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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555018

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare premature heart disease- and cancer-related deaths in women in the USA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed the US national database of death certificates of women aged <65 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database between 1999 and 2018. We measured annual percentage changes (APCs) in age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs) and years of potential life lost per 100 000 persons due to heart disease and cancer. Overall, cancer was a more prevalent cause of premature death compared with heart disease. Between 1999 and 2018, the AAMRs decreased for both cancer (61.9/100 000 to 45.6/100 000) and heart disease (29.2/100 000 to 22.6/100 000). However, while APC in AAMR for cancer declined consistently over time, after an initial decline, APC in AAMR for heart disease increased between 2010 and 2018 [0.53 95% confidence interval (0.18-0.89)], with a significant rise in Midwest, medium/small metros, and rural areas after 2008. Compared with cancer, APC in AAMR for heart disease increased in women aged 25-34 years [2.24 (0.30-4.22); 2013-18) and 55-64 years [0.46 (0.13-0.80); 2009-13], as well as Non-Hispanic (NH) Whites [APC, 0.79 (0.46-1.13); 2009-18] and NH American Indian/Alaskan Native [2.71 (0.59-4.87); 2011-2018]. Consequently, the mortality gap between cancer and heart disease has narrowed from an AAMR of 32.7/100 000 to 23.0/100 000. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality gap between cancer and heart disease is decreasing among women <65 years. Intensive cardiovascular health interventions are required focusing on vulnerable young demographic subgroups and underserved regional areas to meet the American Heart Association's Impact Goal and Million Hearts Initiative.

2.
Int J Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm is high in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) population. Emphysema involves proteolytic destruction of elastic fibers. Therefore, emphysema may also contribute to thoracic aorta dilatation. This study assessed aorta dilation in smokers stratified by presence of COPD, emphysema and airway thickening. METHODS: Aorta diameters were measured on 3D magnetic resonance angiography in smokers recruited from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), the Emphysema and Cancer Action Project (EMCAP), and the local community. COPD was defined by standard spirometric criteria; emphysema was measured quantitatively on computed tomography and bronchitis was determined from medical history. RESULTS: Participants (n = 315, age 58-79) included 150 with COPD and 165 without COPD, of whom 56% and 19%, respectively, had emphysema. Subjects in the most severe quartile of emphysematous change showed the largest diameter at all four aorta locations compared to those in the least severe quartiles (all p < 0.001). Comparing subjects with and without COPD, aorta diameters were larger in participants with severe COPD in ascending and arch (both p < 0.001), and abdominal aorta (p = 0.001). Chronic bronchitis and bronchial wall thickness did not correlate with aorta diameter. In subjects with emphysema, subjects with coexistence of COPD showed larger aorta than those without COPD in ascending (p = 0.003), arch (p = 0.002), and abdominal aorta (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed larger aorta diameter in subjects with COPD and severe emphysema compared to COPD related to chronic bronchitis or bronchial wall thickening.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e019519, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619972

RESUMO

The Go Red for Women movement was initiated by the American Heart Association (AHA) in the early 2000s to raise awareness concerning cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women. In 2016, the AHA funded 5 research centers across the United States to advance our knowledge of the risks and presentation of CVD that are specific to women. This report highlights the findings of the centers, showing how insufficient sleep, sedentariness, and pregnancy-related complications may increase CVD risk in women, as well as presentation and factors associated with myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in women. These projects were augmented by collaborative ancillary studies assessing the relationships between various lifestyle behaviors, including nightly fasting duration, mindfulness, and behavioral and anthropometric risk factors and CVD risk, as well as metabolomic profiling of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in women. The Go Red for Women Strategically Focused Research Network enhanced the evidence base related to heart disease in women, promoting awareness of the female-specific factors that influence CVD.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e019321, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619976

RESUMO

Background Social media is an effective channel for the advancement of women physicians; however, its use by women in cardiology has not been systematically studied. Our study seeks to characterize the current Women in Cardiology Twitter network. Methods and Results Six women-specific cardiology Twitter hashtags were analyzed: #ACCWIC (American College of Cardiology Women in Cardiology), #AHAWIC (American Heart Association Women in Cardiology), #ilooklikeacardiologist, #SