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1.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e031635, 2020 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152156

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Young people aged 16 to 24 have the highest prevalence of genital chlamydia and gonorrhoea compared with other age groups and re-infection rates following treatment are high. Long-term adverse health effects include subfertility and ectopic pregnancy, particularly among those with repeated infections. We developed the safetxt intervention delivered by text message to reduce sexually transmitted infection (STI) by increasing partner notification, condom use and (STI) testing among young people in the UK. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A single-blind randomised trial to reliably establish the effect of the safetxt intervention on chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection at 1 year. We will recruit 6250 people aged 16 to 24 years who have recently been diagnosed with chlamydia, gonorrhoea or non-specific urethritis from health services in the UK. Participants will be allocated to receive the safetxt intervention (text messages designed to promote safer sexual health behaviours) or to receive the control text messages (monthly messages asking participants about changes in contact details) by an automated remote online randomisation system. The primary outcome will be the cumulative incidence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection at 1 year assessed by nucleic acid amplification tests. Secondary outcomes include partner notification, correct treatment of infection, condom use and STI testing prior to sex with new partners. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from NHS Health Research Authority - London - Riverside Research Ethics Committee (REC reference: 15/LO/1665) and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. We will submit the results of the trial for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number: ISRCTN64390461. Registered on 17th March 2016. WHO trial registration data set available at: http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial2.aspx?TrialID=ISRCTN64390461. TRIAL PROTOCOL VERSION: 12, 19th July 2018.

2.
Addiction ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196796

RESUMO

AIMS: To estimate the strengths of associations between use of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and clusters of BCTs in behavioural smoking cessation interventions and comparators with smoking cessation rates. METHOD: Systematic review and meta-regression of biochemically verified smoking cessation rates on BCTs in interventions and comparators in randomised controlled trials, adjusting for a priori defined potential confounding variables, together with moderation analyses. Studies were drawn from the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register. Data were extracted from published and unpublished (i.e., obtained from study authors) study materials by two independent coders. Adequately described intervention (k = 143) and comparator (k = 92) groups were included in the analyses (N = 43992 participants). Using bivariate mixed-effects meta-regressions, while controlling for key a priori confounders, we regressed smoking cessation on a) three BCT groupings consistent with dual-process theory (i.e., associative, reflective motivational, and self-regulatory), b) 17 expert-derived BCT groupings (i.e., BCT taxonomy v1 clusters), and c) individual BCTs from the BCT taxonomy v1. RESULTS: Amongst person-delivered interventions, higher smoking cessation rates were predicted by BCTs targeting associative and self-regulatory processes (B = 0.034-0.041, p < .05), and by three individual BCTs (prompting commitment, social reward, identity associated with changed behaviour), Amongst written interventions, BCTs targeting taxonomy cluster 10a (rewards) predicted higher smoking cessation (B = 0.394, p < .05). Moderation effects were observed for nicotine dependence, mental health status, and mode of delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Amongst person-delivered behavioural smoking cessation interventions, specific behaviour change techniques and clusters of techniques are associated with higher success rates.

3.
Addiction ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043675

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine variability and effectiveness of interventions provided to comparator (control) groups in smoking cessation trials. METHODS: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioral interventions for smoking cessation, with or without stop-smoking medication. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register for RCTs with objective outcomes measured at ≥ 6 months. Study authors were contacted to obtain comprehensive descriptions of their comparator interventions. Meta-regression analyses examined the relationships of smoking cessation rates with stop-smoking medication and behavior change techniques. RESULTS: One hundred and four of 142 eligible comparator groups (n = 23 706) had complete data and were included in analyses. There was considerable variability in the number of behavior change techniques delivered [mean = 15.97, standard deviation (SD) = 13.54, range = 0-45] and the provision of smoking cessation medication (43% of groups received medication) throughout and within categories of comparator groups (e.g. usual care, brief advice). Higher smoking cessation rates were predicted by provision of medication [B = 0.334, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.030-0.638, P = 0.031] and number of behavior change techniques included (B = 0.020, 95% CI = 0.008-0.032, P < 0.001). Modelled cessation rates in comparator groups that received the most intensive support were 15 percentage points higher than those that received the least (23 versus 8%). CONCLUSIONS: Interventions delivered to comparator groups in smoking cessation randomized controlled trials vary considerably in content, and cessation rates are strongly predicted by stop-smoking medication and number of behavior change techniques delivered.

