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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682980

RESUMO

Azithromycin exposure during the early phase of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been associated with an increased incidence of hematological relapse. We assessed the impact of azithromycin exposure on the occurrence of relapse or new subsequent neoplasm (SN) in patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after HCT, who are commonly treated with azithromycin alone or in combination with other agents. In a retrospective study of BOS patients from two large allograft centers, the effect of azithromycin exposure on the risk of relapse or SN was estimated from a Cox model with a time-dependent variable for treatment initiation. The Cox model was adjusted on time-fixed covariates measured at cohort entry, selected for their potential prognostic value. Similar models were used to assess the exposure effect on the cause-specific hazard of relapse, SN, and death free of those events. Sensitivity analyses were performed using propensity score matching. Among 316 patients, 227 (71.8%) were exposed to azithromycin after BOS diagnosis. The corresponding adjusted hazard ratio in patients exposed to azithromycin versus unexposed was HR = 1.51 (95% CI, 0.90 to 2.55) for relapse or SN, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.37 to 1.83) for relapse, and 2.00 (95% CI, 1.01 to 3.99) for SN. Patients exposed to azithromycin had a significantly lower cause-specific hazard of death free of neoplasm and relapse (adjusted HR= 0.54, 95%CI, 0.34 to 0.89). In conclusion, exposure to azithromycin after BOS after HCT was associated with an increased risk of SN but not relapse.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421238

RESUMO

Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a serious complication associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although anti-CD-20 therapy is now used as a preemptive strategy for EBV reactivation, PTLD still occurs in some patients. Here we analyzed outcomes and risk factors associated with PTLD transformation in 208 HSCT recipients who were diagnosed with EBV-DNAemia and received at least 1 course of rituximab. The median patient age was 42.52 years (range, 8.35 to 74.77 years), and the median duration of follow-up was 47.33 months (range, 3.18 to 126.20 months). The 2-year overall survival of the entire cohort was 62.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 56.4 to 69.9), and the 2-year cumulative incidence function of PTLD was 6.3% (95% CI, 3.5% to 10.1%), for a median follow-up of patients diagnosed with PTLD of 37.85 months. Multivariable analysis identified 4 risk factors associated with PTLD: HSCT from an unrelated donor, recipient HLA-DRB1*11:01, fever at diagnosis of EBV infection, and donor-recipient sex-mismatched HSCT. The presence of more than 2 of these risk factors was associated with an increased risk of developing PTLD. This retrospective study identifies risk factors associated with PTLD in EBV-infected patients after HSCT and defines patient subgroups that may benefit from intensified preemptive strategies.

3.
Blood ; 134(6): 493-495, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395579
4.
Blood Adv ; 3(15): 2424-2435, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409584

RESUMO

Endothelial cell (EC) activation has been suspected of triggering a group of rare and dismal complications that can occur after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Capillary leak syndrome, engraftment syndrome, transplant-associated microangiopathy, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome are the main nosological entities. Post-HSCT endotheliitis can be triggered by chemotherapy, infections, and calcineurin inhibitors, but allogeneic reactivity is claimed to be the common denominator. Endothelial damages are thought to activate several deleterious pathways (proapoptotic, procoagulant, proinflammatory) and can lead to multiorgan failure; however, clinical manifestations of each syndrome overlap, and their relationship with graft-versus-host disease could be minimal. The lack of well-defined diagnostic criteria does not allow for a clear-cut comparison in the current literature. Therapeutic efforts have been made to intercept the pathogenic mechanisms leading to EC dysfunction, but remission rates and survival remain mostly unsatisfactory. In this article, we have reviewed the incidence, clinical features, and treatment approaches of EC activation syndromes, and we plead for the development of internationally accepted standard definitions.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413313

