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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(15): 1879-1882, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601368
2.
Vasc Med ; : 1358863X19870602, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480898

RESUMO

This study investigated the relationship between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and risk for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). ABI has previously been associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and overall HF but the relationship between ABI and risk of HF stratified by EF has not been well characterized. We analyzed data from 6553 participants (53% female; mean age 62 ± 10 years) enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) who were free of known clinical CVD/HF at baseline (2000-2002) and had baseline ABI measured. Participants were classified as low (≤ 0.90), borderline-low (0.91-1.00), normal (1.01-1.40), and high (> 1.40) ABI. Incident hospitalized HF was determined over a median follow-up of 14 years; we classified HF events (n = 321) as HFrEF with EF < 50% (n = 155, 54%) or HFpEF with EF ⩾ 50% (n = 133, 46%). Low ABI was associated with incident HFrEF (hazard ratio (HR): 2.02, 95% CI 1.19-3.40, p = 0.01) and had no significant association with HFpEF (HR: 0.67, 95% CI 0.30-1.48, p = 0.32). Borderline-low and high ABI were not significantly associated with HFrEF or HFpEF. Cubic spline analyses showed association with both low and high ABI for HFrEF and high ABI for HFpEF. A 1 SD lower ABI (for ABI < 1.1) was associated with incident HFrEF in multivariable analysis (HR: 1.27, 95% CI 1.05-1.54) but was not significant after additionally adjusting for interim myocardial infarction (HR: 1.21, 95% CI 0.99-1.48). Low ABI was associated with higher risk for incident HFrEF but not HFpEF in persons free of known CVD. Future studies of a larger size are needed for high ABI analyses.

3.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(9): 1795-1802, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Falls are frequent and often devastating events among older adults. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with greater fall risk; however, it is unknown if pathways that contribute to CVD, such as subclinical myocardial damage or wall strain, are related to future falls. We hypothesized that elevations in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), measured in older adults, would be associated with greater fall risk. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants without known coronary heart disease, heart failure, or stroke. MEASUREMENTS: We measured hs-cTnT or NT-proBNP in 2011 to 2013. Falls were identified from hospital discharge International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), codes or Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services claims. We used Poisson models adjusted for age, sex, and race/study center to quantify fall rates across approximate quartiles of hs-cTnT (less than 8, 8-10, 11-16, and 17 or greater ng/L) and NT-proBNP (less than 75, 75-124, 125-274, and 275 or greater pg/mL). We used Cox models to determine the association of cardiac markers with fall risk, adjusted for age, sex, race/center, and multiple fall risk factors. RESULTS: Among 3973 participants (mean age = 76 ± 5 years, 62% women, 22% black), 457 had a subsequent fall during a median follow-up of 4.5 years. Incidence rates across quartiles of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP were 17.1, 20.0, 26.2, and 36.4 per 1000 person-years and 12.8, 22.2, 28.7, and 48.4 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Comparing highest vs lowest quartiles of either hs-cTnT or NT-proBNP demonstrated a greater than two-fold higher fall risk, with hazard ratios of 2.17 (95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.60-2.95) and 2.34 (95% CI = 1.73-3.16), respectively. In a joint model, the relationships of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP with falls were significant and independent. CONCLUSION: Subclinical elevations of cardiac damage and wall strain were each associated with a higher fall risk in older adults. Further research is needed to determine whether interventions that lower hs-cTnT or NT-proBNP also lower fall risk. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:1795-1802, 2019.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519403

RESUMO

Although polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting women, its etiology is not entirely understood. Clinical symptoms of PCOS include acne, amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, infertility, and mood disorders, which tend to be the primary focus of clinical management. However, the impact of PCOS on future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk should not be overlooked, and opportunities to implement CVD prevention strategies in these women should be given high priority. The pathogenesis of PCOS commonly involves insulin resistance which leads to several cardiometabolic abnormalities (e.g., dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome), thereby putting women at an increased risk for CVD. Prior studies have found that subclinical CVD markers such as coronary artery calcium scores, C-reactive protein, carotid intima-media thickness, and endothelial dysfunction are more likely to be increased in women with PCOS. While the associations between PCOS and cardiometabolic abnormalities have been well established, whether PCOS is associated with subclinical and clinical CVD, independently of these CVD risk factors, is not entirely clear. Lifestyle interventions and weight management may mitigate some of these future CVD risks and should be encouraged. This review summarizes the literature on PCOS and CVD risk factors and provides recommendations that would aid clinicians in the management of these risk factors.