4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(3): 226, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066979
5.
Health Psychol Rev ; : 1-19, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906781

RESUMO

Despite its importance, underreporting of the active content of experimental and comparator interventions in published literature has not been previously examined for behavioural trials. We assessed completeness and variability in reporting in 142 randomised controlled trials of behavioural interventions for smoking cessation published between 1/1996 and 11/2015. Two coders reliably identified the potential active components of experimental and comparator interventions (activities targeting behaviours key to smoking cessation and qualifying as behaviour change techniques, BCTs) in published, and in unpublished materials obtained from study authors directly. Unpublished materials were obtained for 129/204 (63%) experimental and 93/142 (65%) comparator groups. For those, only 35% (1200/3403) of experimental and 26% (491/1891) of comparator BCTs could be identified in published materials. Reporting quality (#published BCTs/#total BCTs) varied considerably between trials and between groups within trials. Experimental (vs. comparator) interventions were better reported (B(SE) = 0.34 (0.11), p < .001). Unpublished materials were more often obtained for recent studies (B(SE) = 0.093 (0.03), p = .003) published in behavioural (vs. medical) journals (B(SE) = 1.03 (0.41), p = .012). This high variability in underreporting of active content compromises reader's ability to interpret the effects of individual trials, compare and explain intervention effects in evidence syntheses, and estimate the additional benefit of an experimental intervention in other settings.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936798

RESUMO

SELPHI involves two interventions: (A) It provides one HIV self-testing (HIVST) kit; (B) It offers 3-monthly repeat HIVST kits if participants report ongoing risk. A logic model underpinned by the Behaviour Change Wheel informed the design of the intervention. SELPHI recruited 10,135 cis-men and trans people in England and Wales, all reporting anal sex with a man. This paper explores how the interventions were experienced and the pathways to impact for different groups of trial participants. In-depth interviews with 37 cis-men who have sex with men (MSM) were used to inductively categorise participants based on sexual and HIV testing histories. Themes relating to intervention experiences and impacts were mapped onto SELPHI-hypothesised intermediate outcomes to consider intervention impacts. Three groups were identified: 'Inexperienced testers' engaged with SELPHI to overcome motivational and social and physical opportunity testing barriers. For 'pro self-testers', testing frequency was constrained by psychological and social barriers and lack of opportunity. 'Opportunistic adopters' engaged in HIVST for novelty and convenience. Perceived impacts for inexperienced testers were most closely aligned with the logic model, but for opportunistic adopters there was little evidence of impact. Distinctive groups were discernible with divergent intervention experiences. Using COM-B as a model for understanding behaviour change in relation to HIVST, our results indicate how HIVST interventions could be adapted to respond to different needs based on the target population's demographic and behavioural features.

7.
Br J Health Psychol ; 25(1): 39-60, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand whether interventions are effective, we need to know whether the interventions are delivered as planned (with fidelity) and engaged with. To measure fidelity and engagement effectively, high-quality measures are needed. We outline a five-step method which can be used to develop quality measures of fidelity and engagement for complex health interventions. We provide examples from a fidelity study conducted within an evaluation of an intervention aimed to increase independence in dementia. METHODS: We propose five steps that can be systematically used to develop fidelity checklists for researchers, providers, and participants to measure fidelity and engagement. These steps include the following: (1) reviewing previous measures, (2) analysing intervention components and developing a framework outlining the content of the intervention, (3) developing fidelity checklists and coding guidelines, (4) obtaining feedback about the content and wording of checklists and guidelines, and (5) piloting and refining checklists and coding guidelines to assess and improve reliability. RESULTS: Three fidelity checklists that can be used reliably were developed to measure fidelity of and engagement with, the Promoting Independence in Dementia (PRIDE) intervention. As these measures were designed to be used by researchers, providers, and participants, we developed two versions of the checklists: one for participants and one for researchers and providers. CONCLUSIONS: The five steps that we propose can be used to develop psychometrically robust and implementable measures of fidelity and engagement for complex health interventions that can be used by different target audiences. By considering quality when developing measures, we can be more confident in the interpretation of intervention outcomes drawn from fidelity and engagement studies. Statement of contribution What is already known on the subject? Fidelity and engagement can be measured using a range of methods, such as observation and self-report. Studies seldom report psychometric and implementation qualities of fidelity measures. What does this study add? A method for developing fidelity and engagement measures for complex health interventions. Guidance on how to consider quality when developing fidelity and engagement measures.

