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1.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109892, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790871

RESUMO

The Paris Agreement aims to increase global participation in climate change actions, yet attentions are not equally given among countries. The knowledge gap remains in understanding the structure and drivers of the emission in small developing countries. Eighteen countries have failed to ratify their Intended National Determined Contributions (INDCs) as an officially recognized emission target. Among these countries, we chose Kyrgyzstan as a case to construct its emission inventories from both production-based and consumption-based perspectives and to identify the drivers of emission changes using structural decomposition analysis (SDA). The empirical results revealed that CO2 emissions in Kyrgyzstan depicted a wavelike rise from 2007 to 2015, whilst the production structure contributed to 14% of the production-based CO2 emission growth from 2012 to 2015. As a net emission importer, Kyrgyzstan transferred large quantities of CO2 emissions to China and Russia through imports. However, if all manufacturing imports were produced within Kyrgyzstan, the emission would be over five times compared to the current level. It is helpful to reduce global emissions for Kyrgyzstan to import goods from other countries whose carbon intensities are lower. Overall, this study highlights the need to focus on these countries' failure to ratify INDCs while calling the Paris Agreement to provide a better understanding and mitigation mechanism for these small developing countries.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4944, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666520

RESUMO

Urban residential buildings make large contributions to energy consumption. Energy consumption per square meter is most widely used to measure energy efficiency in urban residential buildings. This study aims to explore whether it is an appropriate indicator. An extended STIRPAT model was used based on the survey data from 867 households. Here we present that building area per household has a dilution effect on energy consumption per square meter. Neglecting this dilution effect leads to a significant overestimation of the effectiveness of building energy savings standards. Further analysis suggests that the peak of energy consumption per square meter in China's urban residential buildings occurred in 2012 when accounting for the dilution effect, which is 11 years later than it would have occurred without considering the dilution effect. Overall, overlooking the dilution effect may lead to misleading judgments of crucial energy-saving policy tools, as well as the ongoing trend of residential energy consumption in China.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4337, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554811

RESUMO

Substantial quantities of air pollution and related health impacts are ultimately attributable to household consumption. However, how consumption pattern affects air pollution impacts remains unclear. Here we show, of the 1.08 (0.74-1.42) million premature deaths due to anthropogenic PM2.5 exposure in China in 2012, 20% are related to household direct emissions through fuel use and 24% are related to household indirect emissions embodied in consumption of goods and services. Income is strongly associated with air pollution-related deaths for urban residents in which health impacts are dominated by indirect emissions. Despite a larger and wealthier urban population, the number of deaths related to rural consumption is higher than that related to urban consumption, largely due to direct emissions from solid fuel combustion in rural China. Our results provide quantitative insight to consumption-based accounting of air pollution and related deaths and may inform more effective and equitable clean air policies in China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Ambiental/tendências , Características da Família , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura/etnologia , Material Particulado/análise
4.
Water Res ; 163: 114848, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352242

RESUMO

At times, certain areas of China suffering from water shortages. While China's government is spurring innovation and infrastructure to help head off such problems, it may be that some water conservation could help as well. It is well-known that water is embodied in traded goods-so called "virtual water trade" (VWT). In China, it seems that many water-poor areas are perversely engaged in VWT. Further, China is engaging in the global trend of fragmentation in production, even as an interregional phenomenon. Perhaps something could be learned about conserving or reducing VWT, if we knew where and how it is practiced. Given some proximate causes, perhaps viable policies could be formulated. To this end, we employ China's multiregional input-output tables straddling two periods to trace the trade of a given region's three types of goods: local final goods, local intermediate goods, and goods that shipped to other regions and countries. We find that goods traded interregionally in China in 2012 embodied 30.4% of all water used nationwide. Nationwide, water use increased substantially over 2007-2012 due to greater shipment volumes of water-intensive products. In fact, as suspected, the rise in value chain-related trade became a major contributing factor. Coastal areas tended to be net receivers of VWT from interior provinces, although reasons differed, e.g. Shanghai received more to fulfill final demand (67.8% of net inflow) and Zhejiang for value-chain related trade (40.2% of net inflow). In sum, the variety of our findings reveals an urgent need to consider trade types and water scarcity when developing water resource allocation and conservation policies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Recursos Hídricos , China , Água , Abastecimento de Água
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1484, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940811

