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2.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(31): 3685-3697, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903140

RESUMO

PURPOSE: For localized, resectable neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification, surgery only is recommended even if incomplete. However, it is not known whether the genomic background of these tumors may influence outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Diagnostic samples were obtained from 317 tumors, International Neuroblastoma Staging System stages 1/2A/2B, from 3 cohorts: Localized Neuroblastoma European Study Group I/II and Children's Oncology Group. Genomic data were analyzed using multi- and pangenomic techniques and fluorescence in-situ hybridization in 2 age groups (cutoff age, 18 months) and were quality controlled by the International Society of Pediatric Oncology European Neuroblastoma (SIOPEN) Biology Group. RESULTS: Patients with stage 1 tumors had an excellent outcome (5-year event-free survival [EFS] ± standard deviation [SD], 95% ± 2%; 5-year overall survival [OS], 99% ± 1%). In contrast, patients with stage 2 tumors had a reduced EFS in both age groups (5-year EFS ± SD, 84% ± 3% in patients < 18 months of age and 75% ± 7% in patients ≥ 18 months of age). However, OS was significantly decreased only in the latter group (5-year OS ± SD in < 18months and ≥ 18months, 96% ± 2% and 81% ± 7%, respectively; P = .001). In < 18months, relapses occurred independent of segmental chromosome aberrations (SCAs); only 1p loss decreased EFS (5-year EFS ± SD in patients 1p loss and no 1p loss, 62% ± 13% and 87% ± 3%, respectively; P = .019) but not OS (5-year OS ± SD, 92% ± 8% and 97% ± 2%, respectively). In patients ≥ 18 months, only SCAs led to relapse and death, with 11q loss as the strongest marker (11q loss and no 11q loss: 5-year EFS ± SD, 48% ± 16% and 85% ± 7%, P = .033; 5-year OS ± SD, 46% ± 22% and 92% ± 6%, P = .038). CONCLUSION: Genomic aberrations of resectable non-MYCN-amplified stage 2 neuroblastomas have a distinct age-dependent prognostic impact. Chromosome 1p loss is a risk factor for relapse but not for diminished OS in patients < 18 months, SCAs (especially 11q loss) are risk factors for reduced EFS and OS in those > 18months. In older patients with SCA, a randomized trial of postoperative chemotherapy compared with observation alone may be indicated.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is a rare, aggressive solid tumor of childhood, adolescence and young adulthood associated with pathognomonic EWSR1-ETS fusion oncoproteins altering transcriptional regulation. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 6 common germline susceptibility loci but have not investigated low-frequency inherited variants with minor allele frequencies below 5% due to limited genotyped cases of this rare tumor. METHODS: We investigated the contribution of rare and low-frequency variation to EwS susceptibility in the largest EwS genome-wide association study to date (733 EwS cases and 1,346 unaffected controls of European ancestry). RESULTS: We identified two low-frequency variants, rs112837127 and rs2296730, on chromosome 20 that were associated with EwS risk (OR = 0.186 and 2.038, respectively; P-value < 5×10-8) and located near previously reported common susceptibility loci. After adjusting for the most associated common variant at the locus, only rs112837127 remained a statistically significant independent signal (OR = 0.200, P-value = 5.84×10-8). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest rare variation residing on common haplotypes are important contributors to EwS risk. IMPACT: Motivate future targeted sequencing studies for a comprehensive evaluation of low-frequency and rare variation around common EwS susceptibility loci.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
4.
Blood Adv ; 4(15): 3621-3625, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766852

