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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394275

RESUMO

Outcomes for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with leukemia differ from other age groups and are still under-represented in clinical research. The aim of this study was to analyze outcomes of umbilical cord blood transplant (UCBT) in AYAs with acute leukemia reported to Eurocord/European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Patients (N = 504) had acute lymphoblastic (59%) or myeloid leukemia (41%), were aged 15 to 25 years, and received UCBT after myeloablative conditioning regimens between 2004 and 2016. The primary endpoint was 3-year overall survival (OS). Median follow-up was 3.9 years. Transplant was single in 58% and double UCBT in 42%. Three-year OS was 45% and leukemia free survival (LFS) was 41%. Cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and relapse were 31% and 28%, respectively. CIF of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades II to IV at day 100 was 28%. Three-year CIF of chronic GVHD was 25%. In adjusted analysis, better disease status at UCBT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.74; P < .001) and more recent UCBT (HR, 1.43; P = .01) were associated with increased OS, and a similar effect of these factors was observed on LFS. Contrastingly, the use of antithymocyte globulin had a negative effect in LFS. The risk of acute GVHD grades II to IV increased with the use of double UCBT (HR, 1.65; P  = .02) and decreased with more recent transplant period (HR, .65; P = .02) and antithymocyte globulin use (HR, .55; P  = .01). Outcomes of AYA UCBT improved in more recent years, becoming comparable with pediatric results. Demonstrating the feasibility of UCBT in AYAs facilitates stem cell source selection and provides the basis for future prospective studies.

2.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(9): 1786-1791, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082473

RESUMO

Gonadal impairment is an important late effect with a significant impact on quality of life of transplanted patients. The aim of this study was to compare gonadal function after busulfan (Bu) or treosulfan (Treo) conditioning regimens in pre- and postpubertal children. This retrospective, multicenter study included children transplanted in pediatric European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) centers between 1992 and 2012 who did not receive gonadotoxic chemoradiotherapy before the transplant. We evaluated 137 patients transplanted in 25 pediatric EBMT centers. Median age at transplant was 11.04 years (range, 5 to 18); 89 patients were boys and 48 girls. Eighty-nine patients were prepubertal at transplant and 48 postpubertal. One hundred eighteen children received Bu and 19 Treo. A higher proportion of girls treated with Treo in the prepubertal stage reached spontaneous puberty compared with those treated with Bu (P = .02). Spontaneous menarche was more frequent after Treo than after Bu (P < .001). Postpubertal boys and girls treated with Treo had significantly lower luteinizing hormone levels (P = .03 and P = .04, respectively) compared with the Bu group. Frequency of gonadal damage associated with Treo was significantly lower than that observed after Bu. These results need to be confirmed in a larger population.

4.
Endocr Connect ; 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The number of long-term survivors of childhood acute leukemia (AL) is substantially growing. These patients are at high risk for metabolic syndrome (MS), especially those who received total body irradiation (TBI). The consequences of children's irradiation on adipose tissue (AT) development in adulthood are currently unknown. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of TBI on AT of childhood AL survivors. DESIGN: We compared the morphological and functional characteristics of AT among survivors of childhood AL who developed MS and received (n= 12) or not (n=12) TBI. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Body fat distribution and ectopic fat stores (abdominal visceral and liver fat) were evaluated by DEXA, MRI and 1H-spectroscopy. Functional characteristics of subcutaneous AT were investigated by studying gene expression and pre-adipocyte differentiation in culture. RESULTS: Patients who have received TBI exhibited a lower BMI (minus 5 kg/m²) and a lower waist circumference (minus 14 cm), especially irradiated women. Despite the lower quantity of intra-abdominal AT, irradiated patient displayed a nearly two-fold greater content of liver fat when compared to non-irradiated patient (17 vs. 9%, p=0.008). These lipodystrophic-like features are supplemented by molecular abnormalities in subcutaneous AT of irradiated patients: decrease of gene expression of SREBP1 (minus 39%, p=0.01) and CIDEA (minus 36%, p=0.004), and a clear alteration of pre-adipocyte differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: These results strongly support the direct effect of irradiation on AT, especially in women, leading to specific non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, despite lower BMI. A long-term appropriate follow-up is necessary for these patients.

