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1.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(8): 1520-1527, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Infantile hemangiomas are common lesions in the pediatric population; in rare cases, an infantile hemangioma can be detected along the neural axis. The purposes of our study included determination of the incidence, location, and imaging appearance of neuroaxial infantile hemangiomas and their syndromic association. We also assessed additional features of cerebral and cardiovascular anomalies that may be associated with neuroaxial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed, searching the radiology database for patients with segmental infantile hemangiomas referred for assessment of possible hemangioma syndromes. We retrospectively reviewed brain and spine MR imaging studies, with particular attention paid to neuroaxial vascular lesions, as well as the relevant clinical data. Neuroaxial hemangioma imaging findings were described, and comparison of segmental cutaneous infantile hemangioma location with the imaging findings was performed in patients with confirmed hemangioma syndromes and in patients with isolated skin infantile hemangioma. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients with segmental infantile hemangioma were included in the study, 42 of whom had a hemangioma syndrome; of those, 41 had posterior fossa brain malformations, hemangioma, arterial lesions, cardiac abnormalities, and eye abnormalities (PHACE) syndrome and 1 had diffuse neonatal hemangiomatosis. Neuroaxial involvement was detected in 20/42 patients (48%) with hemangioma syndromes and in no subjects with isolated segmental infantile hemangioma (P < .001). The most common intracranial hemangioma location was within the ipsilateral internal auditory canal (83%). CONCLUSIONS: Many pediatric patients with segmental infantile hemangioma in the setting of hemangioma syndromes, especially those with PHACE, had neuroaxial hemangiomas. This finding may potentially lead to requiring additional clinical evaluation and management of these patients.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941394

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of custom osteosynthesis plates increased the accuracy of proximal segment position following bilateral sagittal split osteotomy in a cohort of 30 patients when compared to a control group of 25 patients who had surgery with conventional plates. Surgery was performed by a single surgeon between October 2015 and December 2017. Post-surgical cone beam computed tomography scans were segmented using Mimics Innovation Suite (Materialise NV), and surface-based superimposition was achieved using ProPlan CMF (Materialise NV). However, there was a tendency for the rotational error to be smaller in the custom group than in the control group. The root mean square error in both groups and for all variables fell within clinical parameters of 2 mm and 4°. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that customized mandibular fixation plates do not necessarily improve the accuracy of the proximal segments post-surgically; however they may be of benefit in individual patients.

3.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 50(4): 494-500, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919821

RESUMO

The advent of three-dimensional imaging and computer-aided surgical simulation (CASS) have brought about a paradigm shift in surgical planning. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of maxillary repositioning surgery using computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) customized titanium surgical guides and fixation plates. Thirty consecutive adult patients, 13 male and 17 female, with a mean age of 29.2 years and 25.5 years, respectively, requiring Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy, with or without simultaneous mandibular surgery, were evaluated retrospectively. All orthognathic surgeries were performed by one experienced surgeon. The pre-surgical and post-surgical volumetric imaging were superimposed to assess the linear and angular differences between the planned and actual positions of the maxilla following surgery. With the use of the CAD/CAM titanium surgical guides and fixation plates, all surgical movements were within 2mm and 4° of the planned movements, which is considered clinically insignificant. The overall root mean square error between the planned and actual surgical movements was 0.38mm in the transverse dimension, 0.64mm in the anteroposterior dimension, and 0.55mm in the vertical dimension. In regard to the centroid of the maxilla, the absolute angular difference of the maxillary centroid was 1.06° in pitch, 0.47° in roll, and 0.49° in yaw. Maxillary repositioning surgery can be performed with high accuracy using CAD/CAM titanium surgical guides and fixation plates.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Adulto , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/cirurgia , Osteotomia de Le Fort , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 108, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a key contributor to the global burden of disease and disproportionately impacts the wellbeing of people experiencing mental illness. Increases in physical activity are associated with improvements in symptoms of mental illness and reduction in cardiometabolic risk. Reliable and valid clinical tools that assess physical activity would improve evaluation of intervention studies that aim to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour in people living with mental illness. METHODS: The five-item Simple Physical Activity Questionnaire (SIMPAQ) was developed by a multidisciplinary, international working group as a clinical tool to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour in people living with mental illness. Patients with a DSM or ICD mental illness diagnoses were recruited and completed the SIMPAQ on two occasions, one week apart. Participants wore an Actigraph accelerometer and completed brief cognitive and clinical assessments. RESULTS: Evidence of SIMPAQ validity was assessed against accelerometer-derived measures of physical activity. Data were obtained from 1010 participants. The SIMPAQ had good test-retest reliability. Correlations for moderate-vigorous physical activity was comparable to studies conducted in general population samples. Evidence of validity for the sedentary behaviour item was poor. An alternative method to calculate sedentary behaviour had stronger evidence of validity. This alternative method is recommended for use in future studies employing the SIMPAQ. CONCLUSIONS: The SIMPAQ is a brief measure of physical activity and sedentary behaviour that can be reliably and validly administered by health professionals.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Transtornos Mentais , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Fuel Cells (Weinh) ; 19(4): 389-407, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680792

