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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546513

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a great impact on healthcare workers (HCWs) that includes negative mental health outcomes, such as post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, we report on mental health outcomes among HCWs in Cyprus. Data were collected between 3 May and 27 May 2020, with the use of an online questionnaire that included demographics (sex, age, occupation, education, work sector, years of work experience), the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) which assesses depressive symptoms, the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IES-R), which measures post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and the-10 item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) which quantifies stress responses. Participants (42% physicians, 24% nurses, 18% physiotherapists, 16% classified as "other") were 58% of female gender and aged 21-76. A total of 79 (18.6%) and 62 HCWs (14.6%) reported clinically significant depressive (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) and post-traumatic stress (IES-R > 33) symptoms respectively. Nurses were more likely than physicians to suffer from depression (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.7 (1.06-2.73); p = 0.035) and PTSD (adjusted prevalence ratio 2.51 (1.49-4.23); p = 0.001). Even in a country with a rather low spread of the COVID-19, such as Cyprus, HCWs reported a substantial mental health burden, with nurses reporting increased depressive and PTSD symptoms compared to other HCWs.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Chipre/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
FASEB J ; 35(2): e21279, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484211

RESUMO

Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that are released from most cell types encapsulating specific molecular cargo. Exosomes serve as mediators of cell-to-cell and tissue-to-tissue communications under normal and pathological conditions. It has been shown that exosomes carrying muscle-specific miRNAs, myomiRs, are secreted from skeletal muscle cells in vitro and are elevated in the blood of muscle disease patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the secretion of exosomes encapsulating the four myomiRs from skeletal muscle tissues and to assess their role in inter-tissue communication between neighboring skeletal muscles in vivo. We demonstrate, for the first time, that isolated, intact skeletal muscle tissues secrete exosomes encapsulating the four myomiRs, miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b, and miR-206. Notably, we show that the sorting of the four myomiRs within exosomes varies between skeletal muscles of different muscle fiber-type composition. miR-133a and miR-133b downregulation in TA muscles caused a reduction of their levels in neighboring skeletal muscles and in serum exosomes. In conclusion, our results reveal that skeletal muscle-derived exosomes encapsulate the four myomiRs, some of which enter the blood, while a portion is used for the local communication between proximal muscle tissues. These findings provide important evidence regarding novel pathways implicated in skeletal muscle function.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120919

RESUMO

In Cyprus, approximately 9% of triple-negative (estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative) breast cancer (TNBC) patients are positive for germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in BRCA1/2. However, the contribution of other genes has not yet been determined. To this end, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of germline PVs in BRCA1/2-negative TNBC patients in Cyprus, unselected for family history of cancer or age of diagnosis. A comprehensive 94-cancer-gene panel was implemented for 163 germline DNA samples, extracted from the peripheral blood of TNBC patients. Identified variants of uncertain clinical significance were evaluated, using extensive in silico investigation. Eight PVs (4.9%) were identified in two high-penetrance TNBC susceptibility genes. Of these, seven occurred in PALB2 (87.5%) and one occurred in TP53 (12.5%). Interestingly, 50% of the patients carrying PVs were diagnosed over the age of 60 years. The frequency of non-BRCA PVs (4.9%) and especially PALB2 PVs (4.3%) in TNBC patients in Cyprus appears to be higher compared to other populations. Based on these results, we believe that PALB2 and TP53 along with BRCA1/2 genetic testing could be beneficial for a large proportion of TNBC patients in Cyprus, irrespective of their age of diagnosis.

4.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020983

RESUMO

The intensities from genotyping array data can be used to detect copy number variants (CNVs) but a high level of noise in the data and overlap between different copy-number intensity distributions produces unreliable calls, particularly when only a few probes are covered by the CNV. We present a novel pipeline (CamCNV) with a series of steps to reduce noise and detect more reliably CNVs covering as few as three probes. The pipeline aims to detect rare CNVs (below 1% frequency) for association tests in large cohorts. The method uses the information from all samples to convert intensities to z-scores, thus adjusting for variance between probes. We tested the sensitivity of our pipeline by looking for known CNVs from the 1000 Genomes Project in our genotyping of 1000 Genomes samples. We also compared the CNV calls for 1661 pairs of genotyped replicate samples. At the chosen mean z-score cut-off, sensitivity to detect the 1000 Genomes CNVs was approximately 85% for deletions and 65% for duplications. From the replicates, we estimate the false discovery rate is controlled at ∼10% for deletions (falling to below 3% with more than five probes) and ∼28% for duplications. The pipeline demonstrates improved sensitivity when compared to calling with PennCNV, particularly for short deletions covering only a few probes. For each called CNV, the mean z-score is a useful metric for controlling the false discovery rate.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3833, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737321

