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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270421

RESUMO

We aim to identify influences on UK citizens' household food waste recycling as a basis for designing strategies to increase household food waste collection rates via local services. Using a UK dataset (n = 1801) and the COM-B (Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour) model as a theoretical framework, we conduct quantitative regression and supporting thematic analyses to investigate influences on citizens' recycling of food waste. Results show that automatic motivation (e.g., emotions and habit) and psychological capability (e.g., knowledge) predict household food waste recycling. Physical opportunity (i.e., dealing with food waste in other ways such as home-composting or feeding pets/strays, time and financial costs) was the main barrier to recycling food waste identified in thematic analyses. Participants also reported automatic motivation-related barriers such as concerns over pests, odour, hygiene and local authorities' food waste collection capabilities. Based on findings we recommend the development of clear, consistent communications aimed at creating positive social norms relating to recycling and increasing knowledge of what can and cannot be put in food waste bins. Improved functional design and free distribution of bins and compostable caddy liners developed according to user-centred needs for cleanliness, convenience and hygiene are also needed. These will not be sufficient without a nationally uniform, efficient and reliable system of household food waste collection.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Alimentos , Humanos , Motivação , Reciclagem/métodos , Reino Unido , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e056348, 2022 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35338063

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The inappropriate use of antibiotics is a key driver of antimicrobial resistance. In China, antibiotic prescribing and consumption exceed recommended levels and are relatively high internationally. Understanding the influences on antibiotic use is essential to informing effective evidence-based interventions. We conducted a scoping review to obtain an overview of empirical research about key behavioural, cultural, economic and social influences on antibiotic use in China. METHODS: Searches were conducted in Econlit, Medline, PsycINFO, Social Science citation index and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for the period 2003 to early 2018. All study types were eligible including observational and intervention, qualitative and quantitative designs based in community and clinical settings. Two authors independently screened studies for inclusion. A data extraction form was developed incorporating details on study design, behaviour related to antibiotic use, influences on behaviour and information on effect (intervention studies only). RESULTS: Intervention studies increased markedly from 2014, and largely focused on the impact of national policy and practice directives on antibiotic use in secondary and tertiary healthcare contexts in China. Most studies used pragmatic designs, such as before and after comparisons. Influences on antibiotic use clustered under four themes: antibiotic prescribing; adherence to antibiotics; self-medicating behaviour and over-the-counter sale of antibiotics. Many studies highlighted the use of antibiotics without a prescription for common infections, which was facilitated by availability of left-over medicines and procurement from local pharmacies. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions aimed at modifying antibiotic prescribing behaviour show evidence of positive impact, but further research using more robust research designs, such as randomised trials, and incorporating process evaluations is required to better assess outcomes. The effect of national policy at the primary healthcare level needs to be evaluated and further exploration of the influences on antibiotic self-medicating is required to develop interventions that tackle this behaviour.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Bacterianas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , China , Humanos
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 475, 2022 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35272652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behaviour is key to suppressing the COVID-19 pandemic. Maintaining behaviour change can be difficult. We investigated engagement with hand cleaning, reducing the number of outings, and wearing a face covering over the course of the pandemic. METHODS: We used a series of 64 cross-sectional surveys between 10 February 2020 and 20 January 2022 (n ≈ 2000 per wave). Surveys investigated uptake of hand cleaning behaviours, out of home activity (England only, n ≈ 1700 per wave) and wearing a face covering (England only, restricted to those who reported going out shopping in the last week, n ≈ 1400 per wave). RESULTS: Reported hand cleaning has been high throughout the pandemic period (85 to 90% of participants consistently reporting washing their hands thoroughly and regularly with soap and water frequently or very frequently). Out of home activity has mirrored the easing and re-introduction of restrictive measures. Total number of outings were higher in the second national lockdown than in the first and third lockdowns. Wearing a face covering increased steadily between April to August 2020, plateauing until the end of measurement in May 2021, with approximately 80% of those who had been out shopping in the previous week reporting wearing a face covering frequently or very frequently. CONCLUSIONS: Engagement with protective behaviours increased at the start of the pandemic and has remained high since. The greatest variations in behaviour reflected changes to Government rules. Despite the duration of restrictions, people have continued to adopt personal protective behaviours that were intended to prevent the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
4.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266232