RESUMO

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. No consensus exists on the best second-line treatment of steroid-refractory acute GVHD (SR-aGVHD). Previously published smaller studies on the use of sirolimus in SR-aGVHD treatment report a response rate of 57 to 86%, with 40% overall survival. The association of tacrolimus and mTOR inhibitor is supported by pre-clinical data and has been used as GVHD prophylaxis. We report 42 patients who received tacrolimus and mTOR inhibitor as a second- or third-line treatment of SR-aGVHD. Thirty-one patients were treated in second-line, with an overall response rate of 48.5% (complete response: 42%). Eleven patients were treated in third-line, with an overall response rate of 27%. Thirty-eight patients had at least one episode of infection, due to bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in 61, 42, 12 and two episodes, respectively. For patients treated in second-line, six-month and one-year survival were 61% and 42%, respectively. None of the patients treated in third-line survived. These results were not promising enough to initiate a phase three randomized clinical trial, but tacrolimus and mTOR inhibitor can be discussed among other options for patients with SR-aGVHD.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2018792184, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403573

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) occurs in the blood of approximately 20% of older persons. CHIP is linked to an increased risk of hematologic malignancies and of all-cause mortality; thus, the eligibility of stem-cell donors with CHIP is questionable. We comprehensively investigated how donor CHIP affects outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: We collected blood samples from 500 healthy, related HSCT donors (age ≥ 55 years) at the time of stem-cell donation for targeted sequencing with a 66-gene panel. The effect of donor CHIP was assessed on recipient outcomes, including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), cumulative incidence of relapse/progression (CIR/P), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of 92 clonal mutations with a median variant allele frequency of 5.9% were identified in 80 (16.0%) of 500 donors. CHIP prevalence was higher in donors related to patients with myeloid compared with lymphoid malignancies (19.2% v 6.3%; P ≤ .001). In recipients allografted with donor CHIP, we found a high cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD (cGVHD; hazard ratio [HR], 1.73; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.49; P = .003) and lower CIR/P (univariate: HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.97; P = .027; multivariate: HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.98; P = .042) but no effect on nonrelapse mortality. Serial quantification of 25 mutations showed engraftment of 24 of 25 clones and disproportionate expansion in half of them. Donor-cell leukemia was observed in two recipients. OS was not affected by donor CHIP status (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.321; P = .434). CONCLUSION: Allogeneic HSCT from donors with CHIP seems safe and results in similar survival in the setting of older, related donors. Future studies in younger and unrelated donors are warranted to extend these results. Confirmatory studies and mechanistic experiments are warranted to challenge the hypothesis that donor CHIP might foster cGVHD development and reduce relapse/progression risk.

8.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429576

RESUMO

In the version of this article originally published, the main-text sentence "In three patients of European ancestry, we identified the germline variant encoding p.Ile97Met in TIM-3, which was homozygous in two (P12 and P13) and heterozygous in one (P15) in the germline but with no TIM-3 plasma membrane expression in the tumor" misstated the identifiers of the two homozygous individuals, which should have been P13 and P14. The error has been corrected in the HTML, PDF and print versions of the paper.

9.
Nat Genet ; 50(12): 1650-1657, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374066

RESUMO

Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma (SPTCL), a non-Hodgkin lymphoma, can be associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a life-threatening immune activation that adversely affects survival1,2. T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM-3) is a modulator of immune responses expressed on subgroups of T and innate immune cells. We identify in ~60% of SPTCL cases germline, loss-of-function, missense variants altering highly conserved residues of TIM-3, c.245A>G (p.Tyr82Cys) and c.291A>G (p.Ile97Met), each with specific geographic distribution. The variant encoding p.Tyr82Cys TIM-3 occurs on a potential founder chromosome in patients with East Asian and Polynesian ancestry, while p.Ile97Met TIM-3 occurs in patients with European ancestry. Both variants induce protein misfolding and abrogate TIM-3's plasma membrane expression, leading to persistent immune activation and increased production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß, promoting HLH and SPTCL. Our findings highlight HLH-SPTCL as a new genetic entity and identify mutations causing TIM-3 alterations as a causative genetic defect in SPTCL. While HLH-SPTCL patients with mutant TIM-3 benefit from immunomodulation, therapeutic repression of the TIM-3 checkpoint may have adverse consequences.