8.
Br J Health Psychol ; 25(1): 17-38, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Existing fidelity studies of physical activity interventions are limited in methodological quality and rigour, particularly those delivered by health care providers in clinical settings. The present study aimed to enhance and assess the fidelity of a walking intervention delivered by health care providers within general practice in line with the NIH Behavior Change Consortium treatment fidelity framework. DESIGN: Two practice nurses and six health care assistants delivered a theory-based walking intervention to 63 patients in their own practices. A cross-sectional mixed-methods study assessed fidelity related to treatment delivery and treatment receipt, from the perspectives of health care providers and patients. METHODS: All providers received training and demonstrated delivery competence prior to the trial. Delivery of intervention content was coded from audio-recordings using a standardized checklist. Qualitative interviews with 12 patients were conducted to assess patient perspectives of treatment receipt and analysed using framework analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 78% of intervention components were delivered as per the protocol (range 36-91%), with greater fidelity for components requiring active engagement from patients (e.g., completion of worksheets). The qualitative data highlighted differences in patients' comprehension of specific intervention components. Understanding of, and engagement with, motivational components aimed at improving self-efficacy was poorer than for volitional planning components. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of fidelity of delivery were demonstrated. However, patient-, provider-, and component-level factors impacted on treatment delivery and receipt. We recommend that methods for the enhancement and assessment of treatment fidelity are consistently implemented to enhance the rigour of physical activity intervention research. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Physical activity interventions delivered within primary care by health professionals have so far demonstrated limited impact on behaviour change initiation and maintenance. Treatment fidelity enhancement and assessment strategies can support the successful translation of behaviour change interventions into real-life settings. Few studies have examined treatment fidelity within the context of physical activity interventions, particularly within clinical settings, and existing fidelity studies are limited by methodological quality and rigour. What does this study add? High levels of fidelity were found for a physical activity intervention delivered in primary care. Patient-, provider-, and component-level factors may impact on treatment delivery and receipt. The implementation of best practice fidelity recommendations can support near-optimal fidelity.

9.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(1): 267-277, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927357

RESUMO

Engagement with digital behavior change interventions (DBCIs) is a potentially important mediator of effectiveness; however, we lack validated measures of engagement. This study describes (a) the development of a self-report scale that captures the purported behavioral and experiential facets of engagement and (b) the evaluation of its validity in a real-world setting. A deductive approach to item generation was taken. The sample consisted of adults in the UK who drink excessively, downloaded the freely available Drink Less app with the intention to reduce alcohol consumption, and completed the scale immediately after their first login. Five types of validity (i.e., construct, criterion, predictive, incremental, divergent) were examined using exploratory factor analysis, correlational analyses, and through regressing the number of subsequent logins in the next 14 days onto total scale scores. Cronbach's α was calculated to assess internal reliability. A 10-item scale assessing amount and depth of use, interest, enjoyment, and attention was generated. Of 5,460 eligible users, only 203 (3.7%) users completed the scale. Seven items were retained, and the scale was found to be unifactorial and internally reliable (α = 0.77). Divergent and criterion validity were not established. Total scale scores were not significantly associated with the number of subsequent logins (B = 0.02; 95% CI = -0.01 to 0.05; p = .14). Behavioral and experiential indicators of engagement with DBCIs may constitute a single dimension, but low response rates to engagement surveys embedded in DBCIs may make their use impracticable in real-world settings.