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been shown to predict breast cancer risk in European women, but their utility in Asian women is unclear. Here we evaluate the best performing PRSs for European-ancestry women using data from 17,262 breast cancer cases and 17,695 controls of Asian ancestry from 13 case-control studies, and 10,255 Chinese women from a prospective cohort (413 incident breast cancers). Compared to women in the middle quintile of the risk distribution, women in the highest 1% of PRS distribution have a ~2.7-fold risk and women in the lowest 1% of PRS distribution has ~0.4-fold risk of developing breast cancer. There is no evidence of heterogeneity in PRS performance in Chinese, Malay and Indian women. A PRS developed for European-ancestry women is also predictive of breast cancer risk in Asian women and can help in developing risk-stratified screening programmes in Asia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Risco
6.
Haematologica ; 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732363

RESUMO

Initiation of regular transfusion in transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) is based on the assessment of clinical phenotype. Pathogenic HBB variants causing ß-thalassemia are important determinants of phenotype and could be used to aid decision making. We investigated the association of HBB genotype with survival in a cohort study in the four thalassemia centres in Cyprus. HBB genotype was classified as severe (ß0/ß0 or ß+/ß0), moderate (ß+/ß+), or mild (ß0/ß++ or ß+/ß++). Risk factors for mortality were evaluated using multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression. 537 subjects were followed for a total of 20,963 person years. 80.4% (95% CI 76.4-84.7) of individuals survived to 50 years of age with increasing rates of liver, infection and malignancy-related deaths observed during recent follow-up. We evaluated non-modifiable risk factors and found worse outcomes associated with male sex (Hazard ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.0, p=0.01) and milder genotype (Hazard ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3, p=0.02). The effect of genotype was confirmed in a second model, which included treatment effects. Patients with a milder genotype initiated transfusion significantly later and had reduced blood requirements compared to those with moderate or severe genotypes, although pre-transfusion hemoglobin levels did not differ between genotypes. Our results suggest that early treatment decisions to delay transfusion and different long-term treatment strategies in milder genotypes have led to adverse long-term effects of under-treated thalassemia and worse survival. We propose that HBB genotype determination and use of this information to aid in decision making can improve long-term outcomes of thalassaemia patients.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3353, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620889

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of hundreds of susceptibility loci across cancers, but the impact of further studies remains uncertain. Here we analyse summary-level data from GWAS of European ancestry across fourteen cancer sites to estimate the number of common susceptibility variants (polygenicity) and underlying effect-size distribution. All cancers show a high degree of polygenicity, involving at a minimum of thousands of loci. We project that sample sizes required to explain 80% of GWAS heritability vary from 60,000 cases for testicular to over 1,000,000 cases for lung cancer. The maximum relative risk achievable for subjects at the 99th risk percentile of underlying polygenic risk scores (PRS), compared to average risk, ranges from 12 for testicular to 2.5 for ovarian cancer. We show that PRS have potential for risk stratification for cancers of breast, colon and prostate, but less so for others because of modest heritability and lower incidence.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 147, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients develop nephritis, which is among the most severe and frequent complications of the disease and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite intensive research, there are still no reliable lupus nephritis (LN) markers in clinical use that can assess renal damage and activity with a high sensitivity and specificity. To this end, the aim of this study was to identify new clinically relevant tissue-specific protein biomarkers and possible underlying molecular mechanisms associated with renal involvement in SLE, using mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. METHODS: Kidneys were harvested from female triple congenic B6.NZMsle1/sle2/sle3 lupus mice model, and the respective sex- and age-matched C57BL/6 control mice at 12, 24 and 36 weeks of age, representing pre-symptomatic, established and end-stage LN, respectively. Proteins were extracted from kidneys, purified, reduced, alkylated and digested by trypsin. Purified peptides were separated by liquid chromatography and analysed by high-resolution MS. Data were processed by the Progenesis QIp software, and functional annotation analysis was performed using DAVID bioinformatics resources. Immunofluorescence and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS methods were used to confirm prospective biomarkers in SLE mouse strains as well as human serum samples. RESULTS: Proteomic profiling of kidney tissues from SLE and control mice resulted in the identification of more than 3800 unique proteins. Pathway analysis revealed a number of dysregulated molecular pathways that may be mechanistically involved in renal pathology, including phagosome and proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation pathways. Proteomic analysis supported by human transcriptomic data and pathway analysis revealed Coronin-1A, Ubiquitin-like protein ISG15, and Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2, as potential LN biomarkers. These results were further validated in other SLE mouse strains using MRM-MS. Most importantly, experiments in humans showed that measurement of Coronin-1A in human sera using MRM-MS can segregate LN patients from SLE patients without nephritis with a high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings suggest that serum Coronin-1A may serve as a promising non-invasive biomarker for LN and, upon validation in larger cohorts, may be employed in the future as a screening test for renal disease in SLE patients.