5.
Cancer ; 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve the quality of end-of-life (EOL) care depend on better knowledge of the care that children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer receive, including high-intensity EOL (HI-EOL) care. The objective was to assess the rates of HI-EOL care in this population and to determine patient- and hospital-related predictors of HI-EOL from the French national hospital database. METHODS: This was a population-based, retrospective study of a cohort of patients aged 0 to 25 years at the time of death who died at hospital as a result of cancer in France between 2014 and 2016. The primary outcome was HI-EOL care, defined as the occurrence of ≥1 chemotherapy session <14 days from death, receiving care in an intensive care unit ≥1 time, >1 emergency room admission, and >1 hospitalization in an acute care unit in the last 30 days of life. RESULTS: The study included 1899 individuals from 345 hospitals; 61.4% experienced HI-EOL care. HI-EOL was increased with social disadvantage (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.65; P = .028), hematological malignancies (AOR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.57-2.77; P < .001), complex chronic conditions (AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.23-2.09; P = .001) and care delivered in a specialty center (AOR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.22-2.36; P = .001). HI-EOL was reduced in cases of palliative care (AOR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.24-0.41; P < .001). CONCLUSION: A majority of children, adolescents, and young adults experience HI-EOL care. Several features (eg, social disadvantage, cancer diagnosis, complex chronic conditions, and specialty center care) were associated with HI-EOL care. These findings should now be discussed with patients, families, and professionals to define the optimal EOL.

6.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom ; 96(2): 128-133, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) low levels of minimal residual disease (MRD) after induction, essentially assessed in the bone marrow, have been shown to be of good prognosis. However, only few studies have tested the peripheral blood for MRD. METHODS: Here, we report the impact on survival of peripheral blood (PB) MRD assessment by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) at early time points of treatment in 125 B-ALL children, compared to Day 35 molecular bone marrow (BM) MRD. Patients were sampled for MFC one week postdiagnosis after a pre-phase of corticotherapy (Day 8), then after one week of chemotherapy (Day 15). The study enrolled 67 boys and 58 girls with a median follow-up of 52 months. Over the duration of the study, 20 patients relapsed and eight died. MFC was performed based on the leukemia-associated immunophenotype at diagnosis, using panels of 10 antibodies. RESULTS: Although, PB MFC-MRD had no prognostic impact at Day 8, Day 15 MRD negativity was associated with a significantly better 4 years DFS (91.6 ± 3% vs. 67.6 ± 9% P = 0.0013). Furthermore, while MFC and molecular data were concordant in most cases, patients with detectable PB MRD on Day 15, yet negative in BM on Day 35 had a significantly lower DFS (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the less invasive procedure of MFC-MRD assessment in PB can be informative for childhood ALL patients at the early point of Day 15 of the treatment schedule. © 2019 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

7.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(2): 171-181, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671780

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are associated in the definition of Evans syndrome (ES). The occurrence of neurological involvement in this population is poorly described and suggests an underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID). We aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, evolution, and PID profiles of these patients. METHODS: OBS'CEREVANCE is a French, nationwide prospective cohort that includes children with chronic ITP, AIHA, and ES. Patients with a neurological involvement were described. Centralized radiological and pathological reviews and genetic analyses were performed. RESULTS: On October 2016, eight patients (7/181 ES, 1/371 AIHA, and 0/615 ITP) were identified, all male, with a median age (range) at cytopenia onset of 11.5 years (1.6-15.8). Neurological symptoms appeared with a median delay of 6 years (2.5-18) after cytopenia and were polymorphic: seizures (n = 4), cranial nerve palsy (n = 2), Brown-Sequard syndrome (n = 2), intracranial pressure (n = 2), vertigo (n = 1), and/or sensory neuropathy (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed inflammatory lesions, confirmed by pathology for five patients with macrophagic or lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates. All patients had other relevant immunopathological manifestations: pulmonary nodules (n = 6), lymphoproliferation (n = 4), abnormal immunophenotype (n = 8), and hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 7). Treatment consisted of steroids that improved symptomatology and MRI. Five patients relapsed and three had an asymptomatic radiological progression. A PID was identified in 3/8 patients: 22q11.2 microdeletion (n = 1) and CTLA deficiency (n = 2). CONCLUSION: Neurological involvement is a rare and severe late event in the course of childhood ES, which can reveal an underlying PID. Imaging and pathology examination highlight a causative immune dysregulation that may guide targeted therapeutic strategies.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385256