10.
Addict Behav ; 101: 106138, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between the use of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation and levels of alcohol consumption, high-risk drinking, and attempts to cut down alcohol consumption compared with use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or no aid. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of adults (≥16 years) in England. The sample included a total of 961 people who had quit smoking with the use of either e-cigarettes (n = 425), NRT (n = 116), or no aid (n = 421) within the past year and were still abstinent at the survey. Drinking behaviour was assessed with the AUDIT. RESULTS: Mean (SD) alcohol consumption among those who quit smoking with e-cigarettes, NRT, and no aid was 7.78 (13.41), 7.12 (13.85), and 5.55 (8.70) units/week, respectively. The prevalence of high-risk drinking was 43.3% (n = 184), 32.2% (n = 37), and 36.8% (n = 155), respectively. Among high-risk drinkers, the prevalence of attempts to cut down alcohol consumption was 22.3% (n = 41), 18.9% (n = 7), and 27.7% (n = 43), respectively. After adjustment for covariates, those who quit with e-cigarettes had significantly higher alcohol consumption than those who quit unaided (B = 1.69, 95%CI 0.21-3.17), but there was no significant difference relative to those who quit with NRT. Differences in high-risk drinking and attempts to cut down were not significant, but Bayes factors indicated the data were insensitive (range: 0.47-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Recent ex-smokers who used e-cigarettes to help them quit consumed around two more units of alcohol each week than those who quit unaided, but their alcohol consumption was similar to those who quit with NRT. Data on differences in high-risk drinking and attempts to cut down alcohol consumption among high-risk drinkers were inconclusive.

11.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 364, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interpreting data about intervention effectiveness requires an understanding of which intervention components were delivered and whether they were delivered as planned (fidelity of delivery). These studies aimed to develop a reliable measure for assessing fidelity of delivery of the Community Occupational Therapy in Dementia-UK intervention (COTiD-UK) (Study 1) and measure fidelity of delivery of COTiD-UK across sessions, sites and occupational therapists (Study 2). METHODS: The studies used a longitudinal observational design nested within a multi-site randomised controlled trial. Where practicable, all intervention sessions were audio-recorded. Fidelity checklists and coding guidelines were developed, piloted and refined until good agreement was achieved between two coders. Ten percent of sessions were purposively sampled from 12 sites and 31 occupational therapists. Transcripts were coded using checklists developed in Study 1; 10% of sets of intervention session transcripts were double coded to ensure that agreement was maintained. Percentages of components that were delivered were calculated for each session, site and occupational therapist. RESULTS: A reliable measure of fidelity of delivery for COTiD-UK was developed after several rounds of piloting and amendments. COTiD-UK was delivered with moderate fidelity across all six sessions (range: 52.4-75.5%). The mean range of fidelity varied across sites (26.7-91.2%) and occupational therapists (26.7-94.1%). CONCLUSIONS: A reliable, systematic method for measuring fidelity of delivery of COTiD-UK was developed and applied, and can be adapted for use in similar interventions. As COTiD-UK was delivered with moderate fidelity, there is a reasonable degree of confidence that intervention effects were attributable to COTiD-UK.

12.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(11): e16197, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The level and type of engagement with digital behavior change interventions (DBCIs) are likely to influence their effectiveness, but validated self-report measures of engagement are lacking. The DBCI Engagement Scale was designed to assess behavioral (ie, amount, depth of use) and experiential (ie, attention, interest, enjoyment) dimensions of engagement. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the DBCI Engagement Scale in users of a smartphone app for reducing alcohol consumption. METHODS: Participants (N=147) were UK-based, adult, excessive drinkers recruited via an online research platform. Participants downloaded the Drink Less app and completed the scale immediately after their first login in exchange for a financial reward. Criterion variables included the objectively recorded amount of use, depth of use, and subsequent login. Five types of validity (ie, construct, criterion, predictive, incremental, divergent) were examined in exploratory factor, correlational, and regression analyses. The Cronbach alpha was calculated to assess the scale's internal reliability. Covariates included motivation to reduce alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Responses on the DBCI Engagement Scale could be characterized in terms of two largely independent subscales related to experience and behavior. The experiential and behavioral subscales showed high (α=.78) and moderate (α=.45) internal reliability, respectively. Total scale scores predicted future behavioral engagement (ie, subsequent login) with and without adjusting for users' motivation to reduce alcohol consumption (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj]=1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.27; P=.01), which was driven by the experiential (ORadj=1.19; 95% CI 1.05-1.34; P=.006) but not the behavioral subscale. CONCLUSIONS: The DBCI Engagement Scale assesses behavioral and experiential aspects of engagement. The behavioral subscale may not be a valid indicator of behavioral engagement. The experiential subscale can predict subsequent behavioral engagement with an app for reducing alcohol consumption. Further refinements and validation of the scale in larger samples and across different DBCIs are needed.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581626