RESUMO

To identify the factors influencing outcome in childhood mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and acute leukemia (B-NHL/AL) with central nervous system (CNS) disease (CNS+), we analyzed patients <18 years with newly diagnosed B-NHL/AL registered in 3 Lymphomes Malins B studies in France between 1989 to 2011. CNS+ was diagnosed on fulfillment of ≥1 of the following criteria: any L3 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) blasts (CSF+), cranial nerve palsy, isolated intracerebral mass but also clinical spinal cord compression, and cranial or spinal parameningeal extension. Two hundred seventeen out of 1690 patients (12.8%) were CNS+. CNS+ was significantly associated with male gender, head/neck locations, Burkitt histology, high initial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, and bone marrow involvement. CSF+ was the most frequent pattern of CNS+ (45%). For the 217 CNS+ patients, the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival rates (95% confidence interval) were 81.5% (75.8% to 86.1%) and 83.9% (78.4% to 88.2%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, among CNS+ patients, low EFS was associated with CSF+, high initial LDH level, and poor response to cyclophosphamide, oncovin (vincristine), prednisone prephase. These findings have been considered for patient's stratification in the international randomized phase 3 trial Inter-B-NHL-ritux 2010 for children and adolescents with high-risk B-NHL/AL with CNS+ CSF+ patients only receiving intensified chemotherapy.

5.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(10): e1112-e1119, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539649

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Psychological health at work for care providers is an important issue, because they are directly involved in quality of patient care. Managerial and organizational determinants have been found to be indicators of psychological health at work. The main objective of this study was to explore the relationships between the psychological health at work of pediatric oncology care workers with managerial and organizational determinants and with quality of care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed regression analysis between psychological health at work (quality of work life [QWL], job satisfaction, and so on), managerial determinants (transformational leadership, perceived autonomy support), organizational determinants (organizational support, organizational justice, and participatory approach), and perceived quality of care. RESULTS: Participants were 510 health care professionals working in French pediatric oncology centers. No significant differences in the psychological health at work of the participants were found based on age, sex, length of employment, or professional discipline. In simple regression, significant associations were found between psychological health at work with all managerial and organizational determinants. In multiple regression, a significant link was found between QWL and perceived organizational support (ß = .21; P < .001), organizational justice (ß = .20, P < .001), and overall participatory approach (ß = .10; P < .02). Job satisfaction was also related to perceived organizational support (ß = .16; P < .01). Finally, perceived quality of care was linked to QWL (ß = .15; P < .01) and job satisfaction (ß = .30; P < .001). CONCLUSION: These results emphasize the importance of the role of managers and the organization in psychological health at work of health care providers and also in the quality of patient care.

6.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(6): e28201, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver metastases are rare in children with Wilms tumor (WT), and their impact on the outcome is unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The French cohort of patients with WT presenting liver metastases at diagnosis and enrolled in the International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) 2001 study was reviewed. RESULTS: From 2002 to 2012, 906 French patients were enrolled in the SIOP2001 trial. Among them, 131 (14%) presented with stage IV WT and 18 (1.9%) had liver metastases at diagnosis. Isolated liver metastases were displayed in four of them. After preoperative chemotherapy, persistent liver disease was reported in 14/18 patients, and 13 of them underwent metastasectomy after nephrectomy. In resected liver lesions, the same histology of the primary tumor was reported for three patients, blastemal cells without anaplasia were identified in one patient with DA-WT, and post-chemotherapy necrosis/fibrosis was identified for the other 10 patients. For the four patients who had liver and lung surgery, both sites had nonviable cells with post-chemotherapy necrosis/fibrosis. Six patients had hepatic radiotherapy. Sixteen patients achieved primary complete remission and were alive at the last follow-up (median follow-up: 6.4 years). The only two deceased patients presented diffuse anaplasia histology. The five-year EFS and OS were 83% (60%-94%) and 88% (66%-97%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Liver involvement does not appear to be an adverse prognostic factor in metastatic WT. The role of hepatic surgery and radiotherapy remains unclear, and should be carefully considered in case of persistent liver metastases, according to histology and radiological response to other metastatic sites.


