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Cognition ; 192: 104020, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352223


Infants appear to progress from universal to language-specific event perception. In Japanese, two different verbs describe a person crossing a bounded ground (e.g., street) versus an unbounded ground (e.g., field) while in English, the same verb - crossing - describes both events. Interestingly, Japanese and English 14-month-old infants form categories of Japanese ground distinctions in nonlinguistic events while by 20 months, only Japanese-reared infants retain this ability. Five experiments were conducted to investigate the role that language plays in children's ability to form categories of Japanese ground-path distinctions. Experiments 1a and 1b first replicated and extended prior research (Göksun et al., 2011) by showing that 14-month-old English-reared children formed categories of Japanese ground-path while 23-month-old children did not in the presence of general language. Experiment 2a paired a single novel word with different Japanese ground categories and found that language weakened 14-month-old infants' categorization abilities. Experiment 2b showed that labeling these event types differentially allowed 23-month-olds to recognize the Japanese ground-path distinctions that they otherwise would not have detected. To assess whether language uniquely encouraged categorization of Japanese ground-path in Experiment 2b, two different tones were paired with ground-path categories in Experiment 3. The results of Experiments 2b and 3 suggested that language but not tones encouraged ground-path categorization. This study is among the first to show that language can be used to heighten and weaken children's categorization of "non-native" event components.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 43(6): 916-927, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28080120


We live in a dynamic world comprised of continuous events. Remembering our past and predicting future events, however, requires that we segment these ongoing streams of information in a consistent manner. How is this segmentation achieved? This research examines whether the boundaries adults perceive in events, such as the Olympic figure skating routine used in these studies, align with the beginnings (sources) and endings (goals) of human goal-directed actions. Study 1 showed that a group of experts, given an explicit task with unlimited time to rewatch the event, identified the same subevents as one another, but with greater agreement as to the timing of goals than sources. In Study 2, experts, novices familiarized with the figure skating sequence, and unfamiliarized novices performed an online event segmentation task, marking boundaries as the video progressed in real time. The online boundaries of all groups corresponded with the sources and goals offered by Study 1's experts, with greater alignment of goals than sources. Additionally, expertise, but not mere perceptual familiarity, boosted the alignment of sources and goals. Finally, Study 3, which presented novices with the video played in reverse, indicated, unexpectedly, that even when spatiotemporal cues were disrupted, viewers' perceived event boundaries still aligned with their perception of the actors' intended sources and goals. This research extends the goal bias to event segmentation, and suggests that our spontaneous sensitivity toward goals may allow us to transform even relatively complex and unfamiliar event streams into structured and meaningful representations. (PsycINFO Database Record

Metas , Percepção de Movimento , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Competência Profissional , Percepção Social , Esportes , Teoria da Mente , Gravação em Vídeo
J Child Lang ; 43(5): 993-1019, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26174162


Languages differ greatly in how they express causal events. In languages like Japanese, the subjects of causative sentences, or causers, are generally animate and intentional, whereas in other languages like English, causers range widely from animate beings to inanimate objects (e.g. Wolff, Jeon & Li, 2009). This paper explores when children learn to represent cause in their native tongue and how this learning occurs over the course of development. English- and Japanese-speaking preschoolers watched animations that were caused by (i) humans acting intentionally, (ii) humans acting accidentally, (iii) objects that generate energy (e.g. a machine), and (iv) objects that do not generate energy (e.g. a tool). Children were then asked to choose a good description of the event between two options. At age three, English- and Japanese-speaking children performed the task in similar ways, attending only to the intention of causal agents; however, at age four, speakers of the two languages diverged. English speakers were more likely to accept energy-generating objects such as machines as the subject of a lexical causative sentence than Japanese speakers.

Café , Comparação Transcultural , Calefação , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Linguagem , Micro-Ondas , Semântica , Causalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Vocabulário