9.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(9): e1378, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAA/D) represents a potentially lethal disease group characterized by an increased risk of dissection or rupture. Only a small percentage (approximately 30%) of individuals with nonsyndromic familial TAA/D have a pathogenic variant in one of the genes that have been found to be associated with the disease. METHODS: A targeted sequencing panel and direct sequencing approach were used to identify causative mutations in the index patients and other family members. RESULTS: In this study we report two apparently unrelated Cypriot families with nonsyndromic familial TAA/D. The proband A is a female patient diagnosed with TAA/D and intracranial aneurysm and opted for an elective intervention. The proband B is a male patient who was diagnosed with TAA/D and underwent cardiac surgery. Sequencing analysis identified a novel splice site variant (c.871+1G>A) in SMAD3 which is shown to be associated with the disease. Analysis of mRNA from the patient's tissue confirmed aberrant splicing and exon 6 skipping. CONCLUSION: Our findings expand the mutation spectrum of variants that have been shown to be associated with nonsyndromic familial TAA/D. This study demonstrates the importance of a comprehensive clinical and genetic evaluation aiming at early diagnosis and intervention.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9688, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546843

RESUMO

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2708-2716, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383162

RESUMO

Breast cancer risk is approximately twice as high in first-degree relatives of female breast cancer cases than in women in the general population. Less than half of this risk can be attributed to the currently known genetic risk factors. Recessive risk alleles represent a relatively underexplored explanation for the remainder of familial risk. To address this, we selected 19 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families in which at least three siblings were affected, while no first-degree relatives of the previous or following generation had breast cancer. Germline DNA from one of the siblings was subjected to exome sequencing, while all affected siblings were genotyped using SNP arrays to assess haplotype sharing and to calculate a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 160 low-risk variants. We found no convincing candidate recessive alleles among exome sequencing variants in genomic regions for which all three siblings shared two haplotypes. However, we found two families in which all affected siblings carried the CHEK2*1100delC. In addition, the average normalized PRS of the "recessive" family probands (0.81) was significantly higher than that in both general population cases (0.35, P = .026) and controls (P = .0004). These findings suggest that the familial aggregation is, at least in part, explained by a polygenic effect of common low-risk variants and rarer intermediate-risk variants, while we did not find evidence of a role for novel recessive risk alleles.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359158

RESUMO

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72,284 cases and 80,354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression, and a newly developed case-only method, for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history), and on average 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.

13.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 24(5): 309-317, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315557

RESUMO

Background: Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), also known as scleroderma, is an autoimmune rheumatic disease, which is clinically subdivided into two major subgroups; limited (lcSSc) and diffuse cutaneous scleroderma (dcSSc). Even though the SSc etiologies remains unclear, some HLA and non-HLA genetic variants have been associated with the disease. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the associations between several HLA-related genetic variants and SSc in the Greek-Cypriot population. Methods: Forty-one SSc patients and 164 controls were genotyped at 18 selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, Sanger sequencing, and a multiplex SNaPshot minisequencing assay. Logistic regression analysis under the log-additive model was used to evaluate all possible associations between these SNPs and SSc; nominal statistical significance was assumed at p < 0.05. Results: Associations of SSc with SNPs rs3117230, rs3128930, and rs3128965 within the HLA-DPB1 and HLA-DPB2 regions were observed in the Greek-Cypriot population at the level of p < 0.05. However, none of these associations survived a Bonferroni correction. The direction of the effect is consistent with the direction reported in previous studies. In addition, allele frequencies of the majority of the selected SNPs in the Greek-Cypriot population are similar to those reported in the European population. Conclusion: This study initiates the genetic investigation of SSc in the Greek-Cypriot population, a relatively small newly investigated population. Further investigation with a larger sample size and/or additional SSc susceptibility loci may confirm the association of some of these variants with SSc in the Greek-Cypriot population that could potentially be used for predictive testing.

