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1.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(18): 2001-2009, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624058

RESUMO

AIM: The 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Multi-Society Cholesterol Guidelines recommended the addition of non-statins to statin therapy for high-risk secondary prevention patients above a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) threshold of ≥70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L). We compared effectiveness and safety of treatment to achieve lower (<70) vs. higher (≥70 mg/dL) LDL-C among patients receiving intensive lipid-lowering therapy (statins alone or plus ezetimibe or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors). METHODS AND RESULTS: Eleven randomized controlled trials (130 070 patients), comparing intensive vs. less-intensive lipid-lowering therapy, with follow-up ≥6 months and sample size ≥1000 patients were selected. Meta-analysis was reported as random effects risk ratios (RRs) [95% confidence intervals] and absolute risk differences (ARDs) as incident cases per 1000 person-years. The median LDL-C levels achieved in lower LDL-C vs. higher LDL-C groups were 62 and 103 mg/dL, respectively. At median follow-up of 2 years, the lower LDL-C vs. higher LDL-C group was associated with significant reduction in all-cause mortality [ARD -1.56; RR 0.94 (0.89-1.00)], cardiovascular mortality [ARD -1.49; RR 0.90 (0.81-1.00)], and reduced risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular events, revascularization, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). These benefits were achieved without increasing the risk of incident cancer, diabetes mellitus, or haemorrhagic stroke. All-cause mortality benefit in lower LDL-C group was limited to statin therapy and those with higher baseline LDL-C (≥100 mg/dL). However, the RR reduction in ischaemic and safety endpoints was independent of baseline LDL-C or drug therapy. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed that treatment to achieve LDL-C levels below 70 mg/dL using intensive lipid-lowering therapy can safely reduce the risk of mortality and MACE.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Infarto do Miocárdio , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575750

RESUMO

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine pathology affecting women of reproductive age characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and prognostic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Some studies have shown that women with PCOS have a greater risk of CAC; however, a few others report contrary findings. The objective of this study is to examine and quantify the association between PCOS and CAC. Materials and Methods: We searched EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science from inception to November 2021 to identify studies that provided information on PCOS and CAC. We used a random-effects model to aggregate the odds ratios (ORs) for CAC (score >0) among women with PCOS compared with controls adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and CVD risk factors. Results: From the 36 articles reviewed, 3 prospective cohort and 4 cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 2341 participants. Six studies used CAC > 0 as an outcome and were included in the pooled analysis. Using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method, the pooled adjusted ORs for the associations between PCOS and the presence of CAC were 2.48 (95% confidence interval: 2.11-2.84) with no significant heterogeneity (I2 = 0.10%, p = 0.97) for the cohort studies and 1.88 (0.71-3.06) with no significant heterogeneity (I2 = 13.95%, p = 0.87) for the cross-sectional studies. Conclusion: In pooled analyses, women with PCOS had approximately twofold greater odds of having CAC compared with women without PCOS. However, additional prospective studies will be needed to further understand the relationship between PCOS and CAC.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(9): e023238, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491999

RESUMO

Background Laboratory data suggest obesity is linked to myocardial inflammation and fibrosis, but clinical data are limited. We aimed to examine the association of obesity with galectin-3, a biomarker of cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, and the related implications for heart failure (HF) risk. Methods and Results We evaluated 8687 participants (mean age 63 years; 21% Black) at ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Visit 4 (1996-1998) who were free of heart disease. We used adjusted logistic regression to estimate the association of body mass index (BMI) categories with elevated galectin-3 (≥75th sex-specific percentile) overall and across demographic subgroups, with tests for interaction. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the combined associations of galectin-3 and BMI with incident HF (through December 31, 2019). Higher BMI was associated with higher odds of elevated galectin-3 (odds ratio [OR], 2.32; 95% CI, 1.88-2.86) for severe obesity ([BMI ≥35 kg/m2] versus normal weight [BMI 18.5-<25 kg/m2]). There were stronger associations of BMI with elevated galectin-3 among women versus men and White versus Black participants (both P-for-interaction <0.05). Elevated galectin-3 was similarly associated with incident HF among people with and without obesity (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.18-1.88; and HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.38-2.11, respectively). People with severe obesity and elevated galectin-3 had >4-fold higher risk of HF (HR, 4.19; 95% CI, 2.98-5.88) than those with normal weight and galectin-3 <25th percentile. Conclusions Obesity is strongly associated with elevated galectin-3. Additionally, the combination of obesity and elevated galectin-3 is associated with marked HF risk, underscoring the importance of elucidating pathways linking obesity with cardiac inflammation and fibrosis.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Obesidade Mórbida , Feminino , Fibrose , Galectina 3 , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia
4.
Fertil Steril ; 117(5): 924-935, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512976