5.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk for preeclampsia. Despite this, the current evidence regarding the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in preventing preeclampsia is controversial. To assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of preeclampsia, we performed a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis of the available randomized clinical trials (RCTs). METHODS: The primary outcome was preeclampsia. Subgroup analyses were carried out considering the timing of the supplementation, type of intervention and the study design. Meta-regression analysis, including the amount of vitamin D and maternal age, were planned to explore heterogeneity (PROSPERO database registration number: CRD42019119207). RESULTS: Data were pooled from 27 RCTs comprising 59 arms, which included overall 4777 participants, of whom 2487 were in the vitamin D-treated arm and 2290 in the control arm. Vitamin D administration in pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of preeclampsia (odd ratio [OR] 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26, 0.52; I2 = 0%). If the vitamin D supplementation was started up to 20 weeks' gestation, the odds was a little lower (OR 0.35, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.50, p < 0.001). The effect was largely independent of the supplementation cessation (until delivery or not), type of intervention (vitamin D alone or in association with calcium), and study design. Increasing dose of vitamin D was associated with reduced incidence of preeclampsia (slope of log OR: -1.1, 95% CI: -1.73, -0.46; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that vitamin D supplementation may be useful in preventing preeclampsia. These data are especially useful for health-care providers who engage in the management of pregnant women at risk for preeclampsia. Our findings are a call for action to definitively address vitamin D supplementation as a possible intervention strategy in preventing preeclampsia in pregnancy.

6.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) suffer from depression. OBJECTIVE: To compare healthcare expenditures and utilization, healthcare-related quality of life, and patient-centered outcomes among ASCVD patients, based on their risk for depression (among those without depression), and those with depression (vs. risk-stratified non-depressed). DESIGN AND SETTING: The 2004-2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) was used for this study. PARTICIPANTS: Adults ≥ 18 years with a diagnosis of ASCVD, ascertained by ICD-9 codes and/or self-reported data. Individuals with a diagnosis of depression were identified by ICD-9 code 311. Participants were stratified by depression risk, based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-2. RESULTS: A total of 19,840 participants were included, translating into 18.3 million US adults, of which 8.6% (≈ 1.3 million US adults) had a high risk for depression and 18% had a clinical diagnosis of depression. Among ASCVD patients without depression, those with a high risk (compared with low risk) had increased overall and out-of-pocket expenditures (marginal differences of $2880 and $287, respectively, both p < 0.001), higher odds for resource utilization, and worse patient experience and healthcare quality of life (HQoL). Furthermore, compared with individuals who had depression, participants at high risk also reported worse HQoL and had higher odds of poor perception of their health status (OR 1.83, 95% CI [1.50, 2.23]) and poor patient-provider communication (OR 1.29 [1.18, 1.42]). LIMITATION: The sample population includes self-reported diagnosis of ASCVD; therefore, the risk of underestimation of the cohort size cannot be ruled out. CONCLUSION: Almost 1 in 10 individuals with ASCVD without diagnosis of depression is at high risk for it and has worse health outcomes compared with those who already have a diagnosis of depression. Early recognition and treatment of depression may increase healthcare efficiency, positive patient experience, and HQoL among this vulnerable population.

7.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319871733, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475865

RESUMO

AIMS: The effect of therapeutic lowering of apolipoprotein B (apoB) on mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events is uncertain. It is also unclear whether these potential effects vary by different lipid-lowering strategies. METHODS: A total of 29 randomized controlled trials were selected using PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMBASE through 2018. We selected trials of therapies which ultimately clear apolipoprotein B particles by upregulating low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) expression (statins, ezetimibe, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, bile acid sequestrants) or therapies which reduce apolipoprotein B independent of LDL-R (cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor, fibrates, niacin, omega-3 fatty acids) with sample size of ≥1000 patients and follow-up of ≥1 year. The meta-regression and meta-analyses were constructed using a random effects model. RESULTS: In 332,912 patients, meta-regression analyses showed relative risks of 0.95 for all-cause mortality (95% confidence interval 0.92-0.99) and 0.93 (0.88-0.98) for cardiovascular mortality for every 10 mg/dL decrease in apolipoprotein B by all interventions combined. Reduction in all-cause mortality was limited to statins (0.92 (0.86-0.98)). For MACE, the relative risk per 10 mg/dL reduction in apolipoprotein B was 0.93 (0.90-0.97) for all therapies combined, with both statin (0.88 (0.83-0.93)) and non-statin therapies (0.96 (0.94-0.99)). which clear apolipoprotein B by upregulating LDL-R showing significant reductions; whereas interventions which lower apolipoprotein B independent of LDL-R did not demonstrate this effect (1.02 (0.81-1.30)). CONCLUSION: While both statin and established non-statin therapies (PCSK9 inhibitor and ezetimibe) reduced cardiovascular risk per decrease in apolipoprotein B, interventions which reduce apolipoprotein B independently of LDL-R were not associated with cardiovascular benefit.