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The UK low-risk drinking guidelines were revised in 2016. Drinkers were primarily informed about the guidelines via news media, but little is known about this coverage. This study investigated the scale and content of print and online textual news media coverage of drinking guidelines in England from February 2014 to October 2017. METHODS: We searched the Nexis database and two leading broadcasters' websites (BBC and Sky) for articles mentioning the guidelines. We randomly selected 500 articles to code for reporting date, accuracy, tone, context and purpose of mentioning the guidelines, and among these, thematically analysed 200 randomly selected articles. RESULTS: Articles mentioned the guidelines regularly. Reporting peaked when the guidelines revision was announced (7.4% of articles). The most common type of mention was within health- or alcohol-related articles and neutral in tone (70.8%). The second most common was in articles discussing the guidelines' strengths and weaknesses, which were typically negative (14.8%). Critics discredited the guidelines' scientific basis by highlighting conflicting evidence and arguing that guideline developers acted politically. They also questioned the ethics of limiting personal autonomy to improve public health. Criticisms were partially facilitated by announcing the guidelines alongside a 'no safe level of drinking' message, and wider discourse misrepresenting the guidelines as rules, and highlighting apparent inconsistencies with standalone scientific papers and international guidelines. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: News media generally covered drinking guidelines in a neutral and accurate manner, but in-depth coverage was often negative and sought to discredit the guidelines using scientific and ethical arguments.

7.
Trials ; 23(1): 142, 2022 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute low back pain is a common condition, has high burden, and there are evidence-to-practice gaps in the chiropractic and physiotherapy setting for imaging and giving advice to stay active. The aim of this cluster randomised trial was to estimate the effects of a theory- and evidence-based implementation intervention to increase chiropractors' and physiotherapists' adherence to a guideline for acute low back pain compared with the comparator (passive dissemination of the guideline). In particular, the primary aim of the intervention was to reduce inappropriate imaging referral and improve patient low back pain outcomes, and to determine whether this intervention was cost-effective. METHODS: Physiotherapy and chiropractic practices in the state of Victoria, Australia, comprising at least one practising clinician who provided care to patients with acute low back pain, were invited to participate. Patients attending these practices were included if they had acute non-specific low back pain (duration less than 3 months), were 18 years of age or older, and were able to understand and read English. Practices were randomly assigned either to a tailored, multi-faceted intervention based on the guideline (interactive educational symposium plus academic detailing) or passive dissemination of the guideline (comparator). A statistician independent of the study team undertook stratified randomisation using computer-generated random numbers; four strata were defined by professional group and the rural or metropolitan location of the practice. Investigators not involved in intervention delivery were blinded to allocation. Primary outcomes were X-ray referral self-reported by clinicians using a checklist and patient low back pain-specific disability (at 3 months). RESULTS: A total of 104 practices (43 chiropractors, 85 physiotherapists; 755 patients) were assigned to the intervention and 106 practices (45 chiropractors, 97 physiotherapists; 603 patients) to the comparator; 449 patients were available for the patient-level primary outcome. There was no important difference in the odds of patients being referred for X-ray (adjusted (Adj) OR: 1.40; 95% CI 0.51, 3.87; Adj risk difference (RD): 0.01; 95% CI - 0.02, 0.04) or patient low back pain-specific disability (Adj mean difference: 0.37; 95% CI - 0.48, 1.21, scale 0-24). The intervention did lead to improvement for some key secondary outcomes, including giving advice to stay active (Adj OR: 1.96; 95% CI 1.20, 3.22; Adj RD: 0.10; 95% CI 0.01, 0.19) and intending to adhere to the guideline recommendations (e.g. intention to refer for X-ray: Adj OR: 0.27; 95% CI 0.17, 0.44; intention to give advice to stay active: Adj OR: 2.37; 95% CI 1.51, 3.74). CONCLUSIONS: Intervention group clinicians were more likely to give advice to stay active and to intend to adhere to the guideline recommendations about X-ray referral. The intervention did not change the primary study outcomes, with no important differences in X-ray referral and patient disability between groups, implying that hypothesised reductions in health service utilisation and/or productivity gains are unlikely to offset the direct costs of the intervention. We report these results with the caveat that we enrolled less patients into the trial than our determined sample size. We cannot recommend this intervention as a cost-effective use of resources. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609001022257 . Retrospectively registered on 25 November 2009.


