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1.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 9(11): 23259671211054804, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881338

RESUMO

Background: Differences in postoperative recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) between men and women have been demonstrated in the adult population. Sex-based differences have been incompletely investigated in adolescents, which represent the subpopulation most affected by ACL injury. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare the 6-month postoperative functional recovery after ACLR between adolescent boys and girls. It was hypothesized that significant differences in postoperative strength, dynamic balance, and functional hop test performance would be seen between the sexes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Included in this study were athletes aged 12 to 19 years with closed or closing growth plates who underwent ACLR with hamstring autograft between May 2014 and May 2018 at a single institution. All athletes had undergone strength and functional testing between 5 and 8 months postoperatively. Exclusion criteria were previous knee surgery (contralateral or ipsilateral knee), concomitant injury/surgery other than meniscal tear/repair, allograft supplementation, and incomplete medical records. The limb symmetry index (LSI) for strength (measured with handheld dynamometer), as well as dynamic Y-balance and functional hop test performance, was compared between groups. To account for differences in physical characteristics between the sexes, 1-way between-group multivariate analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. Results: Overall, 543 patients (211 boys, 332 girls) were included. There was no significant difference in age, body mass index, incidence of concomitant meniscal pathology, use of regional anesthesia, or time to functional testing between cohorts. Female athletes demonstrated a statistically significantly greater deficit in quadriceps strength LSI compared with male athletes (boys, +3.4%; girls, -2.3%; P = .011). Both male and female athletes demonstrated 33% hamstring strength deficits, with no statistically significant sex-based differences in dynamic balance or functional hop testing. Conclusion: Female athletes demonstrated greater quadriceps strength deficits than male athletes at 6 months after ACLR with hamstring autograft. Severe hamstring strength deficits persisted in both male and female patients at this time point. The correlation of such deficits to risk of ACL retear warrants continued study in the adolescent population and may support a delay in return to sports, which has been suggested in the more recent literature.

2.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 9(11): 23259671211046608, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778471

RESUMO

Background: The effect of concomitant meniscal tears, and their associated treatment, on strength and functional recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has not been adequately investigated in young populations. Hypothesis: Concomitant meniscal tears, treated with or without repair, would not adversely affect strength, balance, or functional hop test performance at 6 months postoperatively. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed return-to-sports (RTS) assessments prospectively collected 6 months after ACLR with hamstring autograft in 165 patients ≤25 years of age. Descriptive, surgical, and RTS testing data were analyzed, and subgroups were compared using analysis of covariance models designed to assess the effects of sex, meniscal tear, and meniscal repair on RTS performance. Results: Included were 115 female (70%) and 50 male (30%) patients with a mean age of 16.4 years (range, 12.3-25 years). Of these patients, 58% had concomitant meniscal tears (59% lateral, 27% medial, 14% lateral + medial), comprising 53% of the female and 70% of the male patients. The authors treated 61% of the tears with repair, with range of motion (ROM) and weightbearing limitations imposed within the first 6 weeks postoperatively, whereas 39% were treated with partial meniscectomy, rasping, or trephination (no ROM or weightbearing restrictions). The mean deficit in hamstring strength at 6 months postoperatively was significantly greater in the meniscal tear group than in those without a tear (32.3% vs 24.6%; P = .028). The meniscal repair group had greater hamstring strength deficits than the group with meniscectomy, rasping or trephination (34.3% vs 26.2%; P = .023). Performance on dynamic balance and functional hop tests was similar among all meniscus subgroups. There were no sex-based effects on any subgroup comparisons. Conclusion: At 6 months postoperatively, both young male and young female patients who underwent ACLR with hamstring autograft demonstrated significant hamstring strength deficits compared with their nonoperative leg. The presence of a meniscal tear and subsequent repair, or its related rehabilitation restrictions, appears to have adverse effects on the postoperative recovery of hamstring strength.

3.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 9(11): 23259671211052530, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778483

RESUMO

Background: Bridge-enhanced anterior cruciate ligament repair (BEAR) has noninferior patient-reported outcomes when compared with autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) at 2 years. However, the comparison of BEAR and autograft ACLR at earlier time points-including important outcomes such as resolution of knee pain and symptoms, recovery of strength, and return to sport-has not yet been reported. Hypothesis: It was hypothesized that the BEAR group would have higher outcomes on the International Knee Documentation Committee and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, as well as improved muscle strength, in the early postoperative period. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: A total of 100 patients aged 13 to 35 years with complete midsubstance anterior cruciate ligament injuries were randomized to receive a suture repair augmented with an extracellular matrix implant (n = 65) or an autograft ACLR (n = 35). Outcomes were assessed at time points up to 2 years postoperatively. Mixed-model repeated-measures analyses were used to compare BEAR and ACLR outcomes. Patients were unblinded after their 2-year visit. Results: Repeated-measures testing revealed a significant effect of group on the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Score (P = .015), most pronounced at 6 months after surgery (BEAR = 86 points vs ACLR = 78 points; P = .001). There was a significant effect of group on the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Symptoms subscale scores (P = .010), largely attributed to the higher BEAR scores at the 1-year postoperative time point (88 vs 82; P = .009). The effect of group on hamstring strength was significant in the repeated-measures analysis (P < .001), as well as at all postoperative time points (P < .001 for all comparisons). At 1 year after surgery, approximately 88% of the patients in the BEAR group and 76% of the ACLR group had been cleared for return to sport (P = .261). Conclusion: Patients undergoing the BEAR procedure had earlier resolution of symptoms and increased satisfaction about their knee function, as well as improved resolution of hamstring muscle strength throughout the 2-year follow-up period. Registration: NCT02664545 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).