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) exposure poses substantial risks to human health. Investigating a longer chain from economic activities to human health can reveal the sources and critical processes of Hg-related health risks. Thus, we develop a more comprehensive assessment method which is applied to mainland China-the largest global Hg emitter. We present a map of Hg-related health risks in China and estimate that 0.14 points of per-foetus intelligence quotient (IQ) decrements and 7,360 deaths from fatal heart attacks are related to the intake of methylmercury in 2010. This study, for the first time, reveals the significant impacts of interprovincial trade on Hg-related health risks across the whole country. For instance, interprovincial trade induced by final consumption prevents 0.39 × 10-2 points for per-foetus IQ decrements and 194 deaths from fatal heart attacks. These findings highlight the importance of policy decisions in different stages of economic supply chains to reduce Hg-related health risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1214, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872587
7.
J Environ Manage ; 231: 989-995, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602260

RESUMO

China's household energy demands' life-cycle water uses from 2002 to 2015 are quantified with an Input-Output analysis disaggregating rural and urban impacts. 9.73 and 1.60 km3 of water was withdrawn and consumed respectively in the life cycle of Chinese household energy demands in 2015, which was dominated by power and heat uses. An average urbanite's household energy uses, including coal, gas, petroleum products, power and heat, require about four times of life-cycle water uses than its rural counterpart. Among all upstream sectors, while agricultural sectors accounted for the largest shares for all energy uses, oil and gas extraction made significant contributions to petroleum products and gas consumption. A Structural Decomposition Analysis is conducted to disentangle the impacts of four driving factors, i.e. population, demand, economic structure and technology. Population change reduced energy consumption's life-cycle water use for rural households but increased that for urban households. Each economic sector's water intensity decreases, which represent technology advancement, played the dominant role curbing household energy consumption's life-cycle water uses. While power and heat dominates the household energy use profile, urbanization is accompanied by household consumption shifting from coal to gas and petroleum products. In order to reduce household energy consumption's impacts and reliance on water resources, it is imperative to reduce energy production's water use by adopting water-saving technologies, such as air cooling, as well as to reduce upstream sectors' water intensities, such as by promoting drip irrigation.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Água , China , Características da Família , Humanos , Urbanização
8.
Sci Data ; 5: 180155, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084849

RESUMO

Multi-regional input-output (MRIO) models are one of the most widely used approaches to analyse the economic interdependence between different regions. We utilised the latest socioeconomic datasets to compile a Chinese MRIO table for 2012 based on the modified gravity model. The MRIO table provides inter-regional and inter-sectoral economic flows among 30 economic sectors in China's 30 regions for 2012. This is the first MRIO table to reflect China's economic development pattern after the 2008 global financial crisis. The Chinese MRIO table can be used to analyse the production and consumption structure of provincial economies and the inter-regional trade pattern within China, as well as function as a tool for both national and regional economic planning. The Chinese MRIO table also provides a foundation for extensive research on environmental impacts by linking industrial and regional output to energy use, carbon emissions, environmental pollutants, and satellite accounts.

9.
Sci Adv ; 4(6): eaaq0390, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963621

RESUMO

As national efforts to reduce CO2 emissions intensify, policy-makers need increasingly specific, subnational information about the sources of CO2 and the potential reductions and economic implications of different possible policies. This is particularly true in China, a large and economically diverse country that has rapidly industrialized and urbanized and that has pledged under the Paris Agreement that its emissions will peak by 2030. We present new, city-level estimates of CO2 emissions for 182 Chinese cities, decomposed into 17 different fossil fuels, 46 socioeconomic sectors, and 7 industrial processes. We find that more affluent cities have systematically lower emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP), supported by imports from less affluent, industrial cities located nearby. In turn, clusters of industrial cities are supported by nearby centers of coal or oil extraction. Whereas policies directly targeting manufacturing and electric power infrastructure would drastically undermine the GDP of industrial cities, consumption-based policies might allow emission reductions to be subsidized by those with greater ability to pay. In particular, sector-based analysis of each city suggests that technological improvements could be a practical and effective means of reducing emissions while maintaining growth and the current economic structure and energy system. We explore city-level emission reductions under three scenarios of technological progress to show that substantial reductions (up to 31%) are possible by updating a disproportionately small fraction of existing infrastructure.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Clima , Monitoramento Ambiental , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Cidades , Geografia , Indústrias
10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1871, 2018 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760385