RESUMO

The objective of the current work is to support the design of a pilot hydrogen and electricity producing plant that uses natural gas (or biomethane) as raw material, as a transition option towards a 100% renewable transportation system. The plant, with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) as principal technology, is intended to be the main unit of an electric vehicle station. The refueling station has to work at different operation periods characterized by the hydrogen demand and the electricity needed for supply and self-consumption. The same set of heat exchangers has to satisfy the heating and cooling needs of the different operation periods. In order to optimize the operating variables of the pilot plant and to provide the best heat exchanger network, the applied methodology follows a systematic procedure for multi-objective, i.e. maximum plant efficiency and minimum number of heat exchanger matches, and multi-period optimization. The solving strategy combines process flow modeling in steady state, superstructure-based mathematical programming and the use of an evolutionary-based algorithm for optimization. The results show that the plant can reach a daily weighted efficiency exceeding 60%, up to 80% when considering heat utilization.

7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12527, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131572

RESUMO

The value of exotic wheat genetic resources for accelerating grain yield gains is largely unproven and unrealized. We used next-generation sequencing, together with multi-environment phenotyping, to study the contribution of exotic genomes to 984 three-way-cross-derived (exotic/elite1//elite2) pre-breeding lines (PBLs). Genomic characterization of these lines with haplotype map-based and SNP marker approaches revealed exotic specific imprints of 16.1 to 25.1%, which compares to theoretical expectation of 25%. A rare and favorable haplotype (GT) with 0.4% frequency in gene bank identified on chromosome 6D minimized grain yield (GY) loss under heat stress without GY penalty under irrigated conditions. More specifically, the 'T' allele of the haplotype GT originated in Aegilops tauschii and was absent in all elite lines used in study. In silico analysis of the SNP showed hits with a candidate gene coding for isoflavone reductase IRL-like protein in Ae. tauschii. Rare haplotypes were also identified on chromosomes 1A, 6A and 2B effective against abiotic/biotic stresses. Results demonstrate positive contributions of exotic germplasm to PBLs derived from crosses of exotics with CIMMYT's best elite lines. This is a major impact-oriented pre-breeding effort at CIMMYT, resulting in large-scale development of PBLs for deployment in breeding programs addressing food security under climate change scenarios.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grão Comestível/genética , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Frequência do Gene , Haplótipos , Temperatura Alta , Melhoramento Vegetal , Banco de Sementes , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/classificação , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 38(10): E65-E73, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28860215