4.
Am J Sports Med ; 49(14): 3833-3841, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance-based measurements of signal intensity have been used to track healing of surgically treated anterior cruciate ligaments (ACLs). However, it is unknown how the signal intensity values in different regions of the ligament or graft change during healing. HYPOTHESES: (1) Normalized signal intensity of the healing graft or repaired ACL is heterogeneous; (2) temporal changes in normalized signal intensity values differ among the tibial, middle, and femoral regions; and (3) there are no differences in regional normalized signal intensity values 2 years postoperatively among grafts, repaired ACLs, and contralateral native ACLs. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed from patients in a trial comparing ACL reconstruction (n = 35) with bridge-enhanced ACL repair (n = 65). The ACLs were segmented from images acquired at 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively and were partitioned into 3 sections along the longitudinal axis (femoral, middle, and tibial). Linear mixed modeling was used to compare location-specific differences in normalized ligament signal intensity among time points (6, 12, and 24 months) and groups (ACL reconstruction, repair, and contralateral native ACL). RESULTS: For grafts, the middle region had a higher mean normalized signal intensity when compared with the femoral region at all time points (P < .01) but compared with the tibial region only at 6 months (P < .01). For repaired ACLs, the middle region had a higher mean normalized signal intensity versus the femoral region at all time points (P < .01) but versus the tibial region only at 6 and 12 months (P < .04). From 6 to 24 months, the grafts showed the greatest reduction in normalized signal intensity in the femoral and middle regions (vs tibial regions; P < .01), while there were no regional differences in repaired ACLs. At 2 years after surgery, repaired ACLs had a lower normalized signal intensity in the tibial region as compared with reconstructed grafts and contralateral native ACLs (P < .01). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that graft remodeling is location specific. Repaired ACLs were more homogeneous, with lower or comparable normalized signal intensity values at 2 years as compared with the contralateral native ACL and reconstructed grafts.

5.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 41(9): e810-e815, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discoid meniscus is a congenital variant typically affecting the lateral meniscus of the knee. Historically, surgical intervention when symptomatic consisted of total meniscectomy; however, after degenerative changes were observed, current treatments now focus on rim preservation with arthroscopic saucerization and meniscal repair for instability, when indicated. The purpose of our study was to examine long-term patient-reported outcomes of lateral discoid meniscus (LDM) treated with meniscal-preserving techniques. METHODS: Ninety-eight patients treated arthroscopically for LDM at a single institution at a minimum of 15 years ago were retrospectively identified and contacted by mailers and telephone to participate. Subjective functional outcomes and patient satisfaction data were collected using a questionnaire that included the validated International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, Lysholm Score, Marx Activity Rating Scale, Tegner Activity Score, and Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Osteoarthritis Index. Patient and surgical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes were summarized by mean and SD, median and interquartile range (interquartile range), or frequency and percent, as appropriate. RESULTS: Of the 46 patients contacted (response rate of 46/98 eligible), 25 (54%) completed the questionnaires. The mean (±SD) age at initial surgery was 10.8 (±3.4) and 30.3 (±3.7) years at final follow-up. The mean (±SD) follow-up time from initial surgery was 19.5 (±2.8) years (range, 16 to 27). Patient-reported outcomes included: International Knee Documentation Committee 77.4±17.2, Lysholm 78.6±21, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index 7.6±11.3, Tegner Activity 7 (of 10), and Marx Activity Rating Scale 8 (of 10). Eleven (44%) cases underwent subsequent LDM-related surgery on the ipsilateral knee(s). There were no cases of total knee replacement. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, patient-reported outcomes were favorable at a minimum of 15-year follow-up after rim-preserving saucerization of LDM. While two thirds of patients were satisfied with their surgical outcomes, nearly half of patients underwent revision saucerization with or without meniscal repair. Subsequent long-term follow-up studies with objective outcome measures are important to further elucidate the natural history of LDM and understand how rim-preserving procedures may prevent the development of degenerative processes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV-case series, prognostic study.