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age and is hallmarked by hyperandrogenism, oligo-ovulation, and polycystic ovarian morphology. Polycystic ovary syndrome, particularly the hyperandrogenism phenotype, is associated with several cardiometabolic abnormalities, including obesity, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Many, but not all, studies have suggested that PCOS is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease and stroke, independent of body mass index and traditional risk factors. Interpretation of the data from these observational studies is limited by the varying definitions and ascertainment of PCOS and CVD across studies. Recent Mendelian randomization studies have challenged the causality of PCOS with coronary heart disease and stroke. Future longitudinal studies with clearly defined PCOS criteria and newer genetic methodologies may help to determine association and causality. Nevertheless, CVD risk screening remains critical in this patient population, as improvements in metabolic profile and reduction in CVD risk are achievable with a combination of lifestyle management and pharmacotherapy. Statin therapy should be implemented in women with PCOS who have elevated atherosclerotic CVD risk. If CVD risk is uncertain, measurement of subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid plaque or coronary artery calcium) may be a useful tool to guide shared decision-making about initiation of statin therapy. Other medications, such as metformin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, also may be useful in reducing CVD risk in insulin-resistant populations. Additional research is needed to determine the best pathways to mitigate PCOS-associated CVD risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Hiperandrogenismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperandrogenismo/diagnóstico , Masculino , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
5.
Pulm Circ ; 12(1): e12036, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506087

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with increased risk for pulmonary embolism (PE), a fatal complication that can cause right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Serum D-dimer levels are a sensitive test to suggest PE, however lacks specificity in COVID-19 patients. The goal of this study was to identify a model that better predicts PE diagnosis in hospitalized COVID-19 patients using clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic imaging predictors. We performed a cross-sectional study of 302 adult patients admitted to the Johns Hopkins Hospital (March 2020-February 2021) for COVID-19 infection who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and D-dimer testing; 204 patients had CT angiography. Clinical, laboratory and imaging predictors including, but not limited to, D-dimer and RV dysfunction were used to build prediction models for PE using logistic regression. Model discrimination was assessed using area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) and calibration using Hosmer-Lemeshow χ 2 statistic. Internal validation was performed. The prevalence of PE was 7.6%. The model with positive D-dimer above 5 mg/L, RV dysfunction on echocardiography, and troponin had an AUC of 0.77, and cross-validated AUC of 0.74. D-dimer (>5 mg/L) had a positive association with PE (adj odds ratio = 4.40; 95% confidence interval: [1.80, 10.78]). We identified a model including clinical, imaging and laboratory variables that predicted PE in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Positive D-dimer >5, RV dysfunction on echocardiography, and troponin were important predictors for calculating likelihood of PE diagnosis. This approach may be useful to aid in clinical decision-making related to diagnostic imaging and treatment. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate impact on patient outcomes.