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Functional MR imaging is increasingly being used for presurgical language assessment in the treatment of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, vascular malformations, and other conditions. The inherent complexity of fMRI, which includes numerous processing steps and selective analyses, is compounded by institution-unique approaches to patient training, paradigm choice, and an eclectic array of postprocessing options from various vendors. Consequently, institutions perform fMRI in such markedly different manners that data sharing, comparison, and generalization of results are difficult. The American Society of Functional Neuroradiology proposes widespread adoption of common fMRI language paradigms as the first step in countering this lost opportunity to advance our knowledge and improve patient care. LANGUAGE PARADIGM REVIEW PROCESS: A taskforce of American Society of Functional Neuroradiology members from multiple institutions used a broad literature review, member polls, and expert opinion to converge on 2 sets of standard language paradigms that strike a balance between ease of application and clinical usefulness. ASFNR RECOMMENDATIONS: The taskforce generated an adult language paradigm algorithm for presurgical language assessment including the following tasks: Sentence Completion, Silent Word Generation, Rhyming, Object Naming, and/or Passive Story Listening. The pediatric algorithm includes the following tasks: Sentence Completion, Rhyming, Antonym Generation, or Passive Story Listening. DISCUSSION: Convergence of fMRI language paradigms across institutions offers the first step in providing a "Rosetta Stone" that provides a common reference point with which to compare and contrast the usefulness and reliability of fMRI data. From this common language task battery, future refinements and improvements are anticipated, particularly as objective measures of reliability become available. Some commonality of practice is a necessary first step to develop a foundation on which to improve the clinical utility of this field.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Idioma , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/normas , Adulto , Encefalopatias/cirurgia , Mapeamento Encefálico/normas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Masculino , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos
9.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 2(2): 895-896, 2017 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33490480

RESUMO

Complete mitochondrial genomes are reported for two Isospora species causing systemic coccidiosis in Superb Glossy Starlings (Aves: Sturnidae). The A/T rich (34.7% G/C) genomes were 6223 bp in length for Isospora greineri and 6217 bp for Isospora superbusi. Each encoded 3 protein-coding genes, (COI, COIII and CytB) plus 18 LSU and 14 SSU rDNA fragments. Arrangement of protein- and rRNA-coding regions was identical to known Eimeria sp. mt genomes; start codon usage was conventional. The mitochondrial genome structures of Isospora and Eimeria species are conserved and reflect the close phylogenetic association between these eimeriid genera of apicomplexan parasites.

10.
Avian Pathol ; 45(1): 82-93, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26743571

RESUMO

Live Eimeria vaccines against coccidiosis in poultry initiate immunity using a vaccine dose containing few oocysts; protection is enhanced through subsequent faecal-oral transmission ("cycling") of parasites in the poultry house. Spray-administered Eimeria vaccines can permit wide variations in doses ingested by individual chicks; some chicks may receive no primary vaccination at all. Consequently, protective immunity for the entire flock depends on successful environmental cycling of vaccine progeny. Pullets missing primary vaccination at day of age can become protected from coccidial challenge through cycling of vaccine progeny oocysts from vaccinated (V) cage mates. This study tested whether 40% cage floor coverage (CFC) with a durable material could improve protection against challenge in these "contact-vaccinated" (CV) or successfully V pullets. The six treatment groups tested were CV, V or sham-vaccinated pullets cage-reared on either 0% or 40% CFC. Oocyst output was measured separately for each group for 30 days following vaccine administration. Lesion scores, body weights and total oocyst outputs were measured to quantify protection at 30 days of age against single or mixed Eimeria species challenge infections. Use of 40% CFC to promote low-level oocyst cycling impacted the flock in two ways: (1) more uniform flock immunity was achieved in the 40% CFC (CV similar to V pullets) compared with 0% CFC and (2) protection was enhanced in the 40% CFC compared with the 0% CFC. The use of CFC is an easily adopted means of improving live Eimeria vaccination of caged pullets.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Oocistos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Vacinas Atenuadas
11.
Environ Entomol ; 44(3): 610-8, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26313967