8.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(10): 2033-2040, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) is inversely associated with risk of heart failure and cardiovascular disease (CVD), whereas increased left ventricular (LV) mass and mass to volume (m:v) ratio are unfavorable CVD risk factors. We assessed whether changes in leisure time PA were associated with longitudinal changes in cardiac structure in a community-based population. METHODS: We included 2779 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants, free of baseline CVD, who had available data on PA and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at examinations 1 (2000-2002) and 5 (2010-2012). Physical activity was measured by a Typical Week PA Survey and converted to MET-minutes per week of moderate+vigorous activity. We used linear mixed effect models to estimate the associations of baseline and change in PA with baseline and change in cardiac structure, adjusting for CVD risk factors and body size. RESULTS: At baseline, the mean age was 59 yr, 53% were women, and 58% of nonwhite race/ethnicity. During average 10-yr follow-up, and after accounting for baseline PA levels, the highest quintiles of PA increase were significantly associated with increases in LV mass (2.3 g; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-4.2), LV end-diastolic volume (4.7 mL; 95% CI, 2.4-7.0), and stroke volume (3.3 mL; 95% CI, 1.6-5.1), but lower M:V ratio (-2.9; 95% CI, -5.0 to -0.8) compared with the lowest quintiles. Increasing exercise PA was associated with increases in LV diameter and reductions in M:V ratio, whereas occupational PA was associated with increases in m:v ratio. Increasing PA over 10 yr was also associated with greater risk of eccentric dilated LV hypertrophy at examination 5. CONCLUSIONS: After accounting for baseline PA, greater positive changes in leisure-time PA levels were associated with a more eccentric-type of LV remodeling pattern over 10 yr. The clinical implications of such findings remain to be determined.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447314

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become the standard treatment option for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) with high surgical risk and a reasonable option for intermediate surgical risk as an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). The role of TAVR in lower risk patients is less established but has been the focus of recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs to assess TAVR outcomes among low surgical risk patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Systematic search of RCTs was done using PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Statistical analysis was performed with RevMan v5.3 software using a random effects model to report risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of three RCTs including 2698 patients (1375 TAVR and 1323 SAVR) were analyzed. Compared to SAVR, TAVR was not associated with all-cause mortality [RR 0.86 (95% CI 0.61-1.19); P = 0.36; I2 = 8%] or stroke [RR 0.82 (0.48-1.43); P = 0.49; I2 = 42%]. However, TAVR was significantly associated with lower risk of acute kidney injury [RR 0.27 (0.13-0.54); P = 0.0002; I2 = 0%], new-onset atrial fibrillation [RR 0.26 (0.18-0.39); P < 0.00001; I2 = 80%], and life-threatening or disabling bleeding [RR 0.35 (0.22-0.55); P < 0.00001; I2 = 57%], but a higher risk of moderate-severe paravalvular leak [RR 4.40 (1.22-15.86); P = 0.02; I2 = 26%] and permanent pacemaker insertion [RR 2.73 (1.41-5.28); P = 0.003; I2 = 83%]. CONCLUSIONS: There is no difference in all-cause mortality or stroke between TAVR and SAVR, but TAVR is associated with lower risk of other perioperative complications except for moderate-severe paravalvular leak and the need for permanent pacemaker implantation.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(7): 1002-1011, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421814

