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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377569

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of zinc source (ZnSO4 vs. zinc amino acid complex) and vitamin E level (50 IU vs. 100 IU) on performance and intestinal health of broilers exposed to a temperature challenge in the finisher period. A total of 1224 day old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly distributed among 4 dietary treatments (9 replicates per treatment). Dietary treatments were organized in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: two sources of zinc, 60 mg/kg of Zn as ZnSO4 .7H2 O or 60 mg/kg of Zn as zinc amino acid complexes (ZnAA) combined with two levels of vitamin E (50 or 100 IU/kg). Zinc and vitamin E were added to a wheat/rye-based diet that was designed to create a mild nutritional challenge. From day 28 until day 36 (finisher period), all birds were subjected to chronic cyclic high temperatures (32°C ± 2°C and RH 55-65% for 6 h daily). The combination of ZnAA and 50 IU/kg of vitamin E improved weight gain in the starter (day 0-10), finisher (day 28-36) and overall period (day 0-36) and feed conversion ratio in the starter (day 0-10) and finisher phase (day 28-36). Providing Zn as ZnAA significantly improved villus length and villus/crypt ratio in the starter, grower and finisher period and decreased infiltration of T-lymphocytes and ovotransferrin leakage in the finisher period. In conclusion, providing broilers with a diet supplemented with ZnAA and a vitamin E level of 50 IU/kg, resulted in better growth performance as compared to all other dietary treatments. Interestingly, under the conditions of this study, positive effects of ZnAA on performance did not occur when vitamin E was supplemented at 100 IU/kg in feed. Moreover, providing zinc as zinc amino acid complex improved intestinal health.

2.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 392, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-life antibiotic administration is known to affect gut microbiota and host adiposity, but the effects of antibiotic exposure on skeletal muscle properties remain unknown. The present study evaluated the changes in skeletal muscle properties including myofiber characteristics and composition, as well as intramuscular fat (IMF) content in skeletal muscle of piglets when exposed to a tylosin-containing diet. RESULTS: A total of 18 piglets (28 days of age) were randomly allocated into two groups: control basal diet (Control) and Control + 100 mg tylosin phosphate/kg of feed (Antibiotic). The trial lasted for 39 days. High-throughput amplicon sequencing revealed that no significant difference in initial gut microbiota composition was existed between Control and Antibiotic groups. Antibiotic administration increased body weight and growth rate and decreased feed to gain ratio of pigs (P < 0.05). The carcass lean and fat volumes of pigs were increased by the tylosin administration (P < 0.05). Antibiotic treatment increased myofiber density and the expression of genes related to type I and type IIb myofibers in longissimus muscle (P < 0.05). The IMF content in longissimus muscle was increased by antibiotic exposure (P < 0.05). Antibiotic administration increased expression of genes related to fatty acid uptake and de novo synthesis, and decreased expression of genes related to triglyceride hydrolysis (P < 0.05). Tylosin administration affected taxonomic distribution and beta diversity of the caecal and colonic microbiota of piglets. CONCLUSION: These results confirm that the growth performance, myofiber composition and muscle lipid metabolism are affected by antibiotic administration, which may be associated with an altered gut microbiota, suggesting that the gut microbiota could be served as a potential target for modulating skeletal muscle properties of host.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233910, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502215

RESUMO

Farmers face difficulties in redeeming their investment in larger litter sizes since this comes with larger litter heterogenicity, lower litter resilience and risk of higher mortality. Dietary oligosaccharides, given to the sow, proved beneficial for the offspring's performance. However, giving oligosaccharides to the suckling piglet is poorly explored. Therefore, this field trial studied the effect of dietary short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS; 1g/day; drenched) supplementation to low (LBW, lower quartile), normal (NBW, two intermediate quartiles) and high (HBW, upper quartile) birth weight piglets from birth until 7 or 21 days of age. Performance parameters, gut microbiome and short-chain fatty acids profile of feces and digesta were assessed at birth (d 0), d 7, weaning (d 21.5) and 2 weeks post-weaning (d 36.5). Additional parameters reflecting gut health (intestinal integrity and morphology, mucosal immune system) were analysed at d 36.5. Most parameters changed with age or differed with the piglet's birth weight. Drenching with scFOS increased body weight by 1 kg in NBW suckling piglets and reduced the post-weaning mortality rate by a 100%. No clear difference in the IgG level, the microbiota composition and fermentative activity between the treatment groups was observed. Additionnally, intestinal integrity, determined by measuring intestinal permeability and regenerative capacity, was similar between the treatment groups. Also, intestinal architecture (villus lenght, crypt depth) was not affected by scFOS supplementation. The density of intra-epithelial lymphocytes and the expression profiles (real-time qPCR) for immune system-related genes (IL-10, IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα and IFNγ) were used to assess mucosal immunity. Only IFNγ expression, was upregulated in piglets that received scFOS for 7 days. The improved body weight and the reduced post-weaning mortality seen in piglets supplemented with scFOS support the view that scFOS positively impact piglet's health and resilience. However, the modes of action for these effects are not yet fully elucidated and its potential to improve other performance parameters needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/imunologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Desmame
4.
Microorganisms ; 8(5)2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443502