10.
Cancer ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) who develop disease progression after undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) remains challenging. METHODS: The authors assessed outcomes in 184 adult patients with HL who developed disease recurrence or progression after a matched related or unrelated allo-SCT at European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation-participating centers between 2010 and 2014. RESULTS: Eighty patients who received brentuximab vedotin (BV) salvage therapy were compared with 104 patients who did not. Patients in the BV group were younger (median age of 30 years vs 34 years) and were more likely to receive pretransplant BV (65% vs 46%) or posttransplant donor lymphocyte infusion (66% vs 33%). The 2 groups otherwise were comparable. Patients in the BV group received a median of 6 doses of posttransplant BV, resulting in a complete remission rate of 29%, a partial response rate of 45%, and a stable disease rate of 26%. Response to BV after allo-SCT did not appear to be affected by receipt of pretransplant BV. Despite a longer median follow-up for surviving patients in the BV group (33 months vs 23 months; P<.001), approximately 34% of the original BV cohort were alive and in CR at the time of last follow-up versus 18% in the group that did not receive BV (P=.003). The use of BV before donor lymphocyte infusion was found to be associated with the highest probability of being alive and in CR (40%) at the time of last follow-up. Salvage BV appeared to have no effect on chronic graft-versus-host disease or 1-year overall survival from the time of disease recurrence after allo-SCT (76% vs 67%). CONCLUSIONS: BV is a safe and effective salvage therapy for patients with HL who develop disease recurrence or progression after undergoing allo-SCT, even after prior exposure to BV.

11.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(12): 2523-2531, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071321

RESUMO

Liver blood test anomalies are common after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), but their cause often remains difficult to identify. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and utility of liver biopsies in patients who underwent allo-HSCT. In a retrospective single-center cohort study, we reviewed all cases of patients who underwent liver biopsy between June 2005 and July 2017. During this period, 54 biopsies were performed in 45 patients, in which 38 patients underwent allo-HSCT for malignant and 7 for nonmalignant hematological disorders. Median time between allo-HSCT and liver biopsy was 213 days. Seven biopsies were percutaneous, and 47 were transjugular. No adverse event related to the biopsy procedure occurred; 94.5% biopsies (51 of 54) led to a histological diagnosis. Cholestatic graft-versus-host disease was histologically demonstrated in 16 biopsies (30%); hepatitis-like graft-versus-host disease in 9 biopsies (17%); nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in 6 biopsies (9%); regenerative nodular hyperplasia in 4 biopsies (5%); and drug-induced liver injury, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, and viral hepatitis each in 3 biopsies (5%). Association between clinical, laboratory, imaging and pathological features was poor. Only 34% of physicians' prebiopsy hypotheses were confirmed by pathological findings. Patient management was influenced by liver biopsy results in 65% of cases, allowing us to identify a new diagnosis (n = 13), rule out a differential diagnosis (n = 14), or confirm the main hypothesis (n = 6). In conclusion, liver biopsy is a safe and useful technique to investigate liver blood test anomalies following allo-HSCT.

12.
Eur J Haematol ; 101(4): 466-474, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29714032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Relapse and graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) are still the main complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, especially in the setting of reduced intensity regimen (RIC) and unrelated donor. We compared here anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) or alemtuzumab as GVHD prophylaxis in patients with myeloid disease transplanted after RIC and from an unrelated donor. METHOD: ATG and alemtuzumab patients have been matched by age, gender, HLA matching, comorbidities and cytogenetics risk (119 patients in each group). RESULTS: After matching, we found that ATG decreased the risk of relapse (HR: 0.55, P = .0049) and improved relapse-free survival (RFS, HR: 0.70, P = .042). The improved RFS with ATG was more pronounced in CMV-positive patients but was not influenced by disease risk. Regarding overall survival, GVHD-free relapse-free survival and transplant-related mortality, the risk was similar using ATG or alemtuzumab. CONCLUSION: Even if GVHD risk is lowered by alemtuzumab use, it does not translate in better outcome due to higher risk of relapse.