RESUMO

We previously reported in a French prospective randomized study that transplantation of 2 unrelated cord blood (UCB) units instead of 1 unit does not decrease the risk of transplantation failure but may enhance alloreactivity. Here we evaluated the influence of pretransplantation minimal residual disease (MRD) on leukemia relapse and survival after single- versus double-UCB transplantation (UCBT). Among 137 children and young adults who underwent UCBT in this randomized study, 115 had available data on MRD assessment done immediately before initiation of the pretransplantation conditioning regimen. MRD was considered positive at a level of ≥10-4, which was the case of 43 out of 115 patients. Overall, the mean 3-year survival probability was 69.1 ± 4.4%, and it was not significantly influenced by the MRD level: 70.7 ± 5.4% in MRD-negative (<10-4) patients (n = 72), 71.1 ± 9.4% in MRD-positive patients with 10-4 ≤ MRD <10-3 (n = 26) and 58.8 ± 11.9% in MRD-positive patients with ≥10-3 (n = 17). In the MRD-positive group, the mean risk of relapse was significantly lower in the double-UCBT arm compared with the single-UCBT arm (10.5 ± 7.2% versus 41.7 ± 10.4%; P = .025) leading to a higher mean 3-year survival rate (82.6 ± 9.3% versus 53.6 ± 10.3%; P = .031). This difference was observed only in patients who had not received antithymocyte globulin during their conditioning regimen. In the MRD-negative group, there was no difference between the single- and the double-UCBT arms. We conclude that even in cases of positive pretransplantation MRD, UCBT in children and young adults with acute leukemia yields a high cure rate, and that a double-unit strategy may enhance the graft-versus-leukemia effect and survival in these patients.

9.
J Pediatr ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between medical and social environmental factors and the risk of repeating a grade in childhood leukemia survivors. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of childhood leukemia survivors, recruited through the LEA cohort (Leucémie de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent [French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study for Leukemia]) in 2014. An adjusted logistic regression model was used to identify variables linked to repeating a grade after the diagnosis among the survivors, and the rates of repeating a grade were compared between the survivors and their siblings using a multilevel logistic regression model. RESULTS: The mean age at inclusion of the 855 participants was 16.2 ± 7.0 years, and the mean duration of follow-up from diagnosis to evaluation was 10.2 ± 6.2 years. After disease onset, 244 patients (28.5%) repeated a grade, with a median interval of 4 years (IQR, 2-8 years). Independent factors associated with repeating a grade were male sex (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.21-2.60), adolescence (OR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.63-4.48), educational support during the treatment period (OR, 3.79; 95% CI, 2.45-5.88), low parental education level (OR, 2.493; 95% CI, 1.657-3.750), and household financial difficulties (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.607-4.28). Compared with siblings, survivors were at greater risk of repeating a grade (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.48-2.35). CONCLUSIONS: The most vulnerable patients seemed to be adolescents and those with parents of low socioeconomic status. Improving the schooling career of leukemia survivors will require that the medical community more carefully consider the social status of patients.

10.
Br J Haematol ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460979

RESUMO

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is still the only available curative option for Familial Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (FHLH). Most studies report outcomes after bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. We analysed the outcomes of 118 children with FHLH undergoing single-unit umbilical cord blood transplantation performed from 1996 to 2014. Myeloablative conditioning regimen was given to 90% of the patients, and was mostly busulfan-based (n = 81, 76%), including anti-thymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab (n = 102, 86%). The cumulative incidence of Day 60 neutrophil engraftment was 85%; and that of non-relapse mortality and acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) was 21% and 33% at 100 days, respectively. The 6-year cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was 17% and the 6-year probability of overall survival was 55%. In multivariate analysis, children receiving a graft with a total nucleated cell dose greater than 9·9 × 107 /kg had a better overall survival (hazard ratio [HR]: 0·49, 95% CI: 0·27-0·88, P = 0·02). Degree of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matching was associated with improved disease-free survival (5/6 vs. 6/6 HR: 2·11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1·01-4·4, P = 0·05 and ≤4/6 vs. 6/6, HR: 2·82, CI: 1·27-6·23, P = 0·01). Umbilical cord blood transplantation with a high cell dose and good HLA match is a suitable alternative option to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with FHLH who lack a HLA-matched donor.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292747