RESUMO

Growing concern for public health and food safety has prompted a special interest in developing nutritional strategies for removing waterborne and foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella. Strong links between manganese (Mn) and intestinal barrier or immune function hint that dietary Mn supplementation is likely to be a promising approach to limit the loads of pathogens in broilers. Here, we provide evidence that Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium, 4 × 108 CFUs) challenge-induced intestinal injury along with systemic Mn redistribution in broilers. Further examining of the effect of dietary Mn treatments (a basal diet plus additional 0, 40, or 100 mg Mn/kg for corresponding to Mn-deficient, control, or Mn-surfeit diet, respectively) on intestinal barrier and inflammation status of broilers infected with S. Typhimurium revealed that birds fed the control and Mn-surfeit diets exhibited improved intestinal tight junctions and microbiota composition. Even without Salmonella infection, dietary Mn deficiency alone increased intestinal permeability by impairing intestinal tight junctions. In addition, when fed the control and Mn-surfeit diets, birds showed decreased Salmonella burdens in cecal content and spleen, with a concomitant increase in inflammatory cytokine levels in spleen. Furthermore, the dietary Mn-supplementation-mediated induction of cytokine production was probably associated with the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) pathway, as judged by the enhanced manganese superoxide dismutase activity and the increased H2O2 level in mitochondria, together with the increased mRNA level of NF-κB in spleen. Ingenuity-pathway analysis indicated that acute-phase response pathways, T helper type 1 pathway, and dendritic cell maturation were significantly activated by the dietary Mn supplementation. Our data suggest that dietary Mn supplementation could enhance intestinal barrier and splenic inflammatory response to fight against Salmonella infection in broilers.

5.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 11: 45, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337030

RESUMO

Background: Weaning is known to result in barrier dysfunction and villus atrophy in the immediate post-weaning phase, and the magnitude of these responses is hypothesized to correlate with changes in the glutathione (GSH) redox system. Therefore, these parameters were simultaneously measured throughout the weaning phase, in piglets differing in birth weight category and weaning age, as these pre-weaning factors are important determinants for the weaning transition. Low birth weight (LBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) littermates were assigned to one of three weaning treatments; i.e. weaning at 3 weeks of age (3w), weaning at 4 weeks of age (4w) and removal from the sow at 3 d of age and fed a milk replacer until weaning at 3 weeks of age (3d3w). For each of these treatments, six LBW and six NBW piglets were euthanized at 0, 2, 5, 12 or 28 d post-weaning piglets, adding up 180 piglets. Results: Weaning increased the glutathione peroxidase activity on d 5 post-weaning in plasma, and duodenal and jejunal mucosa. Small intestinal glutathione-S-transferase activity gradually increased until d 12 post-weaning, and this was combined with a progressive rise of mucosal GSH up till d 12 post-weaning. Oxidation of the GSH redox status (GSH/GSSG Eh) was only observed in the small intestinal mucosa of 3d3w weaned piglets at d 5 post-weaning. These piglets also demonstrated increased fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD4) and horseradish peroxidase fluxes in the duodenum and distal jejunum during the experiment, and specifically demonstrated increased FD4 fluxes at d 2 to d 5 post-weaning. On the other hand, profound villus atrophy was observed during the weaning transition for all weaning treatments. Finally, LBW and NBW piglets did not demonstrate notable differences in GSH redox status, small intestinal barrier function and histo-morphology throughout the experiment. Conclusion: Although moderate changes in the GSH redox system were observed upon weaning, the GSH redox status remained at a steady state level in 3w and 4w weaned piglets and was therefore not associated with weaning induced villus atrophy. Conversely, 3d3w weaned piglets demonstrated GSH redox imbalance in the small intestinal mucosa, and this co-occurred with a temporal malfunction of their intestinal barrier function.

