-130 cm) were analyzed. All patients underwent total-body computed tomography (CT) with 5-mm slice thickness. A lead wire, placed at 10 cm above the patella, was used to mark the boundary between the two segments. Target volumes and organs at risk were delineated using a Varian Eclipse 10.0 physician's workstation. Different distances between the lead wire and the boundary of the two targets were used. CT images were transferred to the HT workstation to design the treatment plans, by adjusting parameters, including the field width (FW; 2.5 cm, and 5 cm), pitch (0.287 and 0.430), modulation factor (1.8). The plans were superimposed to analyze the dose distributions in the overlap region when varying target gap distances, FWs, pitches to determine the optimal combinations. RESULTS: The pitch did not affect the dose distribution in the overlap region. The dose distribution in the overlap region was mostly homogeneous when the target gap distance was equal to the FW. Increased FW diminished the effect of the target gap distance on the heterogeneous index of the overlap region. CONCLUSIONS: In two-segment TBI treatments by HT with Helix mode, a gap distance equal to the FW may achieve optimal dose distribution in the overlap region.

11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 560103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101197

RESUMO

Objective: To demonstrate the association between pre-pregnancy maternal overweight, obesity, and perinatal outcomes of singletons conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART). Design: Retrospective cohort study from 2006 to 2015 data from a single ART center. Setting: Assisted Reproduction Center, Northwest Women's and Children's Hospital, Xi'an, Northwestern China. Patients: We included 7,818 women undergoing ART and their singleton infants. Interventions: None. Main Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measures were preterm birth (PTB), macrosomia, low birth weight, small for gestational age, and large for gestational age (LGA). Results: We experienced an increase in the risk of PTB, macrosomia, and LGA in overweight and obese groups compared with that in normal-weight groups [PTB: overweight vs. normal weight: odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.18-1.75; obesity vs. normal weight: OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.04-2.25; macrosomia: overweight vs. normal weight: OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.48-2.14; obesity vs. normal weight: OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.52-3.06; LGA: overweight vs. normal weight: OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.39-1.90; obesity vs. normal weight: OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.57-2.83]. We observed a significant interaction between maternal BMI and fresh/frozen embryo transfer on PTB and LGA (P = 0.030; P = 0.030). Fresh embryo transfer significantly increased the effect of maternal BMI on LGA (fresh: OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.10-1.18; frozen: OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.13), and frozen embryo transfer increased the effect of maternal BMI on PTB (fresh: OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.99-1.08; frozen: OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15). Conclusions: Pre-pregnancy maternal overweight and obesity were associated with higher risks of PTB, macrosomia, and LGA in ART-conceived singletons. These associations were affected by the timing of embryo transfer (fresh/frozen embryo transfer). Therefore, we recommend women before ART to maintain a normal BMI for the prevention of adverse perinatal outcomes.

12.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; : 960327120968857, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094643

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is considered a key hallmark of preeclampsia, which causes the dysregulation of trophoblast cells, and it contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Emerging evidence has suggested bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) as a key regulator of oxidative stress in multiple cell types. However, whether BRD4 participates in regulating oxidative stress in trophoblast cells remains undetermined. The current study was designed to explore the potential function of BRD4 in the regulation of oxidative stress in trophoblast cells. Our data revealed that BRD4 expression was elevated in trophoblast cells stimulated with hydrogen peroxide. Exposure to hydrogen peroxide caused marked decreases in the levels of proliferation and invasion but promoted apoptosis and the production of ROS in trophoblast cells. Knockdown of BRD4, or treatment with a BRD4 inhibitor, markedly increased the levels of cell proliferation and invasion and decreased apoptosis and ROS production following the hydrogen peroxide challenge. Further data indicated that suppression of BRD4 markedly decreased the expression levels of Keap1, but increased the nuclear expression of Nrf2 and enhanced Nrf2-mediated transcriptional activity. BRD4 inhibition-mediated protective effects were markedly reversed by Keap1 overexpression or Nrf2 inhibition. Overall, these results demonstrated that BRD4 inhibition attenuated hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress injury in trophoblast cells by enhancing Nrf2 activation via the downregulation of Keap1. Our study highlights the potential importance of the BRD4/Keap1/Nrf2 axis in the modulation of the oxidative stress response in trophoblast cells. Targeted inhibition of BRD4 may offer new opportunities for the development of innovative therapeutic approaches to treat preeclampsia.