RESUMO

Cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (CALD) is a rapidly progressing, often fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, resulting in deficiency of ALD protein. Clinical benefit has been reported following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We conducted a large multicenter retrospective chart review to characterize the natural history of CALD, to describe outcomes after HSCT, and to identify predictors of treatment outcomes. Major functional disabilities (MFDs) were identified as having the most significant impact on patients' abilities to function independently and were used to assess HSCT outcome. Neurologic function score (NFS) and Loes magnetic resonance imaging score were assessed. Data were collected on 72 patients with CALD who did not undergo HSCT (untreated cohort) and on 65 patients who underwent transplantation (HSCT cohort) at 5 clinical sites. Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimates of 5-year overall survival (OS) from the time of CALD diagnosis were 55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.2% to 65.7%) for the untreated cohort and 78% (95% CI, 64% to 86.6%) for the HSCT cohort overall (P = .01). KM estimates of 2-year MFD-free survival for patients with gadolinium-enhanced lesions (GdE+) were 29% (95% CI, 11.7% to 48.2%) for untreated patients (n = 21). For patients who underwent HSCT with GdE+ at baseline, with an NFS ≤1 and Loes score of 0.5 to ≤9 (n = 27), the 2-year MFD-free survival was 84% (95% CI, 62.3% to 93.6%). Mortality rates post-HSCT were 8% (5 of 65) at 100 days and 18% (12 of 65) at 1 year, with disease progression (44%; 7 of 16) and infection (31%; 5 of 16) listed as the most common causes of death. Adverse events post-HSCT included infection (29%; 19 of 65), acute grade II-IV graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (31%; 18 of 58), and chronic GVHD (7%; 4 of 58). Eighteen percent of the patients (12 of 65) experienced engraftment failure after their first HSCT. Positive predictors of OS in the HSCT cohort may include donor-recipient HLA matching and lack of GVHD, and early disease treatment was predictive of MFD-free survival. GdE+ status is a strong predictor of disease progression in untreated patients. This study confirms HSCT as an effective treatment for CALD when performed early. We propose survival without MFDs as a relevant treatment goal, rather than solely assessing OS as an indicator of treatment success.

12.
Leukemia ; 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089916

RESUMO

Despite constant progress in prognostic risk stratification, children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) still relapse. Treatment failure and subsequent relapse have been attributed to acute myeloid leukemia-initiating cells (LSC), which harbor stem cell properties and are inherently chemoresistant. Although pediatric and adult AML represent two genetically very distinct diseases, we reasoned that common LSC gene expression programs are shared and consequently, the highly prognostic LSC17 signature score recently developed in adults may also be of clinical interest in childhood AML. Here, we demonstrated prognostic relevance of the LSC17 score in pediatric non-core-binding factor AML using Nanostring technology (ELAM02) and RNA-seq data from the NCI (TARGET-AML). AML were stratified by LSC17 quartile groups (lowest 25%, intermediate 50% and highest 25%) and children with low LSC17 score had significantly better event-free survival (EFS: HR = 3.35 (95%CI = 1.64-6.82), P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS: HR = 3.51 (95%CI = 1.38-8.92), P = 0.008) compared with patients with high LSC17 scores. More importantly, the high LSC17 score was an independent negative EFS and OS prognosticator determined by multivariate Cox model analysis (EFS: HR = 3.42 (95% CI = 1.63-7.16), P = 0.001; OS HR = 3.02 (95%CI = 1.16-7.85), P = 0.026). In conclusion, we have demonstrated the broad applicability of the LSC17 score in the clinical management of AML by extending its prognostic relevance to pediatric AML.

15.
Haematologica ; 103(6): 999-1007, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29567770

RESUMO

Signaling through the αßT cell receptor (TCR) is a crucial determinant of T-cell fate and can induce two opposite outcomes during thymocyte development: cell death or survival and differentiation. To date, the role played by T-cell receptor in the oncogenic transformation of developing T cells remains unclear. Here we show that human primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias expressing an αßT cell receptor are frequently deficient for phosphatase and tensin homolog protein (PTEN), and fail to respond strongly to T-cell receptor activation. Using Pten-deficient T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia mouse models, we confirm that T-cell receptor signaling is involved in leukemogenesis. We show that abrogation of T-cell receptor expression accelerated tumor onset, while enforced expression of a fit transgenic T-cell receptor led to the development of T-cell receptor-negative lymphoma and delayed tumorigenesis. We further demonstrate that pre-tumoral Pten-deficient thymocytes harboring fit T-cell receptors undergo early clonal deletion, thus preventing their malignant transformation, while cells with unfit T-cell receptors that should normally be deleted during positive selection, pass selection and develop T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias. Altogether, our data show that fit T-cell receptor signaling suppresses tumor development mediated by Pten loss-of-function and point towards a role of Pten in positive selection.