6.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(5): 1432-1443, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333473

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds in pig diets, originating either from feed ingredients or additives, may occur as glycosides, that is conjugated to sugar moieties. Upon ingestion, their bioavailability and functionality depend on hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond by endogenous or microbial glycosidases. Hence, it is essential to map the glycosidase activities towards phenolic glycosides present along gut. Therefore, the activity of three key glycosidases, that is α-glucosidase (αGLU), ß-glucosidase (ßGLU) and ß-galactosidase (ßGAL), was quantified in small intestinal mucosa and digesta of piglets at different gastrointestinal sites (stomach, three parts of small intestine, caecum and colon) and at different ages around weaning (10 days before and 0, 2, 5, 14 and 28 days after weaning). Activity assays were performed with p-nitrophenyl glycosides at neutral pH. The αGLU activities in mucosa and digesta were low (overall means 1.4 and 60 U respectively) as compared to ßGLU (15.2 and 199 U) and ßGAL (23.4 and 298 U; p < .001). Moreover, αGLU activity in mucosa was unaffected by age. Conversely, ßGLU and ßGAL activities dropped significantly after weaning. Minimal levels, ranging between 18% and 54% of the pre-weaning values, were reached at 5 days post-weaning. Similarly, in small intestinal digesta, reductions from 60% up to 90% were observed for the three enzyme activities on day five post-weaning as compared to pre-weaning levels. In caecal contents, activities were lowest at 14 days post-weaning, while in stomach and colon no clear weaning-induced effects were observed. Our data suggest that weaning affects the glycosidase activity in mucosa (mainly endogenous origin) and digesta (primarily bacterial origin) with the most pronounced effects occurring 5 days post-weaning. Moreover, differences in activities exist between different glycosidases and between gut locations. These insights can facilitate the prediction of the fate of existing and newly synthetized glycosides after oral ingestion in piglets.

7.
ACS Omega ; 5(10): 5241-5248, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201813

RESUMO

The monoterpene thymol has been proposed as a valuable alternative to in-feed antibiotics in animal production. However, the effectiveness of the antimicrobial is comprised by its fast absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In this work, two glucoconjugates, thymol α-d-glucopyranoside (TαG) and thymol ß-d-glucopyranoside (TßG), were compared with free thymol for their potential to deliver higher concentrations of the active compound to the distal small intestine of supplemented piglets. Additionally, an analytical method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of thymol and its glucoconjugates in different matrices. In stomach contents of pigs fed with 3333 µmol kg-1 thymol, TαG, or TßG, total thymol concentrations amounted to 3048, 2357, and 1820 µmol kg-1 dry matter, respectively. In glucoconjugate-fed pigs, over 30% of this concentration was present in the unconjugated form, suggesting partial hydrolysis in the stomach. No quantifiable levels of thymol or glucoconjugates were detected in the small intestine or cecum for any treatment, indicating that conjugation with one glucose unit did not sufficiently protect thymol from early absorption.

8.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(2)2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092931

RESUMO

The present study evaluated gluco-conjugation as a measure to delay thymol absorption and enhance its antimicrobial activity in the gut of weaned piglets. The three dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet without additives (TCON), supplemented with thymol at 3.7 mmol/kg dry matter (TTHY), or with an equimolar amount of thymol α-D-glucopyranoside (TTαG). Each dietary treatment was replicated in 6 pens with 2 piglets per pen (n = 12 for analytical parameters) and was supplemented for 14 days. The total (free plus gluco-conjugated) thymol concentrations in the stomach contents were 14% lower in TTαG as compared to TTHY piglets. Neither of the additives could be detected further down the gut. E.coli counts in the proximal small intestine were significantly lower in TTHY than in TTαG pigs (3.35 vs. 4.29 log10 CFU/g); however, other bacterial counts and their metabolites were unaffected by treatment. A metagenomic bacterial analysis revealed a great relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. in the distal small intestine (range 88.4%-99.9%), irrespective of treatment. The intestinal barrier function was improved by TTHY, but not TTαG, compared to TCON. In conclusion, gluco-conjugation did not result in higher thymol concentrations in the gut, but conversely, it seemed to diminish the biological effects of thymol in vivo.