RESUMO

Frost is known to directly affect flowering wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) and lead to reduced grain yield. Additionally, it may increase wheat susceptibility to economically important pests, such as aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Wheat plants at flowering stage were exposed to one of the three temperature treatments: ambient (11-12°C), 0°C, and -3°C for 60 min. Preference (3-choice) and performance (no-choice) bioassays with aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) were conducted 1, 3, 6, and 12 d after temperature treatments to assess effects of temperature-induced stress over time. As an initial feasibility study of using remote sensing technologies to detect frost-induced stress in flowering wheat plants, hyperspectral imaging data were acquired from wheat plants used in preference bioassays. Element analysis of wheat plants was included to determine the effect of temperature-induced stress on the nutritional composition of flowering wheat plants. The results from this study support the following cause-effect scenario: a 60-min exposure to low temperatures caused a significant decrease in potassium and copper content of wheat plants 6 d after temperature exposure, and it coincided with a marked increase in preference by aphids of wheat plants. The preference exhibited by aphids correlated positively with performance of aphids, so the preference-performance hypothesis was confirmed and possibly driven by potassium and copper content of wheat plants. In addition, we demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging data can be used to detect frost-induced susceptibility to aphid infestation in flowering wheat plants. These findings justify further research into airborne remote sensing of frost-induced stress and the possible secondary effects on crop susceptibility to arthropod pests.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Triticum/química , Triticum/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha , Cobre/análise , Flores , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Potássio/análise , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Análise Espectral
12.
Parasitol Res ; 114(11): 4149-60, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26319519

RESUMO

Coccidia possess three distinct genomes: nuclear, mitochondrial, and plastid. Sequences from five genes located on these three genomes were used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of members of the phylum Apicomplexa: 18S rDNA sequences from the nuclear (nu) genome, partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences from the mitochondrial (mt) genome, and partial 16S and 23S rDNA sequences and RNA polymerase B sequences from plastid (pl) genomes. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference were used in conjunction with nuclear substitution models generated from data subsets in the analyses. Major groups within the Apicomplexa were well supported with the mitochondrial, nuclear, and a combination of mitochondrial, nuclear and concatenated plastid gene sequences. However, the genus Eimeria was paraphyletic in phylogenetic trees based on the nuclear gene. Analyses using the individual genes (18S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) resolved the various apicomplexan groups with high Bayesian posterior probabilities. The multi-gene, multi-genome analyses based on concatenated nu 18S rDNA, pl 16S, pl 23S, pl rPoB, pl rPoB1, and mt COI sequences appeared useful in resolving phylogenetic relationships within the phylum Apicomplexa. Genus-level relationships, or higher, appear best supported by 18S rDNA analyses, and species-level analyses are best investigated using mt COI sequences; for parasites for which both loci are available, nuclear 18S rDNA sequences combined with mitochondrial COI sequences provide a compact and informative molecular dataset for inferring the evolutionary relationships taxa in the Apicomplexa.


Assuntos
Coccídios/genética , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma de Protozoário/genética , Família Multigênica , Apicoplastos , Sequência de Bases , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Eimeria/classificação , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Indian Pediatr ; 52(4): 311-3, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25929629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between Vasoactive Inotrope Score (vis) and mortality in children with fluid-refractory septic shock. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 71 children (age 1 mo-16y) admitted with fluid-refractory septic shock in pediatric intensive care unit during a two year period was done. We divided our cohort into two groups viz High vasoactive inotrope score (Group-H) and Low-vasoactive inotrope score (Group-L) based on a cut-off value of 20. RESULTS: 73% of the children were in Group-L. The mortality rate was 44% and 100% in Group L and Group H, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: High inotropic score in children with septic shock is associated with high mortality rate.