Assuntos
Hepatectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Metastasectomia/mortalidade , Nefrectomia/mortalidade , Tumor de Wilms/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Tumor de Wilms/patologia , Tumor de Wilms/cirurgia
7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013055

RESUMO

To explore the effects of immunotherapy in the International Society of Paediatric Oncology Europe Neuroblastoma Group SIOPEN high-risk neuroblastoma 1 trial (HR-NBL1 trial), two cohorts were studied: one prior to and one after the introduction of dinutuximab beta. All patients received standard induction and high-dose therapy (HDT) with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR); the local control comprised surgery and radiotherapy to the primary tumour site, followed by isotretinoin. A landmark timepoint of 109 days, resulting from the median time between ASCR and initiation of immunotherapy, was used to define patients' eligibility in the pre-immunotherapy analysis cohort. Median follow-up was 5.8 years (inter-quartile range (IQR): 4.2-8.2 years) for 844 eligible patients balanced for risk factors, such as age, sex, stage 4, MYCN amplification and response prior to HDT. The five-year event-free and overall survival (95% confidence interval (CI) of 466 patients not receiving immunotherapy was 42% (38-47%) and 50% (46-55%) but was 57% (51-62%) and 64% (59-69%) for 378 patients receiving immunotherapy (p < 0.001). A multivariate analysis identified absence of immunotherapy (p = 0.0002, hazard ratio (HR) 1.573); type of HDT (p = 0.0029, HR 1.431); less than complete response prior to maintenance therapy (p = 0.0043, HR 1.494) and >1 metastatic compartment at diagnosis (p < 0.001, HR 2.665) as risk factors for relapse or progression. Results suggest an important role for dinutuximab beta-based immunotherapy within the treatment concepts applied in HR-NBL1/SIOPEN.

8.
Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 64(1): 131-138, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of postoperative 123I-MIBG scintigraphy, including systematic SPECT/CT and semiquantification of the uptake at the surgical site, in a prospective series of NB patients. METHODS: Patients operated for neuroblastoma and who had benefited from postoperative 123I-MIBG scintigraphy were prospectively and consecutively included. Completeness of surgery was assessed on operative report. One month postoperative 123I-MIBG scintigraphy included planar acquisition and SPECT/CT. Semi-quantification of the 123I-MIBG SPECT/CT uptake at the surgical site was performed and ratios to reference (liver and mediastinum) areas were calculated. RESULTS: Thirty patients were included between August 2012 and July 2015. Median follow-up was 36 months (range 10-98). Surgery was considered as complete in 23 patients and incomplete in 7 patients. Eight patients (26.7%) presented progressive disease (1 progression and 7 recurrences). Seven patients died (23.3%), all from NB. Six (20%) patients had positive 123I-MIBG scintigraphy (3 on planar acquisitions and 6 on SPECT/CT) and 24 patients had negative 123I-MIBG scintigraphy. Five of the 6 patients (83%) with positive 123I-MIBG scintigraphy presented progressive disease. Ratio of the uptake at the surgical site to mediastinum was strongly and independently correlated with disease-free interval and overall survival (P=0.02 and 0.01 respectively). The amplified MYCN status was also confirmed as correlated with poorer outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative 123I-MIBG scintigraphy including SPECT/CT and semiquantification of the uptake at the surgical site appeared to be a valuable prognostic tool in neuroblastoma.