Assuntos
Quiroprática , Dor Lombar , Fisioterapeutas , Adolescente , Adulto , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/terapia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Vitória
8.
Health Policy ; 126(3): 234-244, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35140018

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has shone a light on the complex relationship between science and policy. Policymakers have had to make decisions at speed in conditions of uncertainty, implementing policies that have had profound consequences for people's lives. Yet this process has sometimes been characterised by fragmentation, opacity and a disconnect between evidence and policy. In the United Kingdom, concerns about the secrecy that initially surrounded this process led to the creation of Independent SAGE, an unofficial group of scientists from different disciplines that came together to ask policy-relevant questions, review the evolving evidence, and make evidence-based recommendations. The group took a public health approach with a population perspective, worked in a holistic transdisciplinary way, and were committed to public engagement. In this paper, we review the lessons learned during its first year. These include the importance of learning from local expertise, the value of learning from other countries, the role of civil society as a critical friend to government, finding appropriate relationships between science and policy, and recognising the necessity of viewing issues through an equity lens.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Comunicação , Emergências , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e058060, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35144956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate uptake of lateral flow testing, reporting of test results and psychological, contextual and socio-demographic factors associated with testing. DESIGN: A series of four fortnightly online cross-sectional surveys. SETTING: Data collected from 19 April 2021 to 2 June 2021. PARTICIPANTS: People living in England and Scotland, aged 18 years or over, excluding those who reported their most recent test was a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test (n=6646, n≈1600 per survey). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Having completed at least one lateral flow test (LFT) in the last 7 days. RESULTS: We used binary logistic regressions to investigate factors associated with having taken at least one LFT. Increased uptake of testing was associated with being vaccinated (adjusted ORs (aORs)=1.52-2.45, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.07, analysed separately by vaccine dose), employed (aOR=1.94, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.32), having been out to work in the last week (aOR=2.30, 95% CI 1.94 to 2.73) and working in a sector that adopted LFT early (aOR=2.54, 95% CI 2.14 to 3.02) . Uptake was higher in people who reported cardinal COVID-19 symptoms in the last week (aOR=1.89, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.66). People who had heard more about LFTs (aOR=2.28, 95% CI 2.06 to 2.51) and knew they were eligible to receive regular LFTs (aOR=2.98, 95% CI 2.35 to 3.78) were also more likely to have tested. Factors associated with not taking a test included agreeing that you do not need to test for COVID-19 unless you have come into contact with a case (aOR=0.51, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.55). CONCLUSIONS: Uptake of lateral flow testing is low. Encouraging testing through workplaces and places of study is likely to increase uptake, although care should be taken not to pressurise employees and students. Increasing knowledge that everyone is eligible for regular asymptomatic testing and addressing common misconceptions may drive uptake.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido
10.
Prev Med Rep ; 25: 101686, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34976599

RESUMO

We aimed to describe worry and uptake of behaviours that prevent the spread of infection (respiratory and hand hygiene, distancing) in the UK at the start of the COVID-19 outbreak (January and February 2020) and to investigate factors associated with worry and adopting protective behaviours. Three cross-sectional online surveys of UK adults (28 to 30 January, n = 2016; 3 to 6 February, n = 2002; 10 to 13 February 2020, n = 2006) were conducted. We used logistic regressions to investigate associations between outcome measures (worry, respiratory and hand hygiene behaviour, distancing behaviour) and explanatory variables. 19.8% of participants (95% CI 18.8% to 20.8%) were very or extremely worried about COVID-19. People from minoritized ethnic groups were particularly likely to feel worried. 39.9% of participants (95% CI 37.7% to 42.0%) had completed one or more hand or respiratory hygiene behaviour more than usual in the last seven days. Uptake was associated with greater worry, perceived effectiveness of individual behaviours, self-efficacy for engaging in them, and having heard more information about COVID-19. 13.7% (95% CI 12.2% to 15.2%) had reduced the number of people they had met. This was associated with greater worry, perceived effectiveness, and self-efficacy. At the start of novel infectious disease outbreaks, communications should emphasise perceived effectiveness of behaviours and the ease with which they can be carried out.