9.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(8)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426309

RESUMO

Quercetin has been shown to alleviate mucosal damage and modulate the glutathione (GSH) redox system in the colon of rodents. In the current study, we assessed whether quercetin was able to mitigate small intestinal dysfunction in weaned pigs. Here, 224 weaned piglets were fed a diet containing quercetin at either 0, 100, 300, or 900 mg/kg diet until d14 post-weaning, followed by a common basal diet until d42. Eight animals per treatment were sampled at d5 and d14 post-weaning. In these animals, the small intestinal histomorphology, barrier function, and protein abundance of occludin, caspase-3, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were assessed. None of these parameters were affected, and neither did quercetin improve performance up to d42 post-weaning. The GSH redox system was evaluated in blood, small intestinal mucosa, and liver. Quercetin did not affect the glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutamate-cysteine ligase activity in these tissues. In contrast, the hepatic glutathione transferase (GST) activity was significantly increased by quercetin supplementation at d5 post-weaning of 100, 300, and 900 mg/kg. Importantly, d5 was characterized by a more oxidized GSH redox status. To conclude, dietary quercetin had little effect on the small intestine, but did upregulate hepatic GST in the occurrence of redox disturbance.

10.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(3)2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934616

RESUMO

Insects are promising candidates as alternative sustainable sources of protein for poultry species. The present research studied the effect of a dietary inclusion of a defatted black soldier fly (BSF) larvae meal as an alternative protein source in the diets of laying quails, on productive performance, egg physicochemical quality, fatty acid profile, sensory traits and storage stability. A total of 225 laying quails were divided into 3 dietary groups (5 replicates/each). A conventional soybean meal-based diet was formulated (Control group), and two other diets were formulated including either 10% (BSF10) or 15% (BSF15) defatted BSF larvae meal. Laying quails showed satisfactory productive performance throughout the trial. BSF10 and BSF15 eggs had the highest shape index (p < 0.01), shell weight and percentage (p < 0.001) and the most intense yolk color (p < 0.001). Defatted BSF larvae meal increased the eggs' saturated fatty acid content (p < 0.001) to the detriment of the polyunsaturated fraction (p < 0.001). Overall the eggs' sensory profile was not affected by the dietary treatment, but BSF15 eggs had a higher feed off-flavor vs Control group (p < 0.05). At day 28 of storage, oxidative stability was higher in BSF10 vs. Control eggs (p < 0.01). Defatted BSF larvae meal can be considered a possible alternative ingredient to soybean meal in laying quail diets, up to the 15% inclusion level.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(19): 5661-5671, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012581

RESUMO

Human diets contain a complex mixture of antioxidants and pro-oxidants that contribute to the body's oxidative status. In this study, 32 pigs were fed chicken versus red and processed meat in the context of a prudent or Western dietary pattern for 4 weeks, to investigate their oxidative status. Lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and hexanal) were higher in the chicken versus red and processed meat diets (1.7- to 8.3-fold) and subsequent in vitro (1.3- to 1.9-fold) and in vivo (1.4 to 3-fold) digests ( P < 0.001), which was presumably related to the higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content in chicken meat and/or the added antioxidants in processed meat. However, diet had only a marginal or no effect on the systemic oxidative status, as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, malondialdehyde, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood and organs, except for α-tocopherol, which was higher after the consumption of the chicken-Western diet. In conclusion, in contrast to the hypothesis, the consumption of chicken in comparison to that of the red and processed meat resulted in higher concentrations of lipid oxidation products in the pig intestinal contents; however, this was not reflected in the body's oxidative status.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Dieta Ocidental , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Carne , Modelos Animais , Suínos
12.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(1)2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654433

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) supplementation through drinking water on animal performance and the glutathione (GSH) redox system in weaned piglets, particularly in relation to the immediate post-weaning feed intake. To this end, 168 piglets were weaned and either fed ad libitum or fasted the first two days, and either or not administered 200 mg/L NAC via the drinking water until d14 post-weaning. Next to animal performance until day 42 (d42), the GSH redox system was measured in erythrocytes, small intestinal mucosa, liver, lung, and kidney tissue at d0, d2, and d14 post-weaning. Animal performance and GSH levels were not affected by NAC, nor by fasting. Irrespective of treatment, a significant drop in GSH at d2 post-weaning was found as compared to d0, in particular in liver (-69%), distal jejunal mucosa (-72%), and lung tissue (-80%). Post-weaning changes of the GSH redox status were strongly tissue-dependent. To conclude, this research indicates that GSH redox homeostasis was largely affected in multiple organs during the weaning transition. NAC supplementation did not increase GSH levels in any tissue, not even in fasted animals, questioning the fact if cysteine is the first or only limiting factor determining the rate of GSH synthesis in the early post-weaning phase.