Assuntos
Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hidratação , Humanos , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque Séptico/epidemiologia , Choque Séptico/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Parasitol Res ; 114(5): 1761-8, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25678350

RESUMO

Species-specific PCR primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) locus were generated that allow for the specific identification of the most common Eimeria species infecting turkeys (i.e., Eimeria adenoeides, Eimeria meleagrimitis, Eimeria gallopavonis, Eimeria meleagridis, Eimeria dispersa, and Eimeria innocua). PCR reaction chemistries were optimized with respect to divalent cation (MgCl2) and dNTP concentrations, as well as PCR cycling conditions (particularly anneal temperature for primers). Genomic DNA samples from single oocyst-derived lines of six Eimeria species were tested to establish specificity and sensitivity of these newly designed primer pairs. A mixed 60-ng total DNA sample containing 10 ng of each of the six Eimeria species was used as DNA template to demonstrate specific amplification of the correct product using each of the species-specific primer pairs. Ten nanograms of each of the five non-target Eimeria species was pooled to provide a non-target, control DNA sample suitable to test the specificity of each primer pair. The amplifications of the COI region with species-specific primer pairs from pooled samples yielded products of expected sizes (209 to 1,012 bp) and no amplification of non-target Eimeria sp. DNA was detected using the non-target, control DNA samples. These primer pairs specific for Eimeria spp. of turkeys did not amplify any of the seven Eimeria species infecting chickens. The newly developed PCR primers can be used as a diagnostic tool capable of specifically identifying six turkey Eimeria species; additionally, sequencing of the PCR amplification products yields sequence-based genotyping data suitable for identification and molecular phylogenetics.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Eimeria/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Perus , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA/genética , Primers do DNA/genética , Genótipo , Mitocôndrias/genética , Oocistos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 76(1): 31-4, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25585181

RESUMO

Treating to target has been used in many areas of medicine, including diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease risk. This principle has now been applied to rheumatological conditions, notably inflammatory arthritis. This article discusses the role and importance of this management approach in inflammatory arthritis.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Leukemia ; 29(5): 1104-14, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25394714

RESUMO

Targeting BCR/ABL with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is a proven concept for the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemias. Resistance attributable to either kinase mutations in BCR/ABL or nonmutational mechanisms remains the major clinical challenge. With the exception of ponatinib, all approved TKIs are unable to inhibit the 'gatekeeper' mutation T315I. However, a broad spectrum of kinase inhibition increases the off-target effects of TKIs and may be responsible for cardiovascular issues of ponatinib. Thus, there is a need for more selective options for the treatment of resistant Ph+ leukemias. PF-114 is a novel TKI developed with the specifications of (i) targeting T315I and other resistance mutations in BCR/ABL; (ii) achieving a high selectivity to improve safety; and (iii) overcoming nonmutational resistance in Ph+ leukemias. PF-114 inhibited BCR/ABL and clinically important mutants including T315I at nanomolar concentrations. It suppressed primary Ph+ acute lymphatic leukemia-derived long-term cultures that either displayed nonmutational resistance or harbor the T315I. In BCR/ABL- or BCR/ABL-T315I-driven murine leukemia as well as in xenograft models of primary Ph+ leukemia harboring the T315I, PF-114 significantly prolonged survival to a similar extent as ponatinib. Our work supports clinical evaluation of PF-114 for the treatment of resistant Ph+ leukemia.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Mutação , Piridinas/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Antígenos Ly/metabolismo , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Células K562 , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese , Mutação Puntual , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/metabolismo , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Translocação Genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/metabolismo
17.
Parasitol Res ; 113(9): 3287-97, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24948107