14.
J Diabetes ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between heterogeneity of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) subtype/prepregnancy body mass index (pre-BMI) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants of Chinese women. METHODS: We performed a retrospective case-control study of 299 women with GDM and 204 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), using oral glucose tolerance test-based indices performed at 24-25 weeks of gestation. Women with GDM were classified into the following three physiologic subtypes: GDM with a predominant insulin-secretion defect (GDM-dysfunction), GDM with a predominant insulin-sensitivity defect (GDM-resistance), or GDM with both defects (GDM-mixed). We then used a binary logistic regression model to evaluate the potential associations of GDM subtypes and pre-BMI with newborn macrosomia or LGA. RESULTS: Women with GDM-resistance had a higher pre-BMI (P < 0.001), whereas women in the GDM-dysfunction and GDM-mixed groups had pre-BMIs comparable to the NGT group. In the logistic regression model, women in the GDM-mixed group exhibited an increased risk of bearing newborns with macrosomia and LGA, and women in the GDM-dysfunction group tended to have newborns with LGA after adjusting for pre-BMI and other potential confounders. Women who were overweight or obese prepregnancy manifested an increased risk of having newborns with macrosomia and LGA relative to normal-weight women, regardless of whether values were unadjusted or adjusted for all potential confounders. There was no significant interaction between GDM subtype and pre-BMI for any of the studied outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity of GDM (GDM-dysfunction and GDM-mixed) and prepregnancy overweight/obesity were independently associated with LGA in Chinese women. There was no significant interaction between GDM subtypes and pre-BMI for LGA.

15.
Cancer Sci ; 111(11): 4041-4050, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860283

RESUMO

Immune cell infiltration is an important indicator of whether tumor patients will benefit from immunotherapy. Gastric cancer is one of the most common tumors in the world, and new indicators of immunotherapy are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to construct ceRNA networks in gastric cancer with different degrees of immune cell infiltration. We analyzed the expression profiles of different gastric cancer with different degrees of immune cell infiltration retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and found differentially expressed lncRNAs, mRNAs, and miRNAs. A ceRNA regulatory network of gastric cancer with different degrees of immune cell infiltration was constructed using functional annotation, RNA-RNA interaction prediction, correlation analysis, survival analysis, and other comprehensive bioinformatics methods. The interaction and correlation between ceRNAs were verified using experiments on tumor tissues and cell lines. Cell line experiments showed a potential RP11-1094M14.8/miR-1269a/CXCL9 axis that was consistent with the ceRNA theory. qRT-PCR results showed that RP11-1094M14.8 knockdown significantly reduced the expression of CXCL9, and RP11-1094M14.8 overexpression had the opposite effect. The results of clinical analysis of gastric cancer samples showed that RP11-1094M14.8 and CXCL9 were highly expressed in hot tumors, and CXCL9 was positively correlated with a better prognosis for patients. The constructed novel ceRNA network and the potential regulatory axis may provide a comprehensive understanding of the potential mechanisms of development in gastric cancer with different degrees of immune cell infiltration. The RP11-1094M14.8/miR-1269a/CXCL9 axis may serve as a potential immune-therapeutic target for gastric cancer with different degrees of immune cell infiltration.

16.
Obes Rev ; 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725796

RESUMO

The lack of neighbourhood aesthetics (e.g. public art and well-maintained properties) may reduce walkability in the neighbourhood and increase the risk of childhood obesity. In this study, a literature search was conducted in the Cochrane Library, PubMed and Web of Science for articles published before January 1, 2019 to analyse the associations between neighbourhood aesthetics and weight-related behaviours and outcomes among children and adolescents aged <18. One cohort study and 24 cross-sectional studies, conducted in 10 countries with a median sample size of 1124 were identified. Neighbourhood aesthetics was more commonly assessed by self-reported or parent-reported perceptions than objective measurements. Eighteen of the 25 included studies analysed physical activity (PA) as the outcome of interests, eight studies analysed active transport to school (ATS), and eight studies analysed weight status, including body mass index and overweight/obesity status. About two-thirds of studies reported non-significant associations when using PA and weight status as outcomes, and half of studies showed that neighbourhood aesthetics is associated with increased use of ATS. The rest of the studies reported mixed findings with slightly more studies showing neighbourhood aesthetics may promote PA or reduce weight. Better designed studies are necessary to achieve a robust understanding of this epidemiological relationship in the future.

17.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(4): 1770-1781, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy is important for the treatment of esophagogastric cancer. The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of PD-(L)1 antibody, chemotherapy, and supportive treatment in the management of pretreated advanced esophagogastric cancer. METHODS: The randomized controlled trials were identified by searching electronic databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase database. The network meta-analysis (NMA) was carried out using software R 3.3.2. Main outcomes including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), all grades and serious treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were extracted and analyzed. The ranking results for all outcomes were performed to identify the best treatments. RESULTS: Seven high-quality RCTs involving 1,891 patients were taken into analysis. Compared with supportive treatment, PD-(L)1 antibody and chemotherapy both had a significantly longer OS time. Chemotherapy could obvious improve PFS than supportive treatment, but it had more all grades and serious TRAEs than PD-(L)1 antibody and supportive treatment. No significant difference was found in other comparisons. The probabilities of rank plot showed that PD-(L)1 antibody was the best in the outcome of OS. Chemotherapy ranked first in PFS and ranked last in all grades and serious TRAEs. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, PD-(L)1 antibody had excellent survival benefits and tolerable TRAEs for pretreated advanced esophagogastric cancer. It might be a suitable potential choice, especially for patients with high PDL1 CPS or with gastroesophageal junction cancer.