9.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(1): 134-144, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atezolizumab is an inhibitor of PD-L1, which can lead to enhanced anticancer T-cell activity. We aimed to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and activity of atezolizumab in children and young adults with refractory or relapsed solid tumours, with known or expected PD-L1 expression. METHODS: iMATRIX was a multicentre, open-label, phase 1-2 trial of patients (aged <30 years) with solid tumours or lymphomas recruited from 28 hospitals in ten countries (USA, France, Italy, UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Israel, Switzerland, and Germany). Eligible patients younger than 18 years received 15 mg/kg atezolizumab (maximum 1200 mg); patients aged 18-29 years received the adult dose (1200 mg) until disease progression or loss of clinical benefit. Co-primary endpoints were safety (assessed by incidence of adverse events) and pharmacokinetics (assessed by serum atezolizumab concentrations). Secondary endpoints included the proportion of patients achieving an objective response. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02541604. FINDINGS: Between Nov 5, 2015, and April 2, 2018, we screened 115 patients, 25 of whom did not meet the inclusion criteria. 90 patients, with a median age of 14 years (IQR 10-17), were enrolled. At the data cutoff (April 2, 2018), two patients remained on study treatment. 87 (97%) of 90 patients received at least one dose of atezolizumab at 15 mg/kg or 1200 mg and were evaluable for safety. Three patients were not treated owing to either poor clinical condition or withdrawal of consent. In the safety-evaluable population (n=87), the most common adverse events were pyrexia (36 [41%] patients) and fatigue (31 [36%]). The most common grade 3-4 adverse event was anaemia (19 [22%] patients). The most commonly reported serious adverse events were in the categories of infections and infestations; pyrexia was the only serious adverse event reported in more than two patients. 57 (66%) patients had at least one treatment-related adverse event (grade 1-4); fatigue was the most common treatment-related adverse event (17 patients [20%]). There were no fatal adverse events. Mean serum concentrations of atezolizumab were overlapping and comparable between children receiving 15 mg/kg and young adults receiving 1200 mg of atezolizumab every 3 weeks. Serum concentrations of atezolizumab were above the target exposure level in all patients. At 6 months, four patients (5%) achieved an objective response (all partial responses). INTERPRETATION: Although response to atezolizumab was restricted, atezolizumab was well tolerated with generally comparable exposure across populations. Our findings might help to define future development strategies for immune checkpoint inhibitors either by focusing research to specific disease subpopulations that exhibit greater benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors, or by providing the means to identify therapeutic combination partners that augment T-cell infiltration and proliferation in so-called immune cold tumour microenvironments. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Distribuição Tecidual , Adulto Jovem
10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(9): e27873, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207026

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In order to describe relapsed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mature acute leukemia in children/adolescents treated with the Lymphomes Malins B (LMB) regimen and their outcome in the rituximab era, relapses in the French LMB2001 study were reviewed. METHODS: Between February 2001 and December 2011, 33 patients out of 773 (4.3%) relapsed; 27 had Burkitt lymphoma and six large B-cell histology. Median age at diagnosis was 10.1 years. One patient was initially treated in risk group A, 21 in group B, and 11 in group C. RESULTS: Median time to relapse after diagnosis was 4.5 months (range 2.4-13.6). Thirty-two patients received salvage therapy. Twenty-seven received rituximab mainly in addition to high-dose cytarabine and etoposide (n = 18) and/or ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (n = 7). First-line salvage chemotherapy response rate was 66% with 47% being complete remission (CR). Twenty-one patients received high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) followed by autologous (n = 13) or allogeneic (n = 8) transplant. With a median follow-up of 6.8 years, the 5-year survival rate after relapse was 36.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 22-53%). Twelve patients were still alive; all but one (group A) received consolidation treatment. Achieving CR before consolidation was significantly associated with better survival, with a 5-year survival rate of 75% (95% CI 46.8-91.1%) for patients in CR before HDC, 33% (95% CI 9.7-70%) for patients in partial remission, and 0% for nonresponders (P = .033). CONCLUSION: Survival of children/adolescents with mature B-cell lymphoma/leukemia remains poor after relapse with no apparent improvement with rituximab. Response rates to salvage chemo-immunotherapies are insufficient and new drugs are urgently needed to improve disease control.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Linfoma de Burkitt , Leucemia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Linfoma de Burkitt/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Burkitt/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Burkitt/mortalidade , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , França , Humanos , Ifosfamida/administração & dosagem , Lactente , Leucemia/diagnóstico , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
European J Pediatr Surg Rep ; 7(1): e16-e19, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192106