RESUMO

This study examines a national cohort of patients with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) for the prevalence of frailty, temporal changes over time, and its association with treatments and clinical outcomes. The National Inpatient Sample database was used to identify US adults with a diagnosis of ACS between 2004 and 2014. Frailty risk was determined using a validated Hospital Frailty Risk Score based on ICD-9 codes using the cutoffs <5, 5 to 15, and >15 for low- (LRS), intermediate- (IRS), and high-risk (HRS) frailty scores, respectively. Logistic regression assessed associations of frailty with clinical outcomes, adjusted for patient co-morbidities and hospital characteristics. From 7,398,572 hospital admissions with ACS between 2004 and 2014, 86.5% of patients had LRS, 13.4% had an IRS, and 0.1% had an HRS. From 2004 to 2014, the prevalence of IRS and HRS patients increased from 8.1% to 18.2% and 0.03% to 0.18%, respectively (p <0.001 for both). The proportion of patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention was greatest among patients with lowest frailty risk scores (LRS 42.9%, IRS 21.0%, and HRS 14.6%). Comparing HRS to LRS, there was a significant increase in bleeding complications (odds ratio [OR] 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.03 to 2.69), vascular complications (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.41), in-hospital stroke (OR 7.84, 95% CI 6.93 to 8.86), and in-hospital death (OR 2.57, 95% CI 2.18 to 3.04). Risk of frailty is common among patients with ACS, is increasing in prevalence, and is associated with differential management strategies, and outcomes during hospitalization. Increased awareness could facilitate frailty-tailored care to minimize the risk of adverse outcomes.

13.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(8): 1198-1206, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416591

RESUMO

Low-dose rivaroxaban was effective in secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the COMPASS trial. There is no established role, however, for oral anticoagulants in primary prevention. We evaluated whether coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring identifies a high-risk primary prevention adult population who may benefit from low-dose rivaroxaban to prevent ASCVD events. We modeled expected outcomes of low-dose rivaroxaban in 5,196 Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort participants not already on antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy. We applied relative risk ratios from COMPASS to absolute MESA event rates in order to estimate number needed to treat (NNT) to avoid a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, as well as number needed to harm (NNH) to cause 1 hospitalized bleed; with both NNT and NNH stratified by calculated ASCVD risk and by baseline CAC. MESA participants with CAC ≥300 had crude ASCVD event rate of 20 per 1000 patient-years, which is comparable to that observed in the COMPASS control-arm. CAC was independently associated with the composite ASCVD outcome (p <0.001 for trend). However, CAC was not independently associated with adjusted hazard ratio for hospitalized major bleeding. Predicted 5-year NNT (modeled from COMPASS) was 75 in persons with CAC 100-299 and 45 with CAC ≥300 despite NNH values of 252 and 98, respectively. In conclusion, CAC helps to distinguish estimated ASCVD benefit from estimated bleeding harm, thereby identifying very high-risk primary prevention adults without established cardiovascular disease who may derive net-benefit from low-dose rivaroxaban.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(7): e197440, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322693

RESUMO

Importance: The level of coronary artery calcium (CAC) can effectively stratify cardiovascular risk in middle-aged and older adults, but its utility for young adults is unclear. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of CAC in adults aged 30 to 49 years and the subsequent association of CAC with coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all-cause mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted among 22 346 individuals from the CAC Consortium who underwent CAC testing (baseline examination, 1991-2010, with follow-up through June 30, 2014; CAC quantified using nonconrast, cardiac-gated computed tomography scans) for clinical indications and were followed up for cause-specific mortality. Participants were free of clinical CVD at baseline. Statistical analysis was performed from June 1, 2017, to May 31, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of CAC and the subsequent rates of CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality. Competing risks regression modeling was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted subdistribution hazard ratios for CHD and CVD mortality. Results: The sample of 22 346 participants (25.0% women and 75.0% men; mean [SD] age, 43.5 [4.5] years) had a high prevalence of hyperlipidemia (49.6%) and family history of CHD (49.3%) but a low prevalence of current smoking (11.0%) and diabetes (3.9%). The prevalence of any CAC was 34.4%, with 7.2% having a CAC score of more than 100. During follow-up (mean [SD], 12.7 [4.0] years), there were 40 deaths related to CHD, 84 deaths related to CVD, and 298 total deaths. A total of 27 deaths related to CHD (67.5%) occurred among individuals with CAC at baseline. The CHD mortality rate per 1000 person-years was 10-fold higher among those with a CAC score of more than 100 (0.69; 95% CI, 0.41-1.16) compared with those with a CAC score of 0 (0.07; 95% CI, 0.04-0.12). After multivariable adjustment, those with a CAC score of more than 100 had a significantly increased risk of CHD (subdistribution hazard ratio, 5.6; 95% CI, 2.5-12.7), CVD (subdistribution hazard ratio, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8-6.2), and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.9-3.6) compared with those with a CAC score of 0. Conclusions and Relevance: In a large sample of young adults undergoing CAC testing for clinical indications, 34.4% had CAC, and those with elevated CAC scores had significantly higher rates of CHD and CVD mortality. Coronary artery calcium may have potential utility for clinical decision-making among select young adults at elevated risk of cardiovascular disease.