Assuntos
Artroscopia , Menisco , Adolescente , Criança , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 41(8): 496-501, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discoid meniscus is a congenital variant, typically involving the lateral meniscus, that comprises a spectrum of meniscal shapes and degrees of instability in an estimated 1% to 15% of the population. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and operative course of a large cohort of children and adolescents patients with symptomatic lateral discoid meniscus. METHODS: Medical records of 470 knees with symptomatic lateral discoid meniscus in 401 patients ages 18 years or younger diagnosed at a single institution between 1991 and 2016 were reviewed retrospectively for patient characteristics, treatment course (nonoperative and/or operative), and complications. Surgical reports were reviewed in the operative group. RESULTS: The series included 401 patients of mean age 11.6 years (range: 1 mo-18.9 y), of which 222 (55%) were female, and 69 (17%) had bilateral involvement. Of 470 knees, 83 (18%) were initially managed nonoperatively. Of these, 32 knees (39%) failed nonoperative management and were converted to surgical treatment at a median of 7.9 months (interquartile range: 4.0-15.1). In total, 419 knees were managed surgically with saucerization (partial meniscectomy) with or without meniscal repair/stabilization; 84 knees (20%) required at least one concurrent nonmeniscal procedure. Discoid meniscus tears were reported in 264/419 knees (63%) intraoperatively; horizontal cleavage tears were most common. Reoperation was required for 66/379 cases (17%) with clinical follow-up, at a median of 19.6 months (range: 9.2-34.9) after index saucerization; 60/379 cases (16%) had ongoing pain and/or mechanical symptoms at final follow-up. CONCLUSION: With a failure rate of 39% (32/83 knees), nonoperative management for discoid lateral meniscus frequently convert to surgical treatment. During surgery, meniscus tearing and instability are common and should be anticipated. Postoperatively, 33% (126/379) of knees with clinical follow-up underwent either reoperation, or had ongoing symptoms of the knee at final follow-up. Discoid mensical retear is the most common complication (94%, 62/66) prompting repeat surgery, and should be discussed with families before the index operation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV-descriptive case series.


Assuntos
Artroscopia , Meniscos Tibiais , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Meniscos Tibiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Meniscos Tibiais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 41(9): e804-e809, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medial discoid meniscus (MDM) is an exceedingly rare anatomic abnormality that presents similarly to other meniscal pathologies. Symptomatic MDM is typically managed arthroscopically with mixed short-term and long-term outcomes, although the existing knowledge about MDM is limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the presentation and surgical treatment of MDM in pediatric and adolescent patients. METHODS: Medical records of 12 knees with MDM in 8 pediatric and adolescent patients treated between 1991 and 2016 were reviewed retrospectively for patient characteristics, clinical manifestations, radiographic findings, operative techniques, and surgical outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 446 knees diagnosed arthroscopically with discoid menisci, lateral discoid meniscus was noted in 434 knees (97.3%) and MDM was present in 12 knees (2.7%). The MDM series included 8 patients of mean age 13.8 years (range: 7.8 to 19.8), of which 5 were males (63%), and 4 (50%) had bilateral involvement. Of the 11 knees with available clinical records, all cases presented symptomatically (pain, mechanical symptoms); 10 (91%) had concurrent physical exam findings. On intraoperative examination, discoid morphologies were described as complete in 4/8 knees (50%) or incomplete in 4/8 (50%), with associated instability in 6/12 (50%). Meniscal tears were reported in 9 cases (75%)-primarily, horizontal cleavage tears. Saucerization was performed in 11 knees (92%), with medial meniscal repair in 7 (58%), when indicated. Retear of the medial meniscus occurred in 4/11 knees (36%) at a mean of 25.8 months postoperation; 2 knees required revisions. One knee developed arthrofibrosis and underwent arthroscopic lysis of adhesions. CONCLUSIONS: MDM is a rare diagnosis, representing 3% of all discoid menisci, with a nonspecific clinical manifestation. Operative management of symptomatic MDM typically involves saucerization and meniscal repair, when indicated, for concurrent tears. Symptom resolution is common short-term, but long-term outcomes include recurrent meniscal tears. Subsequent observational studies are important to evaluate long-term outcomes, such as arthritic changes, with the advancement of arthroscopic techniques for meniscal preservation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV-retrospective case series.