RESUMO

Infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS) is a rare nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue tumor and accounts for less than 1% of childhood cancers. Forty per cent are present at birth and only 10% of IFS occurs in the abdomen. Our case of neonatal fibrosarcoma presented as a distal small bowel stenosis complicated with meconium peritonitis. The diagnosis was by histology of the surgical resection. The diagnosis of IFS is challenging as there are no specific features of IFS on imaging. Any unexpected solid lesion should raise the suspicion of complicated bowel tumoral lesion. If a neoplastic lesion is suspected extensive, surgery may be postponed until the final diagnosis is made.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 145(10): 2781-2791, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018240

RESUMO

In neuroblastoma (NB), genetic alterations in chromatin remodeling (CRGs) and epigenetic modifier genes (EMGs) have been described. We sought to determine their frequency and clinical impact. Whole exome (WES)/whole genome sequencing (WGS) data and targeted sequencing (TSCA®) of exonic regions of 33 CRGs/EMGs were analyzed in tumor samples from 283 NB patients, with constitutional material available for 55 patients. The frequency of CRG/EMG variations in NB cases was then compared to the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD). The sequencing revealed SNVs/small InDels or focal CNAs of CRGs/EMGs in 20% (56/283) of all cases, occurring at a somatic level in 4 (7.2%), at a germline level in 12 (22%) cases, whereas for the remaining cases, only tumor material could be analyzed. The most frequently altered genes were ATRX (5%), SMARCA4 (2.5%), MLL3 (2.5%) and ARID1B (2.5%). Double events (SNVs/small InDels/CNAs associated with LOH) were observed in SMARCA4 (n = 3), ATRX (n = 1) and PBRM1 (n = 1). Among the 60 variations, 24 (8.4%) targeted domains of functional importance for chromatin remodeling or highly conserved domains but of unknown function. Variations in SMARCA4 and ATRX occurred more frequently in the NB as compared to the gnomAD control cohort (OR = 4.49, 95%CI: 1.63-9.97, p = 0.038; OR 3.44, 95%CI: 1.46-6.91, p = 0.043, respectively). Cases with CRG/EMG variations showed a poorer overall survival compared to cases without variations. Genetic variations of CRGs/EMGs with likely functional impact were observed in 8.4% (24/283) of NB. Our case-control approach suggests a role of SMARCA4 as a player of NB oncogenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Neuroblastoma/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Neuroblastoma/mortalidade , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteína Nuclear Ligada ao X/genética
13.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66 Suppl 3: e27670, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828979

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prognosis of dumbbell neuroblastoma (NBL) is mainly determined by the sequelae induced by the tumor itself and the neurosurgical approach. However, after primary chemotherapy, surgical management of the residual tumor, especially the spinal canal component, remains controversial. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study over the last 15 years (2002-2017) including patients treated for NBL with spinal canal extension focusing on timing and type of surgery, complications, and functional and oncological follow-up. RESULTS: Thirty-two children (14 M, 18 F) were managed for NBL, with the majority (26) presenting with NBL stroma poor while four had ganglioneuroblastoma intermixed, one nodular, and one ganglioneuroma. All but two patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Upfront laminotomy for spinal cord decompression was performed in two patients; nine patients had extraspinal surgery with a follow-up neurosurgical procedure in seven cases; eight patients had initial neurosurgery followed by an extraspinal procedure, while six patients underwent a combined multidisciplinary approach. With a median follow up of 3.6 years (0.1-14.9), 29 patients (90.6) are alive and two out of three (19, 65.5%) have functional sequelae. CONCLUSION: Patients with NBL with persistent spinal canal extension of the tumor after neoadjuvant chemotherapy treated at our center had outcomes that compare favorably with the literature. This is likely due to the multidisciplinary approach to optimal surgical strategy and continuous evaluation of the respective risks of tumor progression. Neurological disability results from initial spinal cord compression or the radicular sacrifice required for tumor resection.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/patologia
14.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 98(5): 630-637, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919447