14.
J Immunol ; 200(1): 139-146, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187588

RESUMO

The preimmune repertoire consists of mature T lymphocytes that have not yet been stimulated in the periphery. Memory phenotype (MP) cells have been reported as part of the preimmune repertoire (i.e., T cells bearing memory markers despite lack of engagement with cognate Ag); however, little is known about their trafficking and function. In this study, we hypothesized that MP cells, naive to TCR stimulation, constitute a transient population that traffics to tissues during development. Using mutant and transgenic animals with a monospecific TCR, we discovered increased numbers of MP CD8+ T cells circulating in nonimmunized Cxcr3-/- and Cxcl10-/- mice compared with wild-type animals. Phenotypic differences included decreased numbers of preimmune MP Ag-specific T cells in the skin and thymus and a distinct pattern of activation upon TCR engagement. Our results show for the first time, to our knowledge, an important role for CXCR3 and CXCL10 in the tissue distribution of preimmune MP cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR3/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CXCL10/genética , Quimiocina CXCL9/genética , Quimiocina CXCL9/metabolismo , Memória Imunológica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR3/genética
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(42): e8303, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049232

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of graft versus host disease (GvHD) is a rare cause of CNS disorders after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Chronic CNS GvHD symptoms are heterogeneous and include cerebrovascular manifestations, demyelinating disease and immune-mediated encephalitis. CNS-Acute GvHD is not formally defined in literature. PATIENTS CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: We report 7 cases of CNS-GvHD among which two had histological-proven disease. We reviewed 32 additional cases of CNS GvHD published in literature since 1990. In this cohort, 34 patients were transplanted for hematologic malignancies, and 5 for non-malignant hematopoiesis disorders. Of these patients, 25 had a history of chronic GvHD and immunosuppressive treatment had been decreased or discontinued in 14 patients before neurological symptoms onset. Median neurological disorder onset was 385 days [7-7320]. Patients had stroke-like episodes (n = 7), lacunar syndromes (n = 3), multiple sclerosis-like presentations (n = 7), acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis-like symptoms (n = 4), encephalitis (n = 14), mass syndrome (n = 1), and 3 had non-specific symptoms. Median neurological symptoms onset was 81.5 days [7-1095] for patients without chronic GVHD history versus 549 days [11-7300] for patients with chronic GVHD (P = 0.001). Patients with early involvement of CNS after allo-HSCT and no chronic GVHD symptoms were more frequently suffering from encephalitis (64% versus 28%, P = 0.07), whereas stroke-like episodes and lacunar symptoms were less frequent (9% versus 36%, P = 0.13). INTERVENTIONS: 34 patients with CNS-GvHD were treated with immunosuppressive therapy, including corticosteroids for 31 of them. Other treatments were intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide, calcineurin inhibitors, mycophenolic acid, methotrexate and etoposide. OUTCOMES: 27 patients achieved a response: 10 complete responses, 15 partial responses and 2 transient responses. Of 25 patients with sufficient follow-up, 7 were alive and 18 patients deceased after CNS-GvHD diagnosis. LESSONS: CNS-related GvHD is a rare cause of CNS disorders after allo-HSCT and is associated with a poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 97(3): 358-364, 2017 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27722764

RESUMO

Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a rare condition usually considered to have a favourable prognosis. However, it is not known whether polychemotherapy or immunosuppressive-based therapy is the best approach for treating SPTCL. Using data collected between 2000 and 2012 in France, we analysed clinical, biological and pathological data of 27 patients with SPTCL. Medical history revealed that 40% of patients had been previously diagnosed with an autoimmune disorder and 22% with inflammatory panniculitis. Haemophagocytic syndrome was present in 37% of cases. Autoantibodies were positive in 65% of cases. Complete remission (CR) was reached in 74% of cases. Immunosuppressive drug treatment was given in 69.5% of patients (group 1) and polychemotherapy in 30.5% (group 2). CR was 81.2% and 28.5% (p?=?0.025), respectively. Progression rate was 6.2% and 42.8% (p?=?0.067), respectively. This study suggests that immunosuppressive drugs should be considered as the first-line treatment for SPTCL.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Linfoma de Células T/tratamento farmacológico , Paniculite/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , França , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Lactente , Linfoma de Células T/imunologia , Linfoma de Células T/mortalidade , Linfoma de Células T/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paniculite/imunologia , Paniculite/mortalidade , Paniculite/patologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Blood Adv ; 1(18): 1409-1413, 2017 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29296781