14.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 8, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified 196 high confidence independent signals associated with breast cancer susceptibility. Variants within these signals frequently fall in distal regulatory DNA elements that control gene expression. RESULTS: We designed a Capture Hi-C array to enrich for chromatin interactions between the credible causal variants and target genes in six human mammary epithelial and breast cancer cell lines. We show that interacting regions are enriched for open chromatin, histone marks for active enhancers, and transcription factors relevant to breast biology. We exploit this comprehensive resource to identify candidate target genes at 139 independent breast cancer risk signals and explore the functional mechanism underlying altered risk at the 12q24 risk region. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the power of combining genetics, computational genomics, and molecular studies to rationalize the identification of key variants and candidate target genes at breast cancer GWAS signals.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
15.
Nat Genet ; 52(1): 56-73, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911677

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified breast cancer risk variants in over 150 genomic regions, but the mechanisms underlying risk remain largely unknown. These regions were explored by combining association analysis with in silico genomic feature annotations. We defined 205 independent risk-associated signals with the set of credible causal variants in each one. In parallel, we used a Bayesian approach (PAINTOR) that combines genetic association, linkage disequilibrium and enriched genomic features to determine variants with high posterior probabilities of being causal. Potentially causal variants were significantly over-represented in active gene regulatory regions and transcription factor binding sites. We applied our INQUSIT pipeline for prioritizing genes as targets of those potentially causal variants, using gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci), chromatin interaction and functional annotations. Known cancer drivers, transcription factors and genes in the developmental, apoptosis, immune system and DNA integrity checkpoint gene ontology pathways were over-represented among the highest-confidence target genes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(3): 295-304, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays a critical role in breast cancer development. Previous studies have identified DNA methylation marks in white blood cells as promising biomarkers for breast cancer. However, these studies were limited by low statistical power and potential biases. Using a new methodology, we investigated DNA methylation marks for their associations with breast cancer risk. METHODS: Statistical models were built to predict levels of DNA methylation marks using genetic data and DNA methylation data from HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1595). The prediction models were validated using data from the Women's Health Initiative (n = 883). We applied these models to genomewide association study (GWAS) data of 122 977 breast cancer patients and 105 974 controls to evaluate if the genetically predicted DNA methylation levels at CpG sites (CpGs) are associated with breast cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of the 62 938 CpG sites CpGs investigated, statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for 450 CpGs at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P less than 7.94 × 10-7, including 45 CpGs residing in 18 genomic regions, that have not previously been associated with breast cancer risk. Of the remaining 405 CpGs located within 500 kilobase flaking regions of 70 GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants, the associations for 11 CpGs were independent of GWAS-identified variants. Integrative analyses of genetic, DNA methylation, and gene expression data found that 38 CpGs may affect breast cancer risk through regulating expression of 21 genes. CONCLUSION: Our new methodology can identify novel DNA methylation biomarkers for breast cancer risk and can be applied to other diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Risco , Transcriptoma
17.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(1): 216-232, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous gene-environment interaction studies of breast cancer risk have provided sparse evidence of interactions. Using the largest available dataset to date, we performed a comprehensive assessment of potential effect modification of 205 common susceptibility variants by 13 established breast cancer risk factors, including replication of previously reported interactions. METHODS: Analyses were performed using 28 176 cases and 32 209 controls genotyped with iCOGS array and 44 109 cases and 48 145 controls genotyped using OncoArray from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Gene-environment interactions were assessed using unconditional logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen-receptor (ER) status. Bayesian false discovery probability was used to assess the noteworthiness of the meta-analysed array-specific interactions. RESULTS: Noteworthy evidence of interaction at ≤1% prior probability was observed for three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-risk factor pairs. SNP rs4442975 was associated with a greater reduction of risk of ER-positive breast cancer [odds ratio (OR)int = 0.85 (0.78-0.93), Pint = 2.8 x 10-4] and overall breast cancer [ORint = 0.85 (0.78-0.92), Pint = 7.4 x 10-5) in current users of estrogen-progesterone therapy compared with non-users. This finding was supported by replication using OncoArray data of the previously reported interaction between rs13387042 (r2 = 0.93 with rs4442975) and current estrogen-progesterone therapy for overall disease (Pint = 0.004). The two other interactions suggested stronger associations between SNP rs6596100 and ER-negative breast cancer with increasing parity and younger age at first birth. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study does not suggest strong effect modification of common breast cancer susceptibility variants by established risk factors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Fator XIII , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Fatores de Risco
18.
Vaccine ; 38(6): 1505-1512, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that vaccines save 2-3 million lives worldwide every year, a percentage of children are not getting appropriately vaccinated, thus leading to disease outbreaks. One of the major reasons of low vaccine uptake in Europe is vaccine hesitancy, contributing to the recent measles outbreaks. Monitoring of vaccine hesitancy is valuable in early identification of vaccine concerns. METHODS: We performed an eighteen country European survey on parents' attitudes and behaviors regarding their children's immunization. Parents having at least one child 1-4 years old were mostly recruited by primary care paediatricians to reply to a web-based questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed by the European Academy of Paediatrics Research in Ambulatory Setting Network steering committee, based on similar surveys. An individual level hesitancy score was constructed using the answers to 21 questions, and correlations of the score with socio-demographic characteristics and types of providers were explored. To assess inter country differences, a country level self -reported confidence was defined. RESULTS: Fifty six percent and 24% of 5736 respondents defined themselves as "not at all hesitant", and "somewhat hesitant", respectively. Parents who consulted general practitioners were more hesitant than parents who consulted pediatricians (p < 0.05). Consultation with homeopathists was associated with the highest reported hesitancy (p < 0.05). Vaccine confidence was highest in Portugal and Cyprus, and lowest in Bulgaria and Poland. CONCLUSION: The majority of parents in Europe believe in the importance of childhood vaccination. However, significant lack of confidence was found in certain European countries, highlighting the need for continuous monitoring, awareness and response plans. The possible influence of different types of healthcare providers on parental decisions demonstrated for the first time in our survey, calls for further research. Monitoring and continuous medical education efforts aimed mostly at those professionals who might not be likely to recommend vaccination are suggested.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 146(8): 2130-2138, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265136