6.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35451096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) based on a change from seated-to-standing blood pressure (BP) is often used interchangeably with supine-to-standing BP. METHODS: The Study to Understand Fall Reduction and Vitamin D in You (STURDY) was a randomized trial of vitamin D3 supplementation and fall in adults aged ≥70 years at high risk of falls. OH was defined as a drop in systolic or diastolic BP of at least 20 or 10 mmHg, measured at pre-randomization, 3-, 12-, and 24-month visits with each of 2 protocols: seated-to-standing and supine-to-standing. Participants were asked about orthostatic symptoms, and falls were ascertained via daily fall calendar, ad hoc reporting, and scheduled interviews. RESULTS: Among 534 participants with 993 paired supine and seated assessments (mean age 76 ± 5 years, 42% women, 18% Black), mean baseline BP was 130 ± 19/68 ± 11 mmHg; 62% had a history of high BP or hypertension. Mean BP increased 3.5 (SE, 0.4)/2.6 (SE, 0.2) mmHg from sitting to standing, but decreased with supine to standing (mean change: -3.7 [SE, 0.5]/-0.8 [SE, 0.3] mmHg; P-value < 0.001). OH was detected in 2.1% (SE, 0.5) of seated versus 15.0% (SE, 1.4) of supine assessments (P < 0.001). While supine and seated OH were not associated with falls (HR: 1.55 [0.95, 2.52] vs 0.69 [0.30, 1.58]), supine systolic OH was associated with higher fall risk (HR: 1.77 [1.02, 3.05]). Supine OH was associated with self-reported fainting, blacking out, seeing spots and room spinning in the prior month (P-values < 0.03), while sitting OH was not associated with any symptoms (P-values ≥ 0.40). CONCLUSION: Supine OH was more frequent, associated with orthostatic symptoms, and potentially more predictive of falls than seated OH.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(8): e024461, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416049

RESUMO

Background The mechanisms linking menopausal age and heart failure (HF) incidence are controversial. We investigated for heterogeneity by obesity on the relationship between menopausal age and HF incidence. Methods and Results Using postmenopausal women who attended the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Visit 4, we estimated hazard ratios of incident HF associated with menopausal age using Cox proportional hazards models, testing for effect modification by obesity and adjusting for HF risk factors. Women were categorized by menopausal age: <45 years, 45 to 49 years, 50 to 54 years, and ≥55 years. Among 4441 postmenopausal women, aged 63.5±5.5 years, there were 903 incident HF events over a mean follow-up of 16.5 years. The attributable risk of generalized and central obesity for HF incidence was greatest among women who experienced menopause at age ≥55 years: 11.09/1000 person-years and 7.38/1000 person-years, respectively. There were significant interactions of menopausal age with body mass index and waist circumference for HF incidence, Pinteraction 0.02 and 0.001, respectively. The hazard ratios of incident HF for a SD increase in body mass index was elevated in women with menopausal age <45 years [1.39 (1.05-1.84)]; 45-49 years [1.33, (1.06-1.67)]; and ≥55 years [2.02, (1.41-2.89)]. The hazard ratio of incident HF for a SD increase in waist circumference was elevated only in women with menopausal age ≥55 years [2.93, (1.85-4.65)]. Conclusions As obesity worsened, the risk of developing HF became significantly greater when compared with women with lower body mass index and waist circumference, particularly among those who had experienced menopause at age ≥55 years.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(9): e022589, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441523

RESUMO

Background Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Given its large public health burden, there is a need to identify modifiable factors that can be targeted for preeclampsia prevention. In this study, we examined whether a Mediterranean-style diet is protective for preeclampsia in a large cohort of racially and ethnically diverse, urban, low-income women. Methods and Results We used data from the Boston Birth Cohort. Maternal sociodemographic and dietary data were obtained via interview and food frequency questionnaire within 24 to 72 hours postpartum, respectively. Additional clinical information, including physician diagnoses of preexisting conditions and preeclampsia, were extracted from medical records. We derived a Mediterranean-style diet score from the food frequency questionnaire and performed logistic regression to examine the association of the Mediterranean-style diet score with preeclampsia. Of 8507 women in the sample, 848 developed preeclampsia. 47% were Black, 28% were Hispanic, and the remaining were White/Other. After multivariable adjustment, greatest adherence with MSD was associated with lower preeclampsia odds (adjusted odds ratio comparing tertile 3 to tertile 1, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64-0.96). A subgroup analysis of Black women demonstrated a similar benefit with an adjusted odds ratio comparing tertile 3 to tertile 1 of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.76-0.96). Conclusions Self-report of higher adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet is associated with lower preeclampsia odds, and benefit of this diet is present among Black women as well.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(7): e022857, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362334