RESUMO

Economic globalization and concomitant growth in international trade since the late 1990s have profoundly reorganized global production activities and related CO2 emissions. Here we show trade among developing nations (i.e., South-South trade) has more than doubled between 2004 and 2011, which reflects a new phase of globalization. Some production activities are relocating from China and India to other developing countries, particularly raw materials and intermediate goods production in energy-intensive sectors. In turn, the growth of CO2 emissions embodied in Chinese exports has slowed or reversed, while the emissions embodied in exports from less-developed regions such as Vietnam and Bangladesh have surged. Although China's emissions may be peaking, ever more complex supply chains are distributing energy-intensive industries and their CO2 emissions throughout the global South. This trend may seriously undermine international efforts to reduce global emissions that increasingly rely on rallying voluntary contributions of more, smaller, and less-developed nations.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(11): 6380-6389, 2018 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687709

RESUMO

Air pollution, a threat to air quality and human health, has attracted ever-increasing attention in recent years. In addition to having local influence, air pollutants can also travel the globe via atmospheric circulation and international trade. Black carbon (BC), emitted from incomplete combustion, is a unique but representative particulate pollutant. This study tracked down the BC aerosol and its direct radiative forcing to the emission sources and final consumers using the global chemical transport model (MOZART-4), the rapid radiative transfer model for general circulation simulations (RRTM), and a multiregional input-output analysis (MRIO). BC was physically transported (i.e., atmospheric transport) from western to eastern countries in the midlatitude westerlies, but its magnitude is near an order of magnitude higher if the virtual flow embodied in international trade is considered. The transboundary effects on East and South Asia by other regions increased from about 3% (physical transport only) to 10% when considering both physical and virtual transport. The influence efficiency on East Asia was also large because of the comparatively large emission intensity and emission-intensive exports (e.g., machinery and equipment). The radiative forcing in Africa imposed by consumption from Europe, North America, and East Asia (0.01 Wm-2) was even larger than the total forcing in North America. Understanding the supply chain and incorporating both atmospheric and virtual transport may improve multilateral cooperation on air pollutant mitigation both domestically and internationally.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis , África , Ásia , Carbono , Europa (Continente) , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , América do Norte
12.
Sci Data ; 5: 170201, 2018 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29337312

RESUMO

China is the world's top energy consumer and CO2 emitter, accounting for 30% of global emissions. Compiling an accurate accounting of China's CO2 emissions is the first step in implementing reduction policies. However, no annual, officially published emissions data exist for China. The current emissions estimated by academic institutes and scholars exhibit great discrepancies. The gap between the different emissions estimates is approximately equal to the total emissions of the Russian Federation (the 4th highest emitter globally) in 2011. In this study, we constructed the time-series of CO2 emission inventories for China and its 30 provinces. We followed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions accounting method with a territorial administrative scope. The inventories include energy-related emissions (17 fossil fuels in 47 sectors) and process-related emissions (cement production). The first version of our dataset presents emission inventories from 1997 to 2015. We will update the dataset annually. The uniformly formatted emission inventories provide data support for further emission-related research as well as emissions reduction policy-making in China.

13.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1712, 2017 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167467

RESUMO

This study seeks to estimate the carbon implications of recent changes in China's economic development patterns and role in global trade in the post-financial-crisis era. We utilised the latest socioeconomic datasets to compile China's 2012 multiregional input-output (MRIO) table. Environmentally extended input-output analysis and structural decomposition analysis (SDA) were applied to investigate the driving forces behind changes in CO2 emissions embodied in China's domestic and foreign trade from 2007 to 2012. Here we show that emission flow patterns have changed greatly in both domestic and foreign trade since the financial crisis. Some economically less developed regions, such as Southwest China, have shifted from being a net emission exporter to being a net emission importer. In terms of foreign trade, emissions embodied in China's exports declined from 2007 to 2012 mainly due to changes in production structure and efficiency gains, while developing countries became the major destination of China's export emissions.

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