15.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319862401, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291776

RESUMO

AIMS: The total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio may carry additional information not available in more commonly used single cholesterol measures. Analysis of discordance between lipid parameters might help assess the impact of such additional information on the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the role of the TC/HDL-cholesterol ratio in determining atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk when discordant with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol. METHODS: We studied 14,403 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study participants who were free of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease at baseline. TC/HDL-cholesterol discordance with LDL-cholesterol (estimated by the novel Martin/Hopkins method) and non-HDL-cholesterol was assessed at five visits and determined by being at or above the median for each lipid parameter. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the risk for incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events associated with each lipid concordance/discordance category using a time-varying approach. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 54.1 years, 56% women and 25% black. There were 2634 atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events over a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 24.2 (16.0-25.4) years. Among individuals with LDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol less than the median, 26% and 21% had discordant TC/HDL-cholesterol at or above the median, respectively. These individuals had a 24% (hazard ratio (HR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09, 1.41) and 29% (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.13, 1.46) greater risk of incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, respectively, compared to those with TC/HDL-cholesterol less than the median after multivariable adjustment. In individuals with diabetes with LDL-cholesterol or non-HDL-cholesterol less than the median, discordant TC/HDL-cholesterol at or above the median was more prevalent at 48% and 38%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Clinically significant discordance exists between TC/HDL-cholesterol, available from the standard lipid profile, and the routinely used non-HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Such discordance may help inform atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk management, particularly in individuals with diabetes in whom discordance is more common.

16.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiparity is associated with a greater risk of incident cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship of parity with cardiovascular health, as measured by the American Heart Association Life's Simple 7 metrics, is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between parity and ideal cardiovascular health among 3,430 women, aged 45-84 years, free of clinical cardiovascular disease enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. STUDY DESIGN: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a prospective cohort study that recruited middle aged to older women and men from six centers in the United States between 2000 and 2002. The study population comprised 38% White, 28% Black, 23% Hispanic and 11% Chinese Americans. Parity (total number of live births) was self-reported and categorized as 0, 1-2, 3-4 and ≥5. The Life's Simple 7 metrics, defined according to American Heart Association criteria include health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diet) and health factors, (blood pressure, total cholesterol and blood glucose). We categorized each metric into ideal (2-points), intermediate (1-point) and poor (0-points). A total cardiovascular health score of 0-8 was considered inadequate; 9-10, average, and 11-14, optimal. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the cross-sectional association between parity and cardiovascular health score, adjusted for socio-demographics, field site, hormone therapy and menopause. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 62 (10) years. The mean (SD) cardiovascular health score was lower with higher parity [8.9 (2.3), 8.7 (2.3), 8.5 (2.2), and 7.8 (2.0) for 0, 1-2, 3-4 and ≥5 live births, respectively]. In comparison to inadequate cardiovascular health scores, the adjusted odds of average cardiovascular health scores were significantly lower for all parity categories relative to nulliparity [prevalence Odds Ratios (OR) for parity of 1-2, 0.64 (95% CI 0.49-0.83); 3-4, 0.65 (0.49-0.86); ≥5, 0.64 (0.45-0.91)]. Women with ≥5 live births had a lower prevalence of optimal cardiovascular health scores [OR 0.50 (0.30-0.83)]. In the fully adjusted models, the association between parity and each Life's Simple 7 metric was only statistically significant for body mass index. Women with ≥5 live births had lower prevalence of ideal body mass index [OR 0.52 (0.35-0.80)]. In addition, the test for interaction showed that the association between parity and cardiovascular health was not modified by race/ethnicity (P=0.81 for average cardiovascular health scores and 0.20 for optimal cardiovascular health scores). CONCLUSION: Multiparity was associated with poorer cardiovascular health, especially for women with ≥5 live births. More research is required to explore the mechanisms by which parity may worsen cardiovascular health.