11.
HIV Med ; 23(3): 237-248, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Late HIV diagnosis increases the risks of onward transmission, morbidity and mortality. Rapid point-of-care testing (POCT) reaches people who have never been tested and people living with HIV who are undiagnosed. This study explored the acceptability and feasibility of HIV POCT from the perspectives of service providers and users. METHODS: A pilot study introduced HIV POCT to one service in Gloucestershire, England. Eleven semi-structured interviews with service users and a focus group with three service providers were conducted. The Theoretical Framework of Acceptability and the Theoretical Domains Framework were used to design the topic guide and analysis. RESULTS: Acceptability of HIV POCT was high. Seven facilitators were identified (e.g. understanding the test purpose and process), alongside two potential barriers, one relevant to service providers and users (anxiety) and the other to service users (stigma). CONCLUSIONS: To maximize the benefits of implementation of HIV POCT, health care providers require appropriate training and supervision to offer and administer POCT.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Teste de HIV , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Testes Imediatos
12.
Br J Health Psychol ; 27(2): 588-604, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the prevalence of a stigmatizing attitude towards people of Chinese origin at the start of the COVID-19 outbreak in the UK population and investigate factors associated with holding the stigmatizing attitude. DESIGN: Online cross-sectional survey conducted 10-13 February 2020 (n = 2006, people aged 16 years or over and living in the UK). METHODS: We asked participants to what extent they agreed it was best to avoid areas heavily populated by Chinese people because of the COVID-19 outbreak. Survey materials also asked about: worry, perceived risk, knowledge, information receipt, perception of government response to COVID-19, and personal characteristics. We ran binary logistic regressions to investigate associations between holding a stigmatizing attitude, personal characteristics, and psychological and contextual factors. RESULTS: 26.1% people (95% CI 24.2-28.0%, n = 524/2006) agreed it was best to avoid areas heavily populated by Chinese people. Holding a stigmatizing attitude was associated with greater worry about COVID-19, greater perceived risk of COVID-19, and poorer knowledge about COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, a large percentage of the UK public endorsed avoiding areas in the UK heavily populated by people of Chinese origin. This attitude was associated with greater worry about, and perceived risk of, the COVID-19 outbreak as well as poorer knowledge about COVID-19. At the start of future novel infectious disease outbreaks, proactive communications from official sources should provide context and facts to reduce uncertainty and challenge stigmatizing attitudes, to minimize harms to affected communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Int J Drug Policy ; 99: 103437, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs may experience difficulty accessing or maintaining involvement with traditional healthcare services. This is associated with increased health inequalities and bio-psychosocial difficulties. Embedding physical healthcare services within community-based drug services may provide a practical and feasible approach to increase access and delivery of healthcare. This study explored the acceptability of, and barriers and facilitators to, embedding a pilot physical healthcare service within a community-based drug service in the United Kingdom (Bristol, England). METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with service users (people who inject drugs) (n = 13), and a focus group was conducted with service providers (n = 11: nine harm reduction workers, two nurses, one service manager). Topic guides included questions to explore barriers and facilitators to using and delivering the service (based on the COM-B Model), and acceptability of the service (using the Theoretical Framework of Acceptability). Transcripts were analysed using a combined deductive framework and inductive thematic analysis approach. RESULTS: The service was viewed as highly acceptable. Service users and providers were confident they could access and provide the service respectively, and perceived it to be effective. Barriers included competing priorities of service users (e.g. drug use) and the wider service (e.g. equipment), and the potential impact of the service being removed in future was viewed as a barrier to overall healthcare access. Both service users and providers viewed embedding the physical health service within an existing community-based drug service as facilitating accessible and holistic care which reduced stigma and discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrated embedding a physical health service within an existing community-drug based and alcohol service was acceptable and beneficial. Future studies are required to demonstrate cost-effectiveness and ensure long-term sustainability, and to determine transferability of findings to other settings, organisations and countries.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estigma Social
14.
Br J Health Psychol ; 27(1): 215-264, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173697