Assuntos
Artroscopia , Meniscos Tibiais , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Meniscos Tibiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Meniscos Tibiais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Sports Med ; : 3635465211008656, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growth disturbance is an uncommon but potentially serious complication after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in skeletally immature patients. PURPOSE: To describe how the pediatric ACL literature has assessed preoperative skeletal maturity and the amount of growth remaining and to comprehensively review the incidence, reporting, and monitoring of postoperative growth disturbance. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: This review included studies reporting original research of clinical outcomes of skeletally immature patients after ACL reconstruction. Patient characteristics, surgical techniques, preoperative assessments of skeletal maturity or growth remaining, and postoperative assessments of growth disturbances were extracted. RESULTS: A total of 100 studies met inclusion criteria. All studies reported chronological age, and 28 studies (28%) assessed skeletal age. A total of 44 studies (44%) used Tanner staging, and 12 studies (12%) obtained standing hip-to-ankle radiographs preoperatively. In total, 42 patients (2.1%) demonstrated a leg length discrepancy (LLD) >10 mm postoperatively, including 9 patients (0.5%) with LLD >20 mm; furthermore, 11 patients (0.6%) with LLD underwent growth modulation. Shortening was the most common deformity overall, but overgrowth was reported more frequently in patients who had undergone all-epiphyseal techniques. Most LLDs involved the femur (83%). A total of 26 patients (1.3%) demonstrated a postoperative angular deformity ≥5°, and 9 of these patients underwent growth modulation. The most common deformities were femoral valgus (41%), tibial recurvatum (33%), and tibial varus (22%). Although standing hip-to-ankle radiographs were the most common radiographic assessment of growth disturbance, most studies inadequately reported the clinical and radiographic methods of assessment for growth disturbance. Additionally, only 35% of studies explicitly followed patients to skeletal maturity. CONCLUSION: This systematic review described significant variability in the reporting and monitoring of growth-related complications after ACL reconstruction in skeletally immature patients. The incidence of LLD and angular deformity appeared to be low, but the quality of research was not comprehensive enough for accurate assessment. REGISTRATION: CRD42019136059 (PROSPERO).

9.
J Foot Ankle Surg ; 60(4): 706-711, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839009

RESUMO

This case series reports the outcome of posterior ankle decompression and os trigonum or Stieda process resection utilizing an open posterolateral approach in 54 professional, pre-professional, and dedicated recreational dancers. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon at the same facility between 2008 and 2018. The surgical technique is described in detail. Data related to results of the surgery were gathered via follow-up questionnaire and verified by referencing the patients' medical records. Outcomes were self-assessed in terms of categories ranging from excellent through moderate to poor. Eighty-nine percent of the dancers (N = 48 of 54) chose excellent or good, 11% (N = 6) chose moderate, and none selected poor. These results were compared with those achieved in 17 previous studies reporting the use of both open (posterolateral and posteromedial) and arthroscopic/endoscopic techniques in dancers. This comparison found similarly favorable reported outcomes, but also great variation in methodology for determining patient reported outcomes (PROs). While the preferred surgical technique for posterior ankle decompression remains controversial, the open posterolateral approach utilized in this series resulted in high expectation of return to dance with minimal complications. The need for a dancer-specific PRO tool is discussed.


Assuntos
Tálus , Tornozelo , Articulação do Tornozelo , Artroscopia , Descompressão , Endoscopia , Humanos
10.
Am J Sports Med ; 49(14): 4008-4017, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment options for pediatric and adolescent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries include early operative, delayed operative, and nonoperative management. Currently, there is a lack of consensus regarding the optimal treatment for these injuries. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose was to determine the optimal treatment strategy for ACL injuries in pediatric and adolescent patients. We hypothesized that (1) early ACL reconstruction results in fewer meniscal tears than delayed reconstruction but yields no difference in knee stability and (2) when compared with nonoperative management, any operative management results in fewer meniscal tears and cartilage injuries, greater knee stability, and higher return-to-sport rates. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: A systematic search of databases was performed including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Inclusion criteria were a pediatric and adolescent patient population (≤19 years old at surgery), the reporting of clinical outcomes after treatment of primary ACL injury, and original scientific research article. Exclusion criteria were revision ACL reconstruction, tibial spine avulsion fracture, case report or small case series (<5 patients), non-English language manuscripts, multiligamentous injuries, and nonclinical studies. RESULTS: A total of 30 studies containing 50 cohorts and representing 1176 patients met our criteria. With respect to nonoperative treatment, knee instability was observed in 20% to 100%, and return to preinjury level of sports ranged from 6% to 50% at final follow-up. Regarding operative treatment, meta-analysis results favored early ACL reconstruction over delayed reconstruction (>12 weeks) for the presence of any meniscal tear (odds ratio, 0.23; P = .006) and irreparable meniscal tear (odds ratio, 0.31; P = .001). Comparison of any side-to-side differences in KT-1000 arthrometer testing did not favor early or delayed ACL reconstruction in either continuous mean differences (P = .413) or proportion with difference ≥3 mm (P = .181). Return to preinjury level of competition rates for early and delayed ACL reconstruction ranged from 57% to 100%. CONCLUSION: Delaying ACL reconstruction in pediatric or adolescent patients for >12 weeks significantly increased the risk of meniscal injuries and irreparable meniscal tears; however, early and delayed operative treatment achieved satisfactory knee stability. Nonoperative management resulted in high rates of residual knee instability, increased risk of meniscal tears, and comparatively low rates of return to sports.