13.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(1): 231-241, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298533

RESUMO

Zinc oxide (ZnO) supplied at pharmacological dosage in diets of weaned piglets improves growth performance. However, it causes environmental contamination and induces bacterial antibiotic resistance, yet this practice is debated. The effects on gut microbiota and integrity in weaned piglets of conventional ZnO at nutritional and pharmacological dosage (110 and 2,400 mg/kg Zn, respectively) were compared to an alternative ZnO source at 110 and 220 mg/kg Zn. Each of the four treatments was applied to four pens (two piglets/pen; weaning age, 20 days) for 15 days, and piglets were sampled on day 15 to determine indices of gut integrity. Feeding conventional ZnO at 2,400 mg/kg Zn reduced coliforms and Escherichia coli in distal small intestine as compared to conventional ZnO at 110 mg/kg (-1.7 and -1.4 log10 cfu/g, respectively), whereas the alternative ZnO reduced only coliforms, irrespective of dosage (-1.6 to -1.7 log10 cfu/g). Transepithelial electrical resistance of distal small intestinal mucosa was higher for pigs fed the alternative ZnO source as compared with groups fed 110 mg/kg Zn of conventional ZnO, in line with a trend for higher gene expression of claudin-1 and zona occludens-1. Interestingly, the alternative ZnO source at 110 and 220 mg/kg Zn increased intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene transcript as compared to conventional ZnO at 110 mg/kg Zn, whereas the alternative ZnO source at 110 mg/kg Zn exhibited higher Zn concentrations in mucosa (2,520 µg/g) as compared to conventional ZnO at 110 mg/kg Zn (1,211 µg/g). However, assessing alkaline phosphatase activity, no significant effects were found. In conclusion, the alternative ZnO reduced digesta Enterobacteriaceae numbers and improved gut integrity, albeit similar or better, depending on the dosage, to the effects of pharmacological dosage of conventional ZnO.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Zinco/química , Zinco/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/administração & dosagem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29118977

RESUMO

Background: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species in the field, commonly found in cereal grains, which negatively affects performances and health of animals. Mycotoxin binders are supposed to reduce the toxicity of mycotoxins. Method: The effect of a mycotoxin binder (containing acid-activated bentonite, clinoptilolite, yeast cell walls and organic acids) on growth performance and gut health was studied. Hundred and twenty weaning piglets were allocated to 4 treatments, with 5 pens of 6 piglets each, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design: control diet; control diet with 1 kg/t binder; control diet with DON; and control diet with DON and 1 kg/t binder. From d0-14, the diet of DON-challenged groups was artificially contaminated with a mixture of DON (2.6 mg/kg), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (0.1 mg/kg) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (0.3 mg/kg), after which the total contamination level was reduced to 1 mg/kg, until d37. On d14, one pig from each pen was euthanized and distal small intestinal mucosa samples were collected for the assessment of intestinal permeability, and gene expression of tight junction proteins, toll-like receptor 4, inflammatory cytokines and intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Results: After 37 d, there were no differences in growth performance between control and DON-challenged groups (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, groups that received diets with binder had a significantly higher average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) for the first 14 d as well as for the whole period, compared to groups without binder (P ≤ 0.05). Groups with binder in the diet also exhibited lower expression of toll-like receptor 4 in distal small intestinal mucosa at d14, compared to groups without binder (P ≤ 0.05). Interestingly, comparing the two DON treatments, piglets fed DON and binder had significantly higher ADFI and ADG compared to those with only DON for the first 14-d (P ≤ 0.05). Addition of binder to DON contaminated diets, also down-regulated the gene expression of toll-like receptor 4 (P ≤ 0.05) and increased mRNA level zona occludens 1 (P ≤ 0.10) as compared to DON. Conclusions: The present data provide evidence that the binder improves growth rate in piglets associated with reduction of toll-like receptor-4 and increase of tight junction protein gene expression. However, the current study does not allow to assess whether the effects of the binder are mediated by alterations in the toxicokinetics of the mycotoxin.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study the physiological implications of artificial rearing were investigated. Low (LBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were compared as they might react differently to stressors caused by artificial rearing. In total, 42 pairs of LBW and NBW piglets from 16 litters suckled the sow until d19 of age or were artificially reared starting at d3 until d19 of age. Blood and tissue samples that were collected after euthanasia at 0, 3, 5, 8 and 19 d of age. Histology, ELISA, and Ussing chamber analysis were used to study proximal and distal small intestine histo-morphology, proliferation, apoptosis, tight junction protein expression, and permeability. Furthermore, small intestine, liver and systemic redox parameters (GSH, GSSG, GSH-Px and MDA) were investigated using HPLC. RESULTS: LBW and NBW artificially reared piglets weighed respectively 40 and 33% more than LBW and NBW sow-reared piglets at d19 (P < 0.01). Transferring piglets to a nursery at d3 resulted in villus atrophy, increased intestinal FD-4 and HRP permeability and elevated GSSG/GSH ratio in the distal small intestine at d5 (P < 0.05). GSH concentrations in the proximal small intestine remained stable, while they decreased in the liver (P < 0.05). From d5 until d19, villus width and crypt depth increased, whereas PCNA, caspase-3, occludin and claudin-3 protein expressions were reduced. GSH, GSSG and permeability recovered in artificially reared piglets (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that artificial rearing altered the morphology, permeability and redox state without compromising piglet performance. The observed effects were not depending on birth weight.