RESUMO

This study compared the 1-item Strength of Urges to Drink (SUTD) scale with the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) on (i) test-retest reliability, (ii) predictive validity, and (iii) diagnostic accuracy. Data come from 2960 participants taking part in the Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS), a monthly population survey of adults in England. The long-term test-retest reliability of the SUTD was 'fair', but lower than that for the AUDIT (Kappaweighted 0.24 versus 0.49). Individuals with "slight/moderate" urges to drink had higher odds of reporting an attempt to cut down relative to those not experiencing urges (adjusted odds ratios (AdjORs) 1.78 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-2.22 and 1.54 95% CI 1.20-1.96). Drinkers reporting "moderate/slight/strong" urges to drink had mean change in consumption scores which were 0.16 (95% CI -0.31 to -0.02), 0.40 (95% CI -0.56 to -0.24) and 0.37 (95% CI -0.69 to -0.05) units lower than those reporting no urges. For all outcomes, strong associations were found with AUDIT scores. The accuracy of the SUTD for discriminating between drinkers who did and did not reduce their consumption was 'acceptable', and similar to that for the AUDIT (ROCAUC 0.6). The AUDIT had better diagnostic accuracy in predicting change in alcohol consumption. The SUTD may be an efficient dynamic measure of urges to drink for population surveys and studies assessing the impact of alcohol-reduction interventions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e029252, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of, and sociodemographic and smoking-related characteristics associated with, long-term e-cigarette use compared with long-term nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective survey, the Smoking Toolkit Study, with baseline data collected between September 2014 and September 2016 and follow-ups at 6 and 12 months. SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: Population representative sample of 40 933 adults aged 16+ years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of long-term (≥12 months) use of e-cigarettes and NRT by retrospective self-report among baseline respondents (all adults, n=40 933; smokers, n=8406) and current use at baseline, 6 months and 12 months in a subsample of smokers who responded to follow-up (n=733). RESULTS: Of baseline respondents, 1.5% (95% CI 1.4% to 1.6%, n=604) of adults and 3.9% (95% CI 3.5% to 4.3%, n=327) of smokers were long-term e-cigarette users and 0.5% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.6%, n=205) of adults and 1.3% (95% CI 1.1% to 1.5%, n=112) of smokers were long-term NRT users. Assessed prospectively, 13.4% (95% CI 10.9% to 15.9%, n=100) of smokers were long-term e-cigarette users and 1.9% (95% CI 0.9% to 2.9%, n=14) were long-term NRT users. Among all adults, long-term use by never smokers of either e-cigarettes (0.1%, n=27) or NRT (0.0%, n=7) was rare. Among past-year smokers, long-term e-cigarette and NRT use was higher among older smokers compared with those who were 16-34 years old (OR range=1.55-5.21). Long-term e-cigarette use only was lower in smokers who were less educated (OR=0.63, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.81), from social grades C2DE (OR=0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.84) and with children in the household (OR=0.66, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.85). Long-term e-cigarette use and long-term NRT use were higher among smokers more motivated to quit (OR=2.05, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.60 and OR=2.33, 95% CI 1.57 to 3.46). CONCLUSIONS: In the adult population in England, long-term use of e-cigarettes and long-term use of NRT are almost exclusively by current or ex-smokers. Only a minority of past-year smokers retrospectively report long-term e-cigarette or NRT use, but this figure may be an underestimate, especially for e-cigarette use, which is more than threefold higher when assessed prospectively.

15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 689, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem in hospitals world-wide. Following other countries, English hospitals experienced outbreaks of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), a bacterial infection commonly resistant to last resort antibiotics. One way to improve CPE prevention, management and control is the production of guidelines, such as the CPE toolkit published by Public Health England in December 2013. The aim of this research was to investigate the implementation of the CPE toolkit and to identify barriers and facilitators to inform future policies. METHODS: Acute hospital trusts (N = 12) were purposively sampled based on their self-assessed CPE colonisation rates and time point of introducing local CPE action plans. Following maximum variation sampling, 44 interviews with hospital staff were conducted between April and August 2017 using a semi-structured topic guide based on the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation and Behaviour Model and the Theoretical Domains Framework, covering areas of influences on behaviour. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The national CPE toolkit was widely disseminated within infection prevention and control teams (IPCT), but awareness was rare among other hospital staff. Local plans, developed by IPCTs referring to the CPE toolkit while considering local circumstances, were in place in all hospitals. Implementation barriers included: shortage of isolation facilities for CPE patients, time pressures, and competing demands. Facilitators were within hospital and across-hospital collaborations and knowledge sharing, availability of dedicated IPCTs, leadership support and prioritisation of CPE as an important concern. Participants using the CPE toolkit had mixed views, appreciating its readability and clarity about patient management, but voicing concerns about the lack of transparency on the level of evidence and the practicality of implementation. They recommended regular updates, additional clarifications, tailored information and implementation guidance. CONCLUSIONS: There were problems with the awareness and implementation of the CPE toolkit and frontline staff saw room for improvement, identifying implementation barriers and facilitators. An updated CPE toolkit version should provide comprehensive and instructive guidance on evidence-based CPE prevention, management and control procedures and their implementation in a modular format with sections tailored to hospitals' CPE status and to different staff groups.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
16.
Addiction ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621131