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increasing personal protective behaviours is critical for stopping the spread of respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2: We need evidence to inform how to achieve this. We aimed to synthesize evidence on interventions to increase six personal protective behaviours (e.g., hand hygiene, face mask use, maintaining physical distancing) to limit the spread of respiratory viruses. METHODS: We used best practice for rapid evidence reviews. We searched Ovid MEDLINE and Scopus. Studies conducted in adults or children with active or passive comparators were included. We extracted data on study design, intervention content, mode of delivery, population, setting, mechanism(s) of action, acceptability, practicability, effectiveness, affordability, spill-over effects, and equity impact. Study quality was assessed with Cochrane's risk-of-bias tool. A narrative synthesis and random-effects meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 39 studies conducted across 15 countries. Interventions targeted hand hygiene (n = 30) and/or face mask use (n = 12) and used two- or three-arm study designs with passive comparators. Interventions were typically delivered face-to-face and included a median of three behaviour change techniques. The quality of included studies was low. Interventions to increase hand hygiene (k = 6) had a medium, positive effect (d = .62, 95% CI = 0.43-0.80, p < .001, I2 = 81.2%). Interventions targeting face mask use (k = 4) had mixed results, with an imprecise pooled estimate (OR = 4.14, 95% CI = 1.24-13.79, p < .001, I2 = 89.67%). Between-study heterogeneity was high. CONCLUSIONS: We found low-quality evidence for positive effects of interventions targeting hand hygiene, with unclear results for interventions targeting face mask use. There was a lack of evidence for most behaviours of interest within this review.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Viés , Criança , Humanos , Máscaras , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Addiction ; 117(2): 299-311, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159677

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate predictors of participant eligibility, recruitment and retention in behavioural randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for smoking cessation. METHOD: Systematic review and pre-specified meta-regression analysis of behavioural RCTs for smoking cessation including adult (≥ 18-year-old) smokers. The pre-specified predictors were identified through a literature review and experts' consultation and included participant, trial and intervention characteristics and recruitment and retention strategies. Outcome measures included eligibility rates (proportion of people eligible for the trials), recruitment rates, retention rates and differential retention rates. RESULTS: A total of 172 RCTs with 89 639 participants. Eligibility [median 57.6%; interquartile range (IQR) = 34.7-83.7], recruitment (median 66.4%; IQR = 42.7-85.2) and retention rates (median 80.5%; IQR = 68.5-89.5) varied considerably across studies. For eligibility rates, the recruitment strategy appeared not to be associated with eligibility rates. For recruitment rates, use of indirect recruitment strategies (e.g. public announcements) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.11-0.82] and self-help interventions (OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.03-0.67) were associated with lower recruitment rates. For retention rates, higher retention was seen if the sample had ongoing physical health condition/s (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.04-2.63), whereas lower retention was seen amongst primarily female samples (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71-0.98) and those motivated to quit smoking (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.55-0.99) when indirect recruitment methods were used (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.38-0.97) and at longer follow-up assessments (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.79-0.87). For differential retention, higher retention in the intervention group occurred when the intervention but not comparator group received financial incentives for smoking cessation (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.02-1.77). CONCLUSIONS: In randomized controlled trials of behavioural smoking cessation interventions, recruitment and retention rates appear to be higher for smoking cessation interventions that include a person-to-person rather than at-a-distance contact; male participants, smokers with chronic conditions, smokers not initially motivated to quit and shorter follow-up assessments seems to be associated with improved retention; financial incentive interventions improve retention in groups receiving them relative to comparison groups.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Regressão , Fumar
16.
Transl Behav Med ; 12(1)2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379122