16.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 68(1): 65-72, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27484261

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the impact of wheat bran and its main polysaccharides on intestinal bacteria and gene expression of intestinal barrier function relevant proteins. Thirty freshly weaned male piglets were assigned randomly to five dietary treatment groups with six piglets per group. Accordingly, five synthetic diets including a basal control diet without fiber components (CON), wheat bran diet (10% wheat bran, WB), arabinoxylan diet (AX), cellulose diet (CEL) and combined diet of arabinoxylan and cellulose (CB) were studied. The piglets were fed ad libitum for 30 d. Lower Escherichia coli (E. coli) populations in WB group and higher probiotic (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) populations in groups fed diets containing arabinoxylan (WB, AX and CB) were observed and compared with CON group. Compared with CON group, the gene expressions of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) and voltage-gated chloride channel 2 (CIC2) were suppressed in the WB group. And wheat bran down-regulated gene expression of pro-inflammation (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6) and TLRs/MyD88/NF-κB pathway compared with CON group. In conclusion, wheat bran and its main polysaccharides could change intestinal microflora and down-regulate the gene expression of intestinal barrier function relevant proteins in the distal small intestinal mucosa.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Prebióticos , Triticum/química , Animais , Celulose/uso terapêutico , Canais de Cloreto/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Íleo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Íleo/metabolismo , Íleo/microbiologia , Íleo/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Subunidades Proteicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Sus scrofa , Desmame , Xilanos/uso terapêutico
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(8): 2594-2600, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27734508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and substrates were freeze-dried and proximate, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral analyses were performed. RESULTS: Protein content of prepupae varied between 399 and 431 g kg-1 dry matter (DM) among treatments. Differences in amino acid profile of prepupae were small. On the other hand, the ether extract (EE) and ash contents differed substantially. Prepupae reared on digestate were low in EE and high in ash (218 and 197 g kg-1 DM, respectively) compared to those reared on vegetable waste (371 and 96 g kg-1 DM, respectively), chicken feed (336 and 100 g kg-1 DM, respectively) and restaurant waste (386 and 27 g kg-1 DM, respectively). Prepupal fatty acid profiles were characterised by high levels of C12:0 in all treatments. CONCLUSION: Since protein content and quality were high and comparable for prepupae reared on different substrates, black soldier fly could be an interesting protein source for animal feeds. However, differences in EE and ash content as a function of substrate should be considered. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simuliidae/metabolismo , Resíduos/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Galinhas , Esterco/parasitologia , Pupa/metabolismo , Simuliidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 5(4)2016 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27845706