RESUMO

AIMS: To provide up-to-date estimates of how changes in the prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in England have been associated with changes in smoking cessation activities and daily cigarette consumption among smokers in England. DESIGN: Time-series analysis of population trends. SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: Participants came from the Smoking Toolkit Study, which involves repeated, cross-sectional household surveys of individuals aged 16 years and older in England. Data were aggregated on approximately 1200 past-year smokers each quarter (total n = 50 498) between 2007 and 2017. MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence of e-cigarette use in current smokers was used to predict (a) prevalence of quit attempts among last-year smokers, (b) overall quit rates among last-year smokers and (c) mean cigarette consumption per day among current smokers. Prevalence of e-cigarette use during a quit attempt among last-year smokers was used to predict (a) quit success rate among last-year smokers and (b) overall quit rates among last-year smokers. FINDINGS: Overall quit rates increased by 0.054% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.032-0.076, P < 0.001] and 0.050% (95% CI = 0.031-0.069, P < 0.001) respectively for every 1% increase in the prevalence of e-cigarette use by smokers and e-cigarette use during a quit attempt. Quit success rates increased by 0.060% (95% CI = 0.043-0.078, P < 0.001) for every 1% increase in the prevalence of e-cigarette use during a quit attempt. No clear evidence was found for an association between e-cigarette use and either prevalence of quit attempt (BAdj = 0.011, 95% CI = -0.046 to 0.069, P = 0.698) or cigarette consumption (BAdj = 0.019, 95% CI = -0.043 to 0.082, P = 0.542). CONCLUSION: Changes in prevalence of e-cigarette use in England have been positively associated with the overall quit rates and quit success rates but not clearly associated with the prevalence of quit attempts and mean cigarette consumption.

17.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(10): e14098, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified psychological and smartphone app-related predictors of engagement with alcohol reduction apps at a group level. However, strategies to promote engagement need to be effective at the individual level. Evidence as to whether group-level predictors of engagement are also predictive for individuals is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether daily fluctuations in (1) the receipt of a reminder, (2) motivation to reduce alcohol, (3) perceived usefulness of the app, (4) alcohol consumption, and (5) perceived lack of time predicted within-person variability in the frequency and amount of engagement with an alcohol reduction app. METHODS: We conducted a series of observational N-of-1 studies. The predictor variables were measured twice daily for 28 days via ecological momentary assessments. The outcome variables were measured through automated recordings of the participants' app screen views. A total of nine London-based adults who drank alcohol excessively and were willing to set a reduction goal took part. Each participant's dataset was analyzed separately using generalized additive mixed models to derive incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for the within-person associations of the predictor and outcome variables. Debriefing interviews, analyzed using thematic analysis, were used to contextualize the findings. RESULTS: Predictors of the frequency and amount of engagement differed between individuals, and for the variables 'perceived usefulness of the app' and 'perceived lack of time', the direction of associations also differed between individuals. The most consistent predictors of within-person variability in the frequency of engagement were the receipt of a daily reminder (IRR=1.80-3.88; P<.05) and perceived usefulness of the app (IRR=0.82-1.42; P<.05). The most consistent predictors of within-person variability in the amount of engagement were motivation to reduce alcohol (IRR=1.67-3.45; P<.05) and perceived usefulness of the app (IRR=0.52-137.32; P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: The utility of the selected psychological and app-related variables in predicting the frequency and amount of engagement with an alcohol reduction app differed at the individual level. This highlights that key within-person associations may be masked in group-level designs and suggests that different strategies to promote engagement may be required for different individuals.