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The preservation of fertility is an integral part of care of children requiring gonadotoxic treatments for cancer or non-malignant diseases. In France, the cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been considered and has been offered as a clinical treatment since its inception. The aim of this study is to review 20 years of activity in fertility preservation by ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) for children and the feasibility of oocyte isolation and cryopreservation from the ovarian tissue at a single center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study including patients aged 15 years or younger who underwent OTC, combined for some with oocyte cryopreservation of isolated oocytes, before a highly gonadotoxic treatment for malignant or non-malignant disease was initiated. We describe the evolution of activities in our program for fertility preservation and patient characteristics at the time of OTC and follow up. RESULTS: From April 1998 to December 2018, 418 girls and adolescents younger than 15 years of age underwent OTC, representing 40.5% of all females who have had ovarian tissue cryopreserved at our center. In all, 313 patients had malignant diseases and 105 had benign conditions. Between November 2009 and July 2013, oocytes were isolated and also cryopreserved in 50 cases. The mean age of patients was 6.9 years (range 0.3-15). The most frequent diagnoses in this cohort included neuroblastoma, acute leukemia and hemoglobinopathies; neuroblastoma being the most common diagnosis in very young patients. During follow up, three patients requested the use of their cryopreserved ovarian tissue. All had undergone ovarian tissue transplantation, one for puberty induction and the two others for restoring fertility. So far, no pregnancies have been achieved. Eighty-four patients who had OTC died. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the only available technique for preserving fertility of girls. To our knowledge this is the largest series of girls and adolescents younger than 15 years so far reported on procedures of OTC before highly gonadotoxic treatment in a single center.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Criopreservação , Preservação da Fertilidade , Neoplasias , Ovário , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Criopreservação/métodos , Criopreservação/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Preservação da Fertilidade/estatística & dados numéricos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Recuperação de Oócitos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Int J Cancer ; 144(1): 68-79, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923174