RESUMO

Oxidative stress in the small intestinal epithelium can lead to barrier malfunction. In this study, the effect of rosmarinic acid (RA), quercetin (Que), gallic acid (GA), lipoic acid (LA), ethoxyquin (ETQ) and Se-methionine (SeMet) pre-treatments using 2 mM Trolox as a control on the viability and the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) of oxidatively (H2O2) stressed intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) was investigated. A neutral red assay showed that RA (50-400 µM), Que (12.5-200 µM), GA (50-400 µM), ETQ (6.25-100 µM), and SeMet (125-1000 µM) pre-treatments but not LA significantly increased the viability of H2O2-stressed IPEC-J2 cells (p < 0.05). A 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA) fluorescent probe showed that RA (100-600 µM), Que (25-800 µM), ETQ (3.125-100 µM) and SeMet (500-2000 µM) pre-treatments significantly reduced iROS in IPEC-J2 monolayers (p < 0.05). Moreover, RA and Que were most effective in reducing iROS. Therefore, the effects of RA and Que on barrier functioning in vitro were examined. RA and Que pre-treatments significantly decreased fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated dextran-4 (4 kDa) permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of an IPEC-J2 cell monolayer (p < 0.05). These in vitro results of RA and Que hold promise for their use as antioxidants in pig feed.

19.
FASEB J ; 30(12): 4227-4238, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27630168

RESUMO

Although oat (1,3:1,4)-ß-glucan (BG) has been shown to decrease blood cholesterol in intervention trials, the detailed mechanism is not yet defined, but restricted reabsorption of bile acids (BAs) has been hypothesized. Using pigs as a model for humans we demonstrated that, compared to the control, BG added to the diet for 26 d caused decreases of 24% in blood total BAs (TBAs), 34% in total cholesterol (TC), and 57% in LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (P < 0.01); decreases of 20% TBA in the midjejunum and terminal ileum (P < 0.01); increases of 80% in cecal total neutral sterols (TNSs) including cholesterol (P < 0.01); a 50% reduction in BA active transport across ex vivo ileum after 40 min (P < 0.001); and 32% decrease in jejunal microvillus heights with apparent increased goblet cell activity. The results suggest that BG not only physically hinders the active reabsorption of BAs and uptake of cholesterol, but also changes the BAs profile with lower circulating levels without excess excretion in the feces, thus resulting in reduced blood TC and LDL-C. Fermentation of sterols reaching the colon enhanced production of therapeutic ursodeoxycholic acid, suppressed toxic lithocholic acid, and decreased the possibility of cholesterol absorption by transforming the latter into coprostanol, a nonabsorbable NS.-Gunness, P., Michiels, J., Vanhaecke, L., De Smet, S., Kravchuk, O., Van de Meene, A., Gidley, M. J. Reduction in circulating bile acid and restricted diffusion across the intestinal epithelium are associated with a decrease in blood cholesterol in the presence of oat ß-glucan.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fezes/citologia , Masculino , Suínos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27354915

RESUMO

Heat as a stressor of poultry has been studied extensively for many decades; it affects poultry production on a worldwide basis and has significant impact on well-being and production. More recently, the involvement of heat stress in inducing oxidative stress has received much interest. Oxidative stress is defined as the presence of reactive species in excess of the available antioxidant capacity of animal cells. Reactive species can modify several biologically cellular macromolecules and can interfere with cell signaling pathways. Furthermore, during the last decade, there has been an ever-increasing interest in the use of a wide array of natural feed-delivered phytochemicals that have potential antioxidant properties for poultry. In light of this, the current review aims to (1) summarize the mechanisms through which heat stress triggers excessive superoxide radical production in the mitochondrion and progresses into oxidative stress, (2) illustrate that this pathophysiology is dependent on the intensity and duration of heat stress, (3) present different nutritional strategies for mitigation of mitochondrial dysfunction, with particular focus on antioxidant phytochemicals. Oxidative stress that occurs with heat exposure can be manifest in all parts of the body; however, mitochondrial dysfunction underlies oxidative stress. In the initial phase of acute heat stress, mitochondrial substrate oxidation and electron transport chain activity are increased resulting in excessive superoxide production. During the later stage of acute heat stress, down-regulation of avian uncoupling protein worsens the oxidative stress situation causing mitochondrial dysfunction and tissue damage. Typically, antioxidant enzyme activities are upregulated. Chronic heat stress, however, leads to downsizing of mitochondrial metabolic oxidative capacity, up-regulation of avian uncoupling protein, a clear alteration in the pattern of antioxidant enzyme activities, and depletion of antioxidant reserves. Some phytochemicals, such as various types of flavonoids and related compounds, were shown to be beneficial in chronic heat-stressed poultry, but were less or not effective in non-heat-stressed counterparts. This supports the contention that antioxidant phytochemicals have potential under challenging conditions. Though substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the association between heat stress and oxidative stress, the means by which phytochemicals can alleviate oxidative stress have been sparsely explored.

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