RESUMO

Background Life expectancy has been higher for Hispanic versus non-Hispanic White (NHW) individuals; however, data are limited on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Method and Results Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research death certificate database (1999-2018), we compared age-adjusted mortality rates for total CVD and its subtypes (ischemic heart disease, stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, other CVD), and average annual percentage changes among Hispanic and NHW adults. The age-adjusted mortality rate per 100 000 was lower for Hispanic than NHW adults for total CVD (186.4 versus 254.6; P<0.001) and its subtypes. Between 1999 and 2018, mortality decline was higher in Hispanic than NHW adults for total CVD (average annual percentage change [AAPC], -2.90 versus -2.41) and ischemic heart disease (AAPC: -4.44 versus -3.82) (P<0.001). In contrast, stroke mortality decline was slower in Hispanic versus NHW adults (AAPC: -2.05 versus -2.60; P<0.05). Stroke mortality increased in Hispanic but stalled in NHW adults since 2011 (AAPC: 0.79 versus -0.09). For ischemic heart disease (AAPC: -0.80 versus -1.85) and stroke (AAPC: -1.32 versus -1.43) mortality decline decelerated more for Hispanic than NHW adults aged <45 years (P<0.05). For heart failure, Hispanic adults aged <45 (3.55 versus 2.16) and 45 to 64 (1.88 versus 1.54) showed greater rise in age-adjusted mortality rate than NHW individuals (P<0.05). Age-adjusted heart failure mortality rate also accelerated in Hispanic versus NHW men (1.00 versus 0.67; P<0.001). Conclusions Disaggregating data by CVD subtype and demographics unmasked heterogeneities in CVD mortality between Hispanic and NHW adults. NHW adults had greater CVD mortality rates and slower decline than Hispanic adults, whereas marked demographic differences in mortality signaled concerning trends among the Hispanic versus NHW population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 19(1): 26, 2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: L-carnitine (L-C), a ubiquitous nutritional supplement, has been investigated as a potential therapy for cardiovascular disease, but its effects on human atherosclerosis are unknown. Clinical studies suggest improvement of some cardiovascular risk factors, whereas others show increased plasma levels of pro-atherogenic trimethylamine N-oxide. The primary aim was to determine whether L-C therapy led to progression or regression of carotid total plaque volume (TPV) in participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: This was a phase 2, prospective, double blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-center trial. MetS was defined as ≥ 3/5 cardiac risk factors: elevated waist circumference; elevated triglycerides; reduced HDL-cholesterol; elevated blood pressure; elevated glucose or HbA1c; or on treatment. Participants with a baseline TPV ≥ 50 mm3 were randomized to placebo or 2 g L-C daily for 6 months. RESULTS: The primary outcome was the percent change in TPV over 6 months. In 157 participants (L-C N = 76, placebo N = 81), no difference in TPV change between arms was found. The L-C group had a greater increase in carotid atherosclerotic stenosis of 9.3% (p = 0.02) than the placebo group. There was a greater increase in total cholesterol and LDL-C levels in the L-C arm. CONCLUSIONS: Though total carotid plaque volume did not change in MetS participants taking L-C over 6-months, there was a concerning progression of carotid plaque stenosis. The potential harm of L-C in MetS and its association with pro-atherogenic metabolites raises concerns for its further use as a potential therapy and its widespread availability as a nutritional supplement. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02117661, Registered April 21, 2014, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02117661 .