16.
Haematologica ; 103(7): 1143-1149, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599204

RESUMO

In this retrospective study, we evaluate long-term complications in nearly all ß-thalassemia-major patients who successfully received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in France. Ninety-nine patients were analyzed with a median age of 5.9 years at transplantation. The median duration of clinical follow up was 12 years. All conditioning regimens were myeloablative, most were based on busulfan combined with cyclophosphamide, and more than 90% of patients underwent a transplant from a matched sibling donor. After transplantation, 11% of patients developed thyroid dysfunction, 5% diabetes, and 2% heart failure. Hypogonadism was present in 56% of females and 14% of males. Female patients who went on to normal puberty after transplant were significantly younger at transplantation than those who experienced delayed puberty (median age 2.5 vs 8.7 years). Fertility was preserved in 9 of 27 females aged 20 years or older and 2 other patients became pregnant following oocyte donation. In addition to patient's age and higher serum ferritin levels at transplantation, time elapsed since transplant was significantly associated with decreased height growth in multivariate analysis. Weight growth increased after transplantation particularly in females, 36% of adults being overweight at last evaluation. A comprehensive long-term monitoring, especially of endocrine late effects, is required after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for thalassemia.

18.
Clin Immunol ; 188: 52-57, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330115

RESUMO

Evans syndrome (ES) is defined by the combination of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia. Clinical presentation includes manifestations of immune dysregulation, found in primary immune deficiencies, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome with FAS (ALPS-FAS), Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and Lipopolysaccharide-Responsive vesicle trafficking Beige-like and Anchor protein (LRBA) defects. We report the clinical history and genetic results of 18 children with ES after excluding ALPS-FAS. Thirteen had organomegaly, five lymphocytic infiltration of non-lymphoid organs, nine hypogammaglobulinemia and fifteen anomalies in lymphocyte phenotyping. Seven patients had genetic defects: three CTLA4 mutations (c.151C>T; c.109+1092_568-512del; c.110-2A>G) identified by Sanger sequencing and four revealed by Next Generation Sequencing: LRBA (c.2450+1C>T), STAT3 gain-of-function (c.2147C>T; c.2144C>T) and KRAS (c.37G>T). No feature emerged to distinguish patients with or without genetic diagnosis. Our data on pediatric-onset ES should prompt physicians to perform extensive screening for mutations in the growing pool of genes involved in primary immune deficiencies with autoimmunity.

19.
Blood Adv ; 2(1): 49-60, 2018 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344584

RESUMO

Leukodystrophies (LD) are devastating inherited disorders leading to rapid neurological deterioration and premature death. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can halt disease progression for selected LD. Cord blood is a common donor source for transplantation of these patients because it is rapidly available and can be used without full HLA matching. However, precise recommendations allowing care providers to identify patients who benefit from HSCT are lacking. In this study, we define risk factors and describe the early and late outcomes of 169 patients with globoid cell leukodystrophy, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and metachromatic leukodystrophy undergoing cord blood transplantation (CBT) at an European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation center or at Duke University Medical Center from 1996 to 2013. Factors associated with higher overall survival (OS) included presymptomatic status (77% vs 49%; P = .006), well-matched (≤1 HLA mismatch) CB units (71% vs 54%; P = .009), and performance status (PS) of >80 vs <60 or 60 to 80 (69% vs 32% and 55%, respectively; P = .003). For patients with PS≤60 (n = 20) or 60 to 80 (n = 24) pre-CBT, only 4 (9%) showed improvement. Of the survivors with PS >80 pre-CBT, 50% remained stable, 20% declined to 60 to 80, and 30% to <60. Overall, an encouraging OS was found for LD patients after CBT, especially for those who are presymptomatic before CBT and received adequately dosed grafts. Early identification and fast referral to a specialized center may lead to earlier treatment and, subsequently, to improved outcomes.

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