RESUMO

The effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) depends on prompt uptake of treatment and a high level of adherence over the long-term, yet these behaviors are suboptimal. Previous interventions have significantly improved adherence but effect sizes are generally small. The aim of this article is to describe the design and content of an intervention to support uptake and adherence to treatment in HIV positive patients (SUPA intervention), utilizing cognitive behavioral and motivational interviewing (MI) techniques. The intervention was developed in line with Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance for the development of complex interventions and informed by the NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) Guidelines for adherence, empirical evidence and focus groups. Behavior change techniques were mapped to perceptual and practical barriers to uptake and adherence to ART, identified in previous research. Intervention materials were designed and later discussed within focus groups, where feedback enabled an iterative process of development. We conclude it is possible to transparently report the design and content of a theory-based intervention to increase uptake and adherence to ART. The intervention has been evaluated within a randomized controlled trial (RCT) at 10 HIV clinics in England, the results of which will be reported elsewhere.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Terapia Comportamental , Inglaterra , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia
19.
Build Cities ; 2(1): 550-567, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853832

RESUMO

Sustainable development is best supported by intersectoral policies informed by a range of evidence and knowledge types (e.g. scientific and lay). Given China's rapid urbanisation, scale and global importance in climate mitigation, this study investigates how evidence is perceived and used to inform urban health and sustainability policies at central and local levels. Well-informed senior professionals in government/scientific agencies (12 in Beijing and 11 in Ningbo) were interviewed. A thematic analysis is presented using deductive and inductive coding. Government agency participants described formal remits and processes determining the scope and use of evidence by different tiers of government. Academic evidence was influential when commissioned by government departments. Public opinion and economic priorities were two factors that also influenced the use or weight of evidence in policymaking. This study shows that scientific evidence produced or commissioned by government was routinely used to inform urban health and sustainability policy. Extensive and routine data collection is regularly used to inform cyclical policy processes, which improves adaptive capacity. This study contributes to knowledge on the 'cultures of evidence use'. Environmental governance can be further improved through increased data-sharing and use of diverse knowledge types.

20.
Vaccine ; 39(48): 7108-7116, 2021 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination intention is key to the success of any vaccination programme, alongside vaccine availability and access. Public intention to take a COVID-19 vaccine is high in England and Wales compared to other countries, but vaccination rate disparities between ethnic, social and age groups has led to concern. METHODS: Online survey of prospective household community cohort study participants across England and Wales (Virus Watch). Vaccination intention was measured by individual participant responses to 'Would you accept a COVID-19 vaccine if offered?', collected in December 2020 and February 2021. Responses to a 13-item questionnaire collected in January 2021 were analysed using factor analysis to investigate psychological influences on vaccination intention. RESULTS: Survey response rate was 56% (20,785/36,998) in December 2020 and 53% (20,590/38,727) in February 2021, with 14,880 adults reporting across both time points. In December 2020, 1,469 (10%) participants responded 'No' or 'Unsure'. Of these people, 1,266 (86%) changed their mind and responded 'Yes' or 'Already had a COVID-19 vaccine' by February 2021. Vaccination intention increased across all ethnic groups and levels of social deprivation. Age was most strongly associated with vaccination intention, with 16-24-year-olds more likely to respond "Unsure" or "No" versus "Yes" than 65-74-year-olds in December 2020 (OR: 4.63, 95 %CI: 3.42, 6.27 & OR 7.17 95 %CI: 4.26, 12.07 respectively) and February 2021 (OR: 27.92 95 %CI: 13.79, 56.51 & OR 17.16 95 %CI: 4.12, 71.55). The association between ethnicity and vaccination intention weakened, but did not disappear, over time. Both vaccine- and illness-related psychological factors were shown to influence vaccination intention. CONCLUSIONS: Four in five adults (86%) who were reluctant or intending to refuse a COVID-19 vaccine in December 2020 had changed their mind in February 2021 and planned to accept, or had already accepted, a vaccine.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra , Humanos , Intenção , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação , País de Gales/epidemiologia
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