11.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 9(1): 2325967120979985, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33553459

RESUMO

Background: Small-diameter semitendinosus-gracilis tendon autografts may be encountered intraoperatively during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR); these have been shown to be at increased risk of graft rupture. One option that surgeons have pursued to reduce the theoretical failure rate of these smaller-diameter grafts is augmenting them with allograft material, thereby forming a larger-diameter hybrid autograft-allograft construct. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes in adolescent athletes of primary ACLR using a hybrid autologous hamstring tendon and soft tissue allograft construct versus ACLR using small-diameter hamstring tendon autograft. The hypothesis was that the hybrid hamstring autograft-allograft construct would provide superior short-term results. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 47 patients aged between 12 and 20 years who underwent hybrid graft ACLR (mean diameter, 9.1 mm) at a single institution. Electronic medical records including clinic notes, radiographic images, operative notes, and pathology reports were reviewed for study analysis. A control group of 64 patients who underwent small-diameter hamstring reconstruction (mean diameter, 7.1 mm) without allograft supplementation was compiled. Corresponding clinical, radiographic, and surgical characteristics were collected for the control group to allow for comparative analysis. Results: Mean follow-up was 2.7 years for the hybrid cohort and 2.3 years for the control group. Despite a significantly larger mean graft diameter in the hybrid group as compared with the control group (P < .001), no significant difference in retear rate was seen between cohorts (hybrid, 9%; control, 13%; P = .554). Patients with hybrid anterior cruciate ligament constructs also underwent a comparable number of reoperations overall (P = .838). Functionally, all patients with adequate follow-up returned to sports, with no significant difference in time to return to sports between the groups (P = .213). Radiographically, hybrid graft constructs did not undergo a significantly larger degree of tunnel lysis (P = .126). Conclusion: A cohort of adolescents with hybrid anterior cruciate ligament grafts was shown to have retear rates and overall clinical results comparable with those of a control group that received small-diameter hamstring tendon autografts alone.

12.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 9(1): 2325967120967125, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33457432

RESUMO

Background: Bipartite patella (BPP) is a developmental anomaly that forms when incomplete patellar ossification leaves a residual fibrocartilaginous synchondrosis between ossification centers. Repetitive traction forces across the synchondrosis can cause knee pain, most commonly presenting in adolescence. Symptoms frequently resolve with nonoperative management. Few surgical case series exist to guide treatment approaches for refractory pain. Purpose: To investigate the clinical features, surgical techniques, and outcomes associated with operative treatment of symptomatic BPP in pediatric and adolescent athletes and to compare features of the series with a large control group managed nonoperatively. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A retrospective medical record review was conducted of all patients aged ≤20 years who were diagnosed with symptomatic, radiologically confirmed BPP between 2003 and 2018 at a single tertiary-care pediatric hospital (N = 266). Demographic and clinical variables were analyzed, and additional radiologic and perioperative variables were collected for the surgical subcohort. Results: Of the 266 patients included, 27 were treated operatively (10.2%). When compared with those treated nonoperatively (with rest, physical therapy, cryotherapy, and anti-inflammatory medications), the operatively managed group experienced a longer duration of symptoms before first presentation (21.5 vs 7.6 months; P < .001) and were more likely to be older (mean age, 15.4 vs 12.4 years; P < .001), female (59.3% vs 35.6%; P = .03), and competitive athletes (100% vs 84.5%; P = .02). In the 27 patients treated operatively, procedures were categorized as isolated fragment excision (n = 9), fragment excision with lateral release (n = 8), isolated lateral release (n = 5), fragment screw fixation (n = 4), and synchondrosis drilling (n = 1). The mean time between surgery and return to sports was 2.2 months. Four patients (14.8%) reported residual symptoms requiring secondary surgery, including lateral release (n = 1), excision of residual fragment (n = 1), and fixation screw removal (n = 2). Conclusion: BPP can cause knee pain in adolescent athletes and is generally responsive to nonoperative treatment. Patients undergoing surgical treatment-most commonly female competitive athletes with prolonged symptoms-represented 10% of cases. A variety of surgical techniques may be effective, with a 15% risk of persistent or recurrent symptoms warranting reoperation. Prospective multicenter investigations are needed to identify optimal candidates for earlier interventions and the optimal operative treatment technique.

13.
Clin J Sport Med ; 31(3): 295-303, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of injuries sustained by young figure skaters who were evaluated at regional pediatric sports medicine clinics. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review (2003-2017). SETTING: Sports medicine clinics at a tertiary-level pediatric medical center. PATIENTS: Two hundred ninety-four figure skaters (271 female and 23 male). Age rage: 9 to 19 years. Mean age: 14.2 ± 2.3 years. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mechanism of injury (acute vs overuse), injured body areas, diagnoses for most commonly injured body areas, and distribution of bone stress injuries. RESULTS: Eight hundred sixty-four figure skating-related injuries were identified. Approximately 68.9% were overuse and 31.1% were acute. In female figure skaters, the most frequently injured body areas were foot/ankle (29.6%), knee (19.3%), and back (15.8%). In male figure skaters, they were foot/ankle (25.4%), hip (16.4%), and knee (14.9%). Most common diagnoses at these body areas were tendinopathy (foot/ankle), extensor mechanism (knee), and posterior column bone stress injuries (back). All injuries to anterior knee structures, excluding bone contusions, were categorized as extensor mechanism injuries. About 11.8% of all injuries were bone stress reactions/fractures with the majority occurring at the back (42.2%), foot/ankle (32.4%), and lower leg (15.7%). CONCLUSION: Most injuries sustained by figure skaters were overuse and occurred most commonly at the foot/ankle (29.6%), knee (19.3%), and back (15.8%). Approximately 1 in 10 injuries were bone stress reactions/fractures, and nearly 1 in every 3 skaters who presented with back pain was diagnosed with a posterior column bone stress injury. Health care providers who take care of young figure skaters need to maintain a high index of suspicion for overuse injuries, especially bone stress reactions/fractures.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos , Fraturas de Estresse , Patinação , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Patinação/lesões , Medicina Esportiva , Adulto Jovem
14.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 8(8): 2325967120941380, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923496