RESUMO

Isospora greineri sp. n. and Isospora superbusi sp. n. are described from captive superb glossy starlings, Lamprotornis superbus, from the Toronto Zoo succumbing to visceral coccidiosis. Sequence data from nuclear 18S recombinant DNA (rDNA) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) loci from sporulated oocysts and infected tissues (liver, lung, or spleen) demonstrated two distinct Isospora sp. genotypes that varied in their relative abundance. In the tissues of one affected bird, as well as its associated fecal sample, two distinct COI sequences (1.7% divergence) and two distinct 18S rDNA sequences (0.6% divergence) were found at almost the same abundance; in other specimens, one of the 18S and one of the COI sequences were less abundant than the other. In the tissues of some birds, only a single COI and single 18S sequence were present. In all cases, the same pair of 18S rDNA and COI sequences fluctuated in abundance in parallel, indicating that there were two distinct species present rather than one species with more than one COI or 18S locus. The oocysts of these new species cannot be differentiated morphologically. Sporulated oocysts of both were spherical to subspherical measuring 17.7 ± 0.22 µm by 17.1 ± 0.20 µm with a mean L/W ratio of 1.03 ± 0.004. Sporocysts were ovoid measuring 13.5 ± 0.17 µm by 9.3 ± 0.15 µm with a mean L/W ratio of 1.4 ± 0.02. Sporocysts had a small Stieda body with indistinct sub-Stieda body; each sporocyst had a compact residuum. Two morphologically similar but genetically divergent Isospora species were shown to cause simultaneous enteric and extraintestinal infections in captive superb glossy starlings.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Isospora/classificação , Estorninhos , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Isospora/genética , Oocistos , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
J Parasitol ; 100(5): 651-6, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24820055

RESUMO

A complete mitochondrial genome for the blood parasite Hepatozoon catesbianae (Alveolata; Apicomplexa; Coccidia; Adeleorina; Hepatozoidae) was obtained through PCR amplification and direct sequencing of resulting PCR products. The mitochondrial genome of H. catesbianae is 6,397 bp in length and contains 3 protein-coding genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [COI]; cytochrome c oxidase subunit III [COIII]; and cytochrome B [CytB]). Sequence similarities to previously published mitochondrial genomes of other apicomplexan parasites permitted annotation of 23 putative rDNA fragments in the mitochondrial genome of H. catesbianae, 14 large subunit rDNA fragments, and 9 small subunit rDNA fragments. Sequences corresponding to rDNA fragments RNA5, RNA8, RNA11, and RNA19 of Plasmodium falciparum were not identified in the mitrochondrial genome sequence of H. catesbianae. Although the presence of 3 protein-coding regions and numerous putative rDNA fragments is a feature typical for apicomplexan mitochondrial genomes, the mitochondrial genome of H. catesbianae possesses a structure and gene organization that is distinct among the Apicomplexa. This is the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence obtained from any apicomplexan parasite in the suborder Adeleorina.


Assuntos
Coccídios/genética , Coccidiose/veterinária , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma de Protozoário/genética , Rana clamitans/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Citocromos b/genética , Primers do DNA , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/química , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar/veterinária , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Rana clamitans/sangue , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
19.
Infection ; 42(3): 575-8, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24452526

RESUMO

Toxocariasis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxocara canis or T. cati. We report a patient with toxocariasis who presented with dyspnea, high-grade eosinophilia, and bilateral pulmonary nodules. To further characterize the pulmonary manifestations of toxocariasis, we have reviewed 11 previously published pulmonary toxocariasis cases. The most common pulmonary symptoms in our review were cough and dyspnea, and the most common finding on chest imaging was bilateral pulmonary nodules. Risk factors for Toxocara infection primarily included exposure to dogs. Most patients received albendazole and responded well. A high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose this otherwise preventable parasitic disease.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/patologia , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocaríase/diagnóstico , Toxocaríase/patologia , Idoso , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Toxocaríase/parasitologia
20.
Br J Radiol ; 86(1032): 20130599, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24167185

RESUMO

To review diffusion abnormalities seen in diffusion-weighted MRI in neurological pathologies. We examine the clinical significance of the abnormalities in a broad spectrum of neurological diseases and highlight our current understanding of their causes. Diffusion abnormalities seen on diffusion-weighted MRI can play an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of a broad spectrum of neurological diseases. A thorough understanding of the appearance and significance of these abnormalities is critical in patient management.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/patologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Encefalopatias Metabólicas/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/patologia
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