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a powerful tool for the molecular characterization of cancer. The most frequent pediatric kidney tumors (KT) are Wilms' tumors (WT), but other diagnoses may occur. According to the SIOP strategy, in most countries pediatric KT have a presumptive diagnosis of WT if they are clinically and radiologically compatible. The histologic confirmation is established after post-chemotherapy nephrectomy. Thus, there is a risk for a small fraction of patients to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy that is not adapted to the disease. The aim of this work is to perform molecular diagnosis of pediatric KT by tumor genetic characterization based on the analysis of ctDNA. We analyzed ctDNA extracted from plasma samples of 18 pediatric patients with KT by whole-exome sequencing and compared the results to their matched tumor and germline DNA. Copy number alterations (CNAs) and single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were analyzed. We were able to detect tumor cell specific genetic alterations-CNAs, SNVs or both-in ctDNA in all patients except in one (for whom the plasma sample was obtained long after nephrectomy). These results open the door to new applications for the study of ctDNA with regards to the molecular diagnosis of KT, with a possibility of its usefulness for adapting the treatment early after diagnosis, but also for disease monitoring and follow up.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Tumor de Wilms/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Masculino , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Nefrectomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Tumor de Wilms/diagnóstico , Tumor de Wilms/terapia
17.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(12): 1617-1629, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy with the chimeric anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody dinutuximab, combined with alternating granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and intravenous interleukin-2 (IL-2), improves survival in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. We aimed to assess event-free survival after treatment with ch14.18/CHO (dinutuximab beta) and subcutaneous IL-2, compared with dinutuximab beta alone in children and young people with high-risk neuroblastoma. METHODS: We did an international, open-label, phase 3, randomised, controlled trial in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma at 104 institutions in 12 countries. Eligible patients were aged 1-20 years and had MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma with stages 2, 3, or 4S, or stage 4 neuroblastoma of any MYCN status, according to the International Neuroblastoma Staging System. Patients were eligible if they had been enrolled at diagnosis in the HR-NBL1/SIOPEN trial, had completed the multidrug induction regimen (cisplatin, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and etoposide, with or without topotecan, vincristine, and doxorubicin), had achieved a disease response that fulfilled prespecified criteria, had received high-dose therapy (busulfan and melphalan or carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan) and had received radiotherapy to the primary tumour site. In this component of the trial, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive dinutuximab beta (20 mg/m2 per day as an 8 h infusion for 5 consecutive days) or dinutuximab beta plus subcutaneous IL-2 (6 × 106 IU/m2 per day on days 1-5 and days 8-12 of each cycle) with the minimisation method to balance randomisation for national groups and type of high-dose therapy. All participants received oral isotretinoin (160 mg/m2 per day for 2 weeks) before the first immunotherapy cycle and after each immunotherapy cycle, for six cycles. The primary endpoint was 3-year event-free survival, analysed by intention to treat. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01704716, and EudraCT, number 2006-001489-17, and recruitment to this randomisation is closed. FINDINGS: Between Oct 22, 2009, and Aug 12, 2013, 422 patients were eligible to participate in the immunotherapy randomisation, of whom 406 (96%) were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n=200 to dinutuximab beta and n=206 to dinutuximab beta with subcutaneous IL-2). Median follow-up was 4·7 years (IQR 3·9-5·3). Because of toxicity, 117 (62%) of 188 patients assigned to dinutuximab beta and subcutaneous IL-2 received their allocated treatment, by contrast with 160 (87%) of 183 patients who received dinutuximab beta alone (p<0·0001). 3-year event-free survival was 56% (95% CI 49-63) with dinutuximab beta (83 patients had an event) and 60% (53-66) with dinutuximab beta and subcutaneous IL-2 (80 patients had an event; p=0·76). Four patients died of toxicity (n=2 in each group); one patient in each group while receiving immunotherapy (n=1 congestive heart failure and pulmonary hypertension due to capillary leak syndrome; n=1 infection-related acute respiratory distress syndrome), and one patient in each group after five cycles of immunotherapy (n=1 fungal infection and multi-organ failure; n=1 pulmonary fibrosis). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were hypersensitivity reactions (19 [10%] of 185 patients in the dinutuximab beta group vs 39 [20%] of 191 patients in the dinutuximab plus subcutaneous IL-2 group), capillary leak (five [4%] of 119 vs 19 [15%] of 125), fever (25 [14%] of 185 vs 76 [40%] of 190), infection (47 [25%] of 185 vs 64 [33%] of 191), immunotherapy-related pain (19 [16%] of 122 vs 32 [26%] of 124), and impaired general condition (30 [16%] of 185 vs 78 [41%] of 192). INTERPRETATION: There is no evidence that addition of subcutaneous IL-2 to immunotherapy with dinutuximab beta, given as an 8 h infusion, improved outcomes in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma who had responded to standard induction and consolidation treatment. Subcutaneous IL-2 with dinutuximab beta was associated with greater toxicity than dinutuximab beta alone. Dinutuximab beta and isotretinoin without subcutaneous IL-2 should thus be considered the standard of care until results of ongoing randomised trials using a modified schedule of dinutuximab beta and subcutaneous IL-2 are available. FUNDING: European Commission 5th Frame Work Grant, St. Anna Kinderkrebsforschung, Fondation ARC pour la recherche sur le Cancer.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-2/administração & dosagem , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Interleucina-2/efeitos adversos , Isotretinoína/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Neuroblastoma/imunologia , Neuroblastoma/mortalidade , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2018782516, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188789