17.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(4): 636-643, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300201

RESUMO

The associations between dietary sodium intake and markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and amino terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), may provide mechanistic insight into the relation between dietary sodium and cardiovascular events. We studied 6,131 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who were free of clinical CVD at baseline. Food frequency questionnaires were used to assess estimated sodium intake (ESI) at baseline. We tested the associations between 5 quintiles of ESI (quintile 1: 0.2 to 1.3 grams/day, quintile 2: 1.3 to 1.8 grams/day, quintile 3: 1.8 to 2.4 grams/day, quintile 4: 2.4 to 3.2 grams/day, and quintile 5: 3.2 to 9.9 grams/day) with cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal change in hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP concentrations. Restricted cubic spline plots were utilized to explore the shape of the associations between ESI and biomarker outcomes. A cross-sectional association between baseline sodium intake and hs-cTnT (but not NT-proBNP) was observed, driven predominantly by a strong positive relation at an intake range of 0.2 to 2.4 g/day. Conversely, a longitudinal association between baseline sodium intake and NT-proBNP (but not hs-cTnT) was observed, driven predominantly by a strong positive relation at intake levels ≥2.4 g/day. In conclusion, temporal shifts in the association between increased ESI and markers of subclinical CVD, hs-cTnT in the short term and NT-proBNP in the longer term, point to the complex pathobiology of the association between sodium intake and CVD. There was also no consistent evidence supporting a J-curve (i.e., excess biomarker values at very low ESI).

18.
Ann Intern Med ; 171(3): 190-198, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284304

RESUMO

Background: The role of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions in preventing mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes is unclear. Purpose: To examine evidence about the effects of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in adults. Data Sources: PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from inception until March 2019; ClinicalTrials.gov (10 March 2019); journal Web sites; and reference lists. Study Selection: English-language, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs that assessed the effects of nutritional supplements or dietary interventions on all-cause mortality or cardiovascular outcomes, such as death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Data Extraction: Two independent investigators abstracted data, assessed the quality of evidence, and rated the certainty of evidence. Data Synthesis: Nine systematic reviews and 4 new RCTs were selected that encompassed a total of 277 trials, 24 interventions, and 992 129 participants. A total of 105 meta-analyses were generated. There was moderate-certainty evidence that reduced salt intake decreased the risk for all-cause mortality in normotensive participants (risk ratio [RR], 0.90 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.95]) and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive participants (RR, 0.67 [CI, 0.46 to 0.99]). Low-certainty evidence showed that omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) was associated with reduced risk for myocardial infarction (RR, 0.92 [CI, 0.85 to 0.99]) and coronary heart disease (RR, 0.93 [CI, 0.89 to 0.98]). Folic acid was associated with lower risk for stroke (RR, 0.80 [CI, 0.67 to 0.96]; low certainty), whereas calcium plus vitamin D increased the risk for stroke (RR, 1.17 [CI, 1.05 to 1.30]; moderate certainty). Other nutritional supplements, such as vitamin B6, vitamin A, multivitamins, antioxidants, and iron and dietary interventions, such as reduced fat intake, had no significant effect on mortality or cardiovascular disease outcomes (very low- to moderate-certainty evidence). Limitations: Suboptimal quality and certainty of evidence. Conclusion: Reduced salt intake, omega-3 LC-PUFA use, and folate supplementation could reduce risk for some cardiovascular outcomes in adults. Combined calcium plus vitamin D might increase risk for stroke. Primary Funding Source: None.

19.
Hum Genet ; 138(10): 1155-1169, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342140

RESUMO

Vitamin D inadequacy, assessed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], affects around 50% of adults in the United States and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. Blood 25(OH)D concentrations are influenced by genetic factors that may determine how much vitamin D intake is required to reach optimal 25(OH)D. Despite large genome-wide association studies (GWASs), only a small portion of the genetic factors contributing to differences in 25(OH)D has been discovered. Therefore, knowledge of a fuller set of genetic factors could be useful for risk prediction of 25(OH)D inadequacy, personalized vitamin D supplementation, and prevention of downstream morbidity and mortality. Using PRSice and weights from published African- and European-ancestry GWAS summary statistics, ancestry-specific polygenic scores (PGSs) were created to capture a more complete set of genetic factors in those of European (n = 9569) or African ancestry (n = 2761) from three cohort studies. The PGS for African ancestry was derived using all input SNPs (a p value cutoff of 1.0) and had an R2 of 0.3%; for European ancestry, the optimal PGS used a p value cutoff of 3.5 × 10-4 in the target/tuning dataset and had an R2 of 1.0% in the validation cohort. Those with highest genetic risk had 25(OH)D that was 2.8-3.0 ng/mL lower than those with lowest genetic risk (p = 0.0463-3.2 × 10-13), requiring an additional 467-500 IU of vitamin D intake to maintain equivalent 25(OH)D. PGSs are a powerful predictive tool that could be leveraged for personalized vitamin D supplementation to prevent the negative downstream effects of 25(OH)D inadequacy.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Genética Populacional , Padrões de Herança , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D/sangue
20.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319864672, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311303
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