RESUMO

Background: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee is a relatively well-known condition, most commonly arising in the femoral condyle. Lesions arising in the tibial plateau are rarely described. Purpose: To present a case series of OCD lesions of the tibial plateau. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Medical records and diagnostic imaging of patients <20 years of age with confirmed diagnosis of OCD of the tibial plateau from a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Characteristic and radiographic features as well as details of both nonoperative and surgical management were investigated. Lesion characteristics and treatment outcomes were also analyzed. Results: A total of 9 lesions were identified in 9 patients (5 females, 4 males) who fit the inclusion criteria. The mean age at diagnosis was 14.2 years (range, 9-17 years). Knee pain (8/9) of longer than 1 year in duration was the most common presenting symptom. All 9 lesions were located on the lateral tibial plateau, and concomitant lateral compartment pathology was present in 5 of 9 patients (4 lateral femoral condyle OCDs, 3 lateral meniscal tears [1 discoid], and 1 discoid meniscus). Only 2 lesions were visible on initial radiographs; all 9 were visible on magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent initial nonoperative treatment; 2 patients demonstrated resolution of symptoms. Two patients underwent surgery for concomitant pathology, and the OCD was not addressed surgically. A total of 5 patients continued to be symptomatic after nonoperative treatment, prompting surgical intervention, which consisted of microfracture and chondroplasty in all 5 cases. A total of 2 of the 5 microfracture patients had resolution of symptoms, while another 2 patients had continued symptoms ultimately responsive to steroid injection treatment. One patient had revision microfracture, followed by autologous chondrocyte implantation and an arthroscopic lysis of adhesions. At final follow-up, ranging from 7 months to 10 years, 8 patients were asymptomatic, while 1 patient had developed early osteoarthritis. Conclusion: OCD of the tibial plateau in young patients is rare, usually involves the lateral side, and may have significant long-term implications for knee function. Presenting symptoms are often vague, and lesions may not always be visible on initial radiographs, which may lead to delayed treatment and adversely affect outcomes.

15.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 8(7): 2325967120927655, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656289

RESUMO

Background: A bridge-enhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair (BEAR) procedure places an extracellular matrix implant, combined with autologous whole blood, in the gap between the torn ends of the ligament at the time of suture repair to stimulate healing. Prior studies have suggested that white blood cell (WBC) and platelet concentrations significantly affect the healing of other musculoskeletal tissues. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to determine whether concentrations of various blood cell types placed into a bridging extracellular matrix implant at the time of ACL repair would have a significant effect on the healing ligament cross-sectional area or tissue organization (as measured by signal intensity). We hypothesized that patients with higher physiologic platelet and lower WBC counts would have improved healing of the ACL on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (higher cross-sectional area and/or lower signal intensity) 6 months after surgery. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 61 patients underwent MRI at 6 months after bridge-enhanced ACL repair as part of the BEAR II trial. The normalized signal intensity and average cross-sectional area of the healing ligament were measured from a magnetic resonance stack obtained using a gradient echo sequence. The results were stratified by sex, and univariate and multivariate regression analyses determined significant correlations between blood cell concentrations on these 2 magnetic resonance parameters. Results: In unadjusted analyses, older age and male sex were associated with greater healing ligament cross-sectional area (P < .04) but not signal intensity (P > .15). Adjusted multivariable analyses indicated that in female patients, a higher monocyte concentration correlated with a higher ACL cross-sectional area (ß = 1.01; P = .049). All other factors measured, including the physiologic concentration of platelets, neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, and immunoglobulin against bovine gelatin, were not significantly associated with either magnetic resonance parameter in either sex (P > .05 for all). Conclusion: Although older age, male sex, and monocyte concentration in female patients were associated with greater healing ligament cross-sectional area, signal intensity of the healing ligament was independent of these factors. Physiologic platelet concentration did not have any significant effect on cross-sectional area or signal intensity of the healing ACL at 6 months after bridge-enhanced ACL repair in this cohort. Given these findings, factors other than the physiologic platelet concentration and total WBC concentration may be more important in the rate and amount of ACL healing after bridge-enhanced ACL repair.