RESUMO

Purpose For over 30 years, the place of consolidation high-dose chemotherapy in Ewing sarcoma (ES) has been controversial. A randomized study was conducted to determine whether consolidation high-dose chemotherapy improved survival in patients with localized ES at high risk for relapse. Methods Randomization between busulfan and melphalan (BuMel) or standard chemotherapy (vincristine, dactinomycin, and ifosfamide [VAI], seven courses) was offered to patients if they were younger than 50 years of age with poor histologic response (≥ 10% viable cells) after receiving vincristine, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide (six courses); or had a tumor volume at diagnosis ≥ 200 mL if unresected, or initially resected, or resected after radiotherapy. A 15% improvement in 3-year event-free survival (EFS) was sought (hazard ratio [HR], 0.60). Results Between 2000 and 2015, 240 patients classified as high risk (median age, 17.1 years) were randomly assigned to VAI (n = 118) or BuMel (n = 122). Seventy-eight percent entered the trial because of poor histologic response after chemotherapy alone. Median follow-up was 7.8 years. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the risk of event was significantly decreased by BuMel compared with VAI: HR, 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.95; P = .026); 3- and 8-year EFS were, respectively, 69.0% (95% CI, 60.2% to 76.6%) versus 56.7% (95% CI, 47.6% to 65.4%) and 60.7% (95% CI, 51.1% to 69.6%) versus 47.1% (95% CI, 37.7% to 56.8%). Overall survival (OS) also favored BuMel: HR, 0.63 (95% CI, 0.41 to 0.95; P = .028); 3- and 8-year OS were, respectively, 78.0% (95% CI, 69.6% to 84.5%) versus 72.2% (95% CI, 63.3% to 79.6%) and 64.5% (95% CI, 54.4% to 73.5%) versus 55.6% (95% CI, 45.8% to 65.1%). Results were consistent in the sensitivity analysis. Two patients died as a result of BuMel-related toxicity, one after standard chemotherapy. Significantly more BuMel patients experienced severe acute toxicities from this course of chemotherapy compared with multiple VAI courses. Conclusion BuMel improved EFS and OS when given after vincristine, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide induction in localized ES with predefined high-risk factors. For this group of patients, BuMel may be an important addition to the standard of care.

19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3184, 2018 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093639

RESUMO

Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a pediatric cancer characterized by the EWSR1-FLI1 fusion. We performed a genome-wide association study of 733 EWS cases and 1346 unaffected individuals of European ancestry. Our study replicates previously reported susceptibility loci at 1p36.22, 10q21.3 and 15q15.1, and identifies new loci at 6p25.1, 20p11.22 and 20p11.23. Effect estimates exhibit odds ratios in excess of 1.7, which is high for cancer GWAS, and striking in light of the rarity of EWS cases in familial cancer syndromes. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate genes at 6p25.1 (RREB1) and 20p11.23 (KIZ). The 20p11.22 locus is near NKX2-2, a highly overexpressed gene in EWS. Interestingly, most loci reside near GGAA repeat sequences and may disrupt binding of the EWSR1-FLI1 fusion protein. The high locus to case discovery ratio from 733 EWS cases suggests a genetic architecture in which moderate risk SNPs constitute a significant fraction of risk.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Alelos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica c-fli-1/genética , Controle de Qualidade , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteína EWS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Risco , Sarcoma de Ewing/etnologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra
20.
Cancer Med ; 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905027

RESUMO

The association between growth hormone (GH) treatment and cancer risk has not been thoroughly evaluated and there are questions about any increased risk of bone tumors. We examined cancer risk and especially bone tumor risk in a population-based cohort study of 6874 patients treated with recombinant GH in France for isolated GH deficiency, short stature associated with low birth weight or length or idiopathic short stature. Adult mortality and morbidity data obtained from national databases and from questionnaires. Case ascertainment completeness was estimated with capture-recapture methods. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios were calculated using national reference data. 111 875 person-years of observation were analyzed and patients were followed for an average of 17.4 ± 5.3 years to a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.2 years. For cancer overall, mortality and incidence were not different from expected figures. Five patients developed bone tumors (chondrosarcoma, 1, Ewing sarcoma, 1, osteosarcoma, 3) of whom 3 died (Ewing sarcoma, 1, osteosarcoma, 2), whereas only 1.4 case and 0.6 deaths were expected: standardized mortality ratio, 5.0 and standardized incidence ratio from 3.5 to 3.8 accounting or not accounting for missed cases. Most patients received conventional doses of GH, although one patient with osteosarcoma had received high dose GH (60 µg/kg/d). This study confirms an increased risk of bone tumors but not overall cancer risk in subjects treated with GH in childhood for isolated GH deficiency or childhood short stature. Further work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

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