12.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 312, 2022 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35399053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level is associated with a greater risk of frailty, but the effects of daily vitamin D supplementation on frailty are uncertain. This secondary analysis aimed to examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on frailty using data from the Study To Understand Fall Reduction and Vitamin D in You (STURDY). METHODS: The STURDY trial, a two-stage Bayesian, response-adaptive, randomized controlled trial, enrolled 688 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 70 years with a low serum 25(OH)D level (10-29 ng/mL) and elevated fall risk. Participants were initially randomized to 200 IU/d (control dose; n = 339) or a higher dose (1000 IU/d, 2000 IU/d, or 4000 IU/d; n = 349) of vitamin D3. Once the 1000 IU/d was selected as the best higher dose, other higher dose groups were reassigned to the 1000 IU/d group and new enrollees were randomized 1:1 to 1000 IU/d or control group. Data were collected at baseline, 3, 12, and 24 months. Frailty phenotype was based on number of the following conditions: unintentional weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, low activity, and weakness (≥ 3 conditions as frail, 1 or 2 as pre-frail, and 0 as robust). Cox proportional hazard models estimated the risk of developing frailty, or improving or worsening frailty status at follow-up. All models were adjusted for demographics, health conditions, and further stratified by baseline serum 25(OH)D level (insufficiency (20-29 ng/mL) vs. deficiency (10-19 ng/mL)). RESULTS: Among 687 participants (mean age 77.1 ± 5.4, 44% women) with frailty assessment at baseline, 208 (30%) were robust, 402 (59%) were pre-frail, and 77 (11%) were frail. Overall, there was no significant difference in risk of frailty outcomes comparing the pooled higher doses (PHD; ≥ 1000 IU/d) vs. 200 IU/d. When comparing each higher dose vs. 200 IU/d, the 2000 IU/d group had nearly double the risk of worsening frailty status (HR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.13-3.16), while the 4000 IU/d group had a lower risk of developing frailty (HR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05-0.97). There were no significant associations between vitamin D doses and frailty status in the analyses stratified by baseline serum 25(OH)D level. CONCLUSIONS: High dose vitamin D supplementation did not prevent frailty. Significant subgroup findings might be the results of type 1 error. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02166333 .


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Vitamina D , Vitaminas
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3327, 2022 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228619

RESUMO

Hospital readmissions following an acute myocardial infarction (MI) are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a significant association between specific mental health disorders (MHD) and risk of hospital readmission after an index hospitalization for acute MI. We analyzed the U.S. National Readmission Database for adult acute MI hospitalizations from 2016 to 2017. Co-morbid diagnoses of MHD were obtained using appropriate ICD-10-CM diagnostic codes. The primary outcome of interest was 30-day all-cause unplanned readmission. Cox-regression analysis was used to identify the association of various MHD and risk of 30-day readmission adjusted for demographics, medical and cardiac comorbidities, and coronary revascularization. We identified a total of 1,045,752 hospitalizations for acute MI; patients had mean age of 67 ± 13 years with 37.6% female. The prevalence of any MHD was 15.0 ± 0.9%. After adjusting for potential confounders, comorbid diagnosis of major depression [HR 1.11 (95% CI 1.07-1.15)], bipolar disorders [1.32 (1.19-1.45)], anxiety disorders [1.09 (1.05-1.13)] and schizophrenia/other psychotic disorders [1.56 (1.43-1.69)] were independently associated with higher risk of 30-day readmission compared to those with no comorbid MHD. We conclude that MHD are significantly associated with a higher independent risk of 30-day all-cause hospital readmissions among acute MI hospitalizations.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Readmissão do Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(7): e024533, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301872