16.
Phys Ther Sport ; 44: 143-150, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the proportion of skeletally immature anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACLR) patients who achieve ≥90% of lower extremity recovery at 6-9 months post-operatively. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Biomechanical laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Skeletally immature ACLR patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Muscular strength (quadriceps, hamstrings, hip abductors, and hip extensors), dynamic balance (anterior reach, posteromedial reach, and posterolateral reach), and functional hops tests (single hop, triple hops, cross-over hops, and 6 m timed hops) were examined. The primary outcome variable was the proportion of the study patients whose limb symmetry index (LSI) were ≥90% during return to sport (RTS) tests. RESULTS: A total of 105 skeletally immature ACLR patients who are planning to return to sporting activities (age: 13.4 ± 1.4 years) were enrolled. The proportion of skeletally immature ACLR patients who achieved ≥90% of LSI in all four strength, three balance, and four hop tests were 20.0%, 65.4%, and 27.8%. In those who completed all test battery (72/105), only 4.2% of skeletally immature ACLR patients demonstrated ≥90% of LSI in all RTS tests. CONCLUSION: A small proportion of skeletally immature ACLR patients demonstrated ≥90% of lower extremity recovery approximately at 7 months following ACLR.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/reabilitação , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/métodos , Músculos Isquiossurais/fisiopatologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiopatologia , Volta ao Esporte/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Adolescente , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Am J Sports Med ; 48(8): 1900-1906, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The physeal-sparing iliotibial band (ITB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) is a well-established technique for treating skeletally immature patients with ACL rupture. However, the long-term implications of the procedure on the intricacies of kinetic and kinematic function of the knee have not been comprehensively investigated. PURPOSE: To assess the short-, mid-, and long-term effects of ITB ACLR on kinetic and kinematic parameters of knee functions. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: A total of 38 patients who had undergone an ITB ACLR as a skeletally immature child were recruited to participate in a 3-dimensional (3D) motion analysis testing protocol at an institutional injury prevention center between 1 and 20 years after reconstruction. Exclusion criteria were congenital ACL deficiency and any other major knee injury (defined as an injury requiring surgery or rehabilitation >3 months) on either knee. 3D and force plate parameters included in the analysis were knee moment, ground-reaction force, and vertical jump height measured during drop vertical jump and vertical single-limb hop. Paired t tests and equivalency analyses were used to compare the parameters between cases (ITB ACLR limb) and controls (contralateral/nonsurgical limbs). RESULTS: Paired t tests showed no statistically significant differences between limbs, and equivalency analyses confirmed equivalency between limbs for all tested outcome variables. CONCLUSION: The ITB ACLR appears to restore normal, symmetric, physiologic kinetic and kinematic function in the growing knee by 1 year after reconstruction, with maintenance of normal parameters for up to 20 years.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Traumatismos do Joelho , Adolescente , Adulto , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Traumatismos do Joelho/cirurgia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Tissue Eng Part A ; 26(13-14): 702-711, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589515

RESUMO

Background: While a sex effect on outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery has been previously documented, less is known following bridge-enhanced ACL repair (BEAR). We hypothesized that female sex would have significantly worse early functional outcomes and higher retear rates following primary repair of the ACL enhanced with a tissue-engineered scaffold. Methods: Sixty-five patients (28 males and 37 females), age 14-35 with a complete ACL tear underwent primary repair of the ACL enhanced with a tissue-engineered scaffold (bridge-enhanced ACL repair) within 45 days of injury. International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome (KOOS) scores, as well as instrumented anteroposterior (AP) laxity through KT-1000 testing and functional outcome measures were obtained at time points up to 2 years postoperatively and compared between males and females using mixed model repeated measures analyses and chi square tests. Results: There was no significant sex difference on the postoperative IKDC Subjective Score at 3, 6, 12, or 24 months or any of the five KOOS scores at 12 and 24 months. Instrumented AP laxity testing demonstrated mean (standard deviation) side-to-side differences that were similar in the two sexes at 2 years; 1.7 (2.7) mm and 1.5 (3.7) mm in females and males, respectively, p = 0.72. At 6 months postoperatively, males had a larger deficit in hamstring strength on the operated leg (14.0% vs. 1.7%; p = 0.03) and a larger deficit in quadriceps strength on the operated leg (11.3% vs. 2.0%; p = 0.004); however, no sex difference was noted at 12 or 24 months. Females demonstrated superior single leg hop testing at 6 and 12 months ([91.3% vs. 78.1%, p = 0.001], [96.9% vs. 87.0%, p = 0.01] respectively). There were no significant sex differences on ipsilateral (males; 14.3% vs. females; 13.9%, p = 1.00) or contralateral (males; 3.6% vs. females; 2.8%, p = 1.00) ACL reinjury rates. Conclusions: Female subjects had better hamstring and quadriceps strength indices at 6 months than males as well as better hop test results at the 6 and 12-month time period. Despite this, there was no significant sex difference on patient-reported outcomes and objective AP laxity testing at time points up to 2 years postoperatively. Impact statement This is the first study comparing sex specific outcomes following the bridge-enhanced ACL repair technique (BEAR). The results of this study suggest that females have earlier recovery of both muscle strength and functional outcomes compared to their male counterparts. This is an important finding when considering future modifications to postoperative care and rehabilitation in females and males following this tissue-engineered BEAR technique.