18.
Thorax ; 74(9): 875-881, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is believed that declines in smoking prevalence naturally slow over time as the smoking population 'hardens' and that progress has come primarily from reducing uptake rather than increasing cessation. To address these issues, we undertook the first formal attempt to model the trajectory of smoking prevalence and indices of uptake and cessation in Great Britain from 1973 to 2016. METHODS: Using data from the General Lifestyle Survey between 1973 and 2008, the Integrated Household Survey between 2009 and 2014 and the Annual Population Survey between 2015 and 2016, this study modelled year-on-year changes in smoking prevalence, ever-smoking in 18-24-year-olds as an index of uptake, and quit ratios as an index of cessation. RESULTS: For all three outcomes, changes over time were best fitted by what may be broadly characterised as 'S'-shaped curves: segmented functions characterised by initial rapid progress, a slowing or reversal, then renewed progress. Smoking prevalence in Great Britain showed a decelerating decline over time between 1973 and 2000, but then, after the introduction of the National 'Smoking Kills' tobacco control plan, the decline accelerated again and has remained nearly linear at -0.67 percentage points per year. Ever-smoking showed a decelerating decline which eventually ceased and began increasing around 1994 but then declined again after 2000. Quit ratios rose rapidly then slowed and then accelerated around 2000 and again more recently in 2013. CONCLUSION: Long-term trends in smoking prevalence, uptake and cessation have followed a broadly 'S'-shaped trend suggesting that they are responsive to major tobacco control initiatives. The decline in prevalence has resulted both from reductions in uptake and increases in cessation.

19.
Internet Interv ; 17: 100241, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372349

RESUMO

Background: Digital health interventions have potential to contribute to better health outcomes, better healthcare and lower costs. However, evidence for their effectiveness is variable. The development and content of digital health interventions are often not described in enough detail to enable others to replicate the research or improve on previous interventions. This has led to a call for transparent reporting of intervention content and development. Purpose: To describe the development process and content of a digital self-management intervention for people with type 2 diabetes (HeLP-Diabetes) that has been found to achieve its target clinical outcome, the reduction of HbA1c, a measure of glycaemic control. Method: We synthesised theory, data from existing research evidence and international guidelines, and new qualitative data from target users to identify the determinants of self-management and the content to be included in HeLP-Diabetes. Using an ongoing iterative participatory design approach the content of the intervention was written, produced, reviewed and changed. Conclusion: It is possible to develop and transparently report self-management programmes for long-term conditions, which reflect current best evidence, theoretical underpinning and user involvement. We intend that reporting the development process and content will inform future digital intervention development.

20.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e030933, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434784

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In low/middle-income countries (LMICs), the prevalence of people diagnosed with dementia is expected to increase substantially and treatment options are limited, with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors not used as frequently as in high-income countries (HICs). Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) is a group-based, brief, non-pharmacological intervention for people with dementia that significantly improves cognition and quality of life in clinical trials and is cost-effective in HIC. However, its implementation in other countries is less researched. This protocol describes CST-International; an implementation research study of CST. The aim of this research is to develop, test, refine and disseminate implementation strategies for CST for people with mild to moderate dementia in three LMICs: Brazil (upper middle-income), India (lower middle-income) and Tanzania (low-income). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Four overlapping phases: (1) exploration of barriers to implementation in each country using meetings with stakeholders, including clinicians, policymakers, people with dementia and their families; (2) development of implementation plans for each country; (3) evaluation of implementation plans using a study of CST in each country (n=50, total n=150). Outcomes will include adherence, attendance, acceptability and attrition, agreed parameters of success, outcomes (cognition, quality of life, activities of daily living) and cost/affordability; (4) refinement and dissemination of implementation strategies, enabling ongoing pathways to practice which address barriers and facilitators to implementation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted for each country. There are no documented adverse effects associated with CST and data held will be in accordance with relevant legislation. Train the trainer models will be developed to increase CST provision in each country and policymakers/governmental bodies will be continually engaged with to aid successful implementation. Findings will be disseminated at conferences, in peer-reviewed articles and newsletters, in collaboration with Alzheimer's Disease International, and via ongoing engagement with key policymakers.

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