RESUMO

Various pretransplant patient and disease characteristics are associated with treatment-related mortality (TRM) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, TRM cannot yet be satisfactorily predicted. We prospectively investigated the aggregate impact of pretransplant clinical variables (period, donor/recipient age, gender, cytomegalovirus status, disease risk, stem cell source, and HLA matching), comorbidity index scores (Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index), and biological markers (telomere length, ferritin, and C-reactive protein) on TRM in single-center patients receiving a first allo-HSCT. From 2006 to 2012, all variables were available for 178 patients. In multivariate analysis, only mismatched unrelated donor (hazard ratio [HR], 2.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-6.58; P = .019) and shorter age-adjusted recipient telomere length (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.03-4.57; P = .041) were independently associated with TRM. Pre-allo-HSCT age-adjusted telomere length thus appears to be a useful new predictor of TRM in the setting of HSCT.

19.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2016 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27851860

RESUMO

Importance: Chronic graft-vs-host-disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) may resemble autoimmune diseases. Anti-MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5) dermatopulmonary syndrome is a subset of dermatomyositis defined by specific clinical features and detection of anti-MDA5-antibodies in the serum. Objective: To characterize the clinical features of patients who underwent AHSCT and screened positively for anti-MDA5 antibodies. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this monocentric retrospective study, we exained 81 patients screened for anti-MDA5 antibodies at a specific dermatological or pulmonary postallograft consultation between January 2014 to September 2015 at a National Reference Center; 2 additional patients not seen at this consultation but having clinical features suggestive of anti-MDA5 syndrome were included. Twenty serum samples from of patients after AHSCT without cGVHD were used as controls. Main Outcomes and Measures: Anti-MDA5 antibodies screened using an immunodot assay. Results: Of 83 patients who underwent AHSCT (mean [SD] age, 47 [14] years), 6 patients tested positive for anti-MDA5 antibodies (mean [SD] age, 43 [16] years) including 4 patients with interstitial lung disease and 3 patients with cutaneous clinical features similar to anti-MDA5 skin symptoms encountered in patients who have not undergone AHSCT, namely finger pad inflammation, palmar violaceous papules, and digital ulcerations. Three patients had severe respiratory symptoms resistant to systemic steroids, and 1 patient died of severe interstitial lung disease. Conclusions and Relevance: The clinical features and long-term prognosis of patients who underwent AHSCT and test positively for anti-MDA5 antibodies should be evaluated in large prospective studies.

20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 34382, 2016 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27698437

RESUMO

Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represent an effective treatment for a number of B cell malignancies and autoimmune disorders. Glycoengineering of anti-CD20mAb may contribute to increased anti-tumor efficacy through enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and phagocytosis (ADP) as reported by in vitro studies. However, where and how glycoengineered Ab may potentiate therapeutic responses in vivo is yet to be elucidated. Here, we have performed mouse liver transplants to demonstrate that the liver is sufficient to mediate systemic B cells depletion after anti-CD20 treatment. Relying on intravital two-photon imaging of human CD20-expressing mice, we provide evidence that ADP by Kupffer cells (KC) is a major mechanism for rituximab-mediated B cell depletion. Notably, a glycoengineered anti-mouse CD20 Ab but not its wild-type counterpart triggered potent KC-mediated B cell depletion at low doses. Finally, distinct thresholds for KC phagocytosis were also observed for GA101 (obinutuzumab), a humanized glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 Ab and rituximab. Thus, we propose that enhanced phagocytosis of circulating B cells by KC represents an important in vivo mechanism underlying the improved activity of glycoengineered anti-CD20 mAbs.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD20/imunologia , Microscopia Intravital , Macrófagos do Fígado , Transplante de Fígado , Fígado , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Rituximab/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Antígenos CD20/genética , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/imunologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/patologia , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/imunologia , Depleção Linfocítica/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Engenharia de Proteínas
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