Assuntos
Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Feminino , Músculos Isquiossurais/cirurgia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil ; 2(3): e219-e228, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548587

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare postoperative pain scores and opioid use between patients undergoing a standard arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) using hamstring autograft with those undergoing a suture repair augmented with an extracellular matrix scaffold (bridge-enhanced ACL repair) performed through an arthrotomy and to determine factors predictive of postoperative opioid use and levels of overprescription. Methods: A nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted with 20 patients (10 ACLR, 10 bridge-enhanced ACL repair), aged 18 to 35 years. All surgeries were performed by a single surgeon. A pain medication log was provided to patients on discharge. No regional anesthesia was performed. Pain scores via a visual analog pain scale were recorded at each visit. Correlations between preoperative and intraoperative characteristics and postoperative opioid use were determined. Results: The total morphine-equivalent dose ranged from 30 to 309 mg (4-42 pills oxycodone) for the ACLR group and 75 to 254 mg (10-34 pills oxycodone) for the bridge-enhanced ACL repair group. The average opioid use per day was 35.8 mg for the patients undergoing bridge-enhanced ACL repair and 44.2 mg for patients undergoing ACLR (P = .29). Pain scores at time points up to 2 years postoperatively were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Across both groups, the average oversupply of oxycodone was 46 pills per patient, a greater than 70% unused opiate rate. Preoperative body mass index and preoperative Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores pain score were predictive of greater postoperative opioid use per day, whereas age, concurrent meniscal repair, and operative time were not. Conclusions: Total overall opiate intake was not different between the patients undergoing bridge-enhanced ACL repair through an arthrotomy and those undergoing arthroscopic ACLR. Both groups had similar pain scores from 2 weeks to 2 years postoperatively. Greater body mass index and greater preoperative pain (lower Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores pain score) correlated with greater postoperative opioid use per day. There was an overprescription of opioids across all patients. Level of Evidence: Level III, case control study (therapeutic).

20.
Am J Sports Med ; 48(6): 1305-1315, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies suggest that for complete midsubstance anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, a suture repair of the ACL augmented with a protein implant placed in the gap between the torn ends (bridge-enhanced ACL repair [BEAR]) may be a viable alternative to ACL reconstruction (ACLR). HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that patients treated with BEAR would have a noninferior patient-reported outcomes (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] Subjective Score; prespecified noninferiority margin, -11.5 points) and instrumented anteroposterior (AP) knee laxity (prespecified noninferiority margin, +2-mm side-to-side difference) and superior muscle strength at 2 years after surgery when compared with patients who underwent ACLR with autograft. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: One hundred patients (median age, 17 years; median preoperative Marx activity score, 16) with complete midsubstance ACL injuries were enrolled and underwent surgery within 45 days of injury. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either BEAR (n = 65) or autograft ACLR (n = 35 [33 with quadrupled semitendinosus-gracilis and 2 with bone-patellar tendon-bone]). Outcomes-including the IKDC Subjective Score, the side-to-side difference in instrumented AP knee laxity, and muscle strength-were assessed at 2 years by an independent examiner blinded to the procedure. Patients were unblinded after their 2-year visit. RESULTS: In total, 96% of the patients returned for 2-year follow-up. Noninferiority criteria were met for both the IKDC Subjective Score (BEAR, 88.9 points; ACLR, 84.8 points; mean difference, 4.1 points [95% CI, -1.5 to 9.7]) and the side-to-side difference in AP knee laxity (BEAR, 1.61 mm; ACLR, 1.77 mm; mean difference, -0.15 mm [95% CI, -1.48 to 1.17]). The BEAR group had a significantly higher mean hamstring muscle strength index than the ACLR group at 2 years (98.2% vs 63.2%; P < .001). In addition, 14% of the BEAR group and 6% of the ACLR group had a reinjury that required a second ipsilateral ACL surgical procedure (P = .32). Furthermore, the 8 patients who converted from BEAR to ACLR in the study period and returned for the 2-year postoperative visit had similar primary outcomes to patients who had a single ipsilateral ACL procedure. CONCLUSION: BEAR resulted in noninferior patient-reported outcomes and AP knee laxity and superior hamstring muscle strength when compared with autograft ACLR at 2-year follow-up in a young and active cohort. These promising results suggest that longer-term studies of this technique are justified. REGISTRATION: NCT02664545 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Adolescente , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/métodos , Autoenxertos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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