RESUMO

A small number of circulating proteins have been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, with inconsistent results. Herein, we attempted to identify novel protein biomarkers for breast cancer via the integration of genomics and proteomics data. In the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European descendants, we evaluated the associations of the genetically predicted concentrations of >1,400 circulating proteins with breast cancer risk. We used data from a large-scale protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) analysis as our study instrument. Summary statistics for these pQTL variants related to breast cancer risk were obtained from the BCAC and used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for each protein using the inverse-variance weighted method. We identified 56 proteins significantly associated with breast cancer risk by instrumental analysis (false discovery rate <0.05). Of these, the concentrations of 32 were influenced by variants close to a breast cancer susceptibility locus (ABO, 9q34.2). Many of these proteins, such as insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 and other membrane receptors (OR: 0.82-1.18, p values: 6.96 × 10-4 -3.28 × 10-8 ), are linked to insulin resistance and estrogen receptor signaling pathways. Proteins identified at other loci include those involved in biological processes such as alcohol and lipid metabolism, proteolysis, apoptosis, immune regulation and cell motility and proliferation. Consistent associations were observed for 22 proteins in the UK Biobank data (p < 0.05). The study identifies potential novel biomarkers for breast cancer, but further investigation is needed to replicate our findings.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(4): 1117-1131, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional epidemiologic studies have evaluated associations between circulating lipid levels and breast cancer risk, but results have been inconsistent. As Mendelian randomization analyses may provide evidence for causal inference, we sought to evaluate potentially unbiased associations between breast cancer risk and four genetically predicted lipid traits. METHODS: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 164 discrete variants associated with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and total cholesterol. We used 162 of these unique variants to construct weighted genetic scores (wGSs) for a total of 101 424 breast cancer cases and 80 253 controls of European ancestry from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between per standard deviation increase in genetically predicted lipid traits and breast cancer risk. Additional Mendelian randomization analysis approaches and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess pleiotropy and instrument validity. RESULTS: Corresponding to approximately 15 mg/dL, one standard deviation increase in genetically predicted HDL-C was associated with a 12% increased breast cancer risk (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08-1.16). Findings were consistent after adjustment for breast cancer risk factors and were robust in several sensitivity analyses. Associations with genetically predicted triglycerides and total cholesterol were inconsistent, and no association for genetically predicted LDL-C was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides strong evidence that circulating HDL-C may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, whereas LDL-C may not be related to breast cancer risk.

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