18.
Dose Response ; 18(2): 1559325820926765, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501299

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition in which a hormone made by the placenta prevents the body from using insulin effectively. It is important to find an effective treatment. A mouse model of GDM was used to testify the effects of astaxanthin on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Production of inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation and insulin-related signaling were measured in the presence of astaxanthin both in vivo and in vitro. It was found that astaxanthin improved insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and litter size of offspring and reduced birth weight of offspring and inflammation in GDM mouse. Moreover, astaxanthin increased GLUT4 translocating to membrane without altering its secretion/expression and glucose uptake and consumption in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Furthermore, ROS generation and insulin-related signaling inhibited by tumor necrosis factor α was restored by astaxanthin. It is concluded that astaxanthin has the potential to attenuate GDM symptoms by regulating inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of pregnant mice. Our findings suggest that astaxanthin could be a promising and effective molecule to treat GDM.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356750

RESUMO

By involving only subtle motions of body parts, video-based microaction recognition is a very important but challenging problem. Most existing action recognition methods are developed for general actions, and the current state-of-the-art methods usually largely rely on high-layer features learned from convolutional neural networks (CNNs). High-layer CNN features usually contain more semantic information but less detailed information. However, detailed information can be important for microactions due to the motion subtleness of such actions. In this paper, we propose to more effectively learn midlayer CNN features for enhancing microaction recognition. More specifically, we develop a new dual-branch network for microaction recognition: one branch uses the high-layer CNN features for classification, and the second branch further explores the midlayer CNN features for classification. In the second branch, we introduce a novel subtle motion detector consisting of three modules: 1) a discriminative spatial-temporal feature learning module, which further learns the subtle motion features corresponding to the discriminative spatial-temporal regions, 2) a parallel multiplier attention module, which further refines the features learned in channels and spatial-temporal domains, and 3) an activation fusion module, which fuses the max and average activations from midlayer CNN features for classification. In the experiments, we build a new microaction video dataset, where the micromotions of interest are mixed with other larger general motions such as walking. Comprehensive experimental results verify that the proposed method yields new state-of-the-art performance in two microaction video datasets, while its performance on two generalaction video datasets is also very promising.

20.
Brain Behav Immun ; 88: 482-496, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283287

RESUMO

Emerging evidence has implicated poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), a transcriptional coregulator, in a variety of inflammatory diseases. In the current study, the role of PARP-1 in neuropathic pain and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Neuropathic pain was determined by assessing the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) following lumbar 5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in male rates. Western blotting, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and Co-IP assays were performed to elucidate the mechanisms. The results showed that SNL resulted in a significant increase in the expression and activation of PARP-1 in the ipsilateral L4/5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn, which occurred on day one, reached peak on day 7, and persisted more than 2 weeks after surgery. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that PARP-1 was expressed exclusively in DRG A-type and C-type neurons. In the spinal cord, PARP-1 mainly colocalized with the neuronal marker NeuN and the astrocytic marker GFAP specifically in the superficial lamina. Prior intrathecal (i.t.) injection of PJ-34, a PARPs inhibitor, or Tiq-A, a specific PARP-1 inhibitor, dose-dependently prevented the reductions in PWT and PWL following SNL. Established neuropathic pain-like hypersensitivity was also attenuated with i.t. injection of PJ-34 and Tiq-A starting on day 7 following SNL, a timepoint at which neuropathic pain was fully established. SNL-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were also alleviated by i.t. injection of PARP-1 siRNA following a reduction in PARP-1 expression in the dorsal horn. Moreover, the SNL-induced increases in TNF-α protein and mRNA in the dorsal horn and DRG were dramatically suppressed by i.t. injection of Tiq-A or PARP-1 siRNA. The i.t. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increase in the production of TNF-α in the dorsal horn was also inhibited by prior to i.t. injection of PARP-1 siRNA. Results of ChIP assay showed that SNL-induced PARP-1 activation promoted the binding of NF-κB p65 with the TNF-α promoter in the dorsal horn and that PARP-1 inhibition reduced this binding and suppressed TNF-α expression. Co-IP assay revealed that SNL caused a significant increase in the level of histone H1 poly(ADP)-ribosylation. Together, these results indicate that PARP-1-regulated TNF-α expression in the DRG and spinal dorsal horn following SNL contributes to the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Targeting PARP-1 might be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of the chronic pain.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...