RESUMO

Background Aortic dissection (AoD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. However, the burden of AoD mortality is not well characterized, and contemporary data and mortality trends in different demographic and geographic subgroups have not been described. Methods and Results Trends in AoD mortality were assessed using a cross-sectional analysis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database. Crude and age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMR) per 1 million people with associated annual percent changes were determined. Joinpoint regression was used to assess trends in the overall sample and different demographic (sex, race and ethnicity, age) and geographic subgroups. Between 1999 and 2019, a total of 86 855 AoD deaths occurred within the United States. In the overall population, AAMR was 21.1 per 1 million in 1999 and 21.3 in 2019. After an initial decline in mortality, AAMR increased from 2012 to 2019, with an associated annual change of 2.5% (95% CI, 1.8-3.3). Men, older adults (aged ≥85 years), and non-Hispanic Black or African American individuals had higher mortality rates than women, younger individuals, and other racial and ethnic individuals, respectively. Despite lower AAMRs throughout the study period, women experienced greater increases in AAMR from 2012 to 2019 compared with men. Similarly, non-Hispanic Black or African American individuals had a pronounced increase in AAMR from 2012 to 2019. Conclusions Despite an initial decline in AoD mortality, the mortality rate has been increasing from 2012 to 2019, with pronounced increases among women and non-Hispanic Black or African American individuals.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Aneurisma Dissecante , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 15(3): e013762, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) is associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. Extracoronary calcification (ECC)-measured at the aortic valve, mitral annulus, ascending thoracic aorta, and descending thoracic aorta-is an indicator of systemic atherosclerosis. This study examined whether favorable CVH was associated with a lower risk of ECC. METHODS: We analyzed data from MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) participants aged 45 to 84 years without cardiovascular disease at baseline. ECC was measured by noncontrast cardiac computed tomography scan at baseline and after an average of 2.4 years. Prevalent ECC was defined as an Agatston score >0 at the baseline scan. Incident ECC was defined as Agatston score >0 at the follow-up scan among participants with Agatston score of 0 at the baseline scan. Each CVH metric (smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diet, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and blood glucose) was scored 0 to 2 points, with 2 indicating ideal; 1, intermediate; and 0, poor. The aggregated CVH score was 0 to 14 points (0-8, inadequate; 9-10, average; 11-14, optimal). We used Poisson and linear mixed-effects regression models to examine the association between CVH and ECC adjusted for sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: Of 6504 participants, 53% were women with a mean age (SD) of 62 (10) years. Optimal and average CVH scores were associated with lower ECC prevalence, incidence, and extent. For example, optimal CVH scores were associated with 57%, 56%, 70%, and 54% lower risk of incident aortic valve calcification, mitral annulus calcification, ascending thoracic aorta calcification, and descending thoracic aorta calcification, respectively. In addition, optimal and average CVH scores were associated with lower ECC progression at 2 years, although these associations were only significant for mitral annulus calcification and descending thoracic aorta calcification. CONCLUSIONS: In this multiethnic cohort, favorable CVH was associated with a lower risk of extracoronary atherosclerosis. These findings emphasize the importance of primordial prevention as an intervention to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
18.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 10: 100333, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35345879

RESUMO

There are currently no sex-specific guidelines for evaluation and management of blood lipids. While previous guidelines acknowledge sex-specific risk enhancing factors for lipid management in women for CVD prevention, this review focuses on how lipids are impacted during normal hormonal changes throughout a woman's life cycle- during adolescence, pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, pre- and perimenopause, menopause, and at older ages. In this review, the authors focus on management of primary prevention of CVD by examining sex-specific cardiovascular risk factors at each stage and pay special attention to statin use, statin side effects and non-statin therapies. Women need to understand their personalized cholesterol goals and ally with their clinicians to ensure successful management. Additionally, we highlight the biases that exist when treating dyslipidemia in women and the special care clinicians should take to ensure appropriate and aggressive therapies are made available to female patients. Finally, the authors recommend future research should focus on increasing enrollment of women in lipid trials. This is of paramount importance in discovering sex-specific difference in lipid management.

19.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 10: 100323, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35284849

RESUMO

Despite numerous advances in all areas of cardiovascular care, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States (US). There is compelling evidence that interventions to improve diet are effective in cardiovascular disease prevention. This clinical practice statement emphasizes the importance of evidence-based dietary patterns in the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and ASCVD risk factors, including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. A diet consisting predominantly of fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, plant protein and fatty fish is optimal for the prevention of ASCVD. Consuming more of these foods, while reducing consumption of foods with saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, salt, refined grain, and ultra-processed food intake are the common components of a healthful dietary pattern. Dietary recommendations for special populations including pediatrics, older persons, and nutrition and social determinants of health for ASCVD prevention are discussed.

20.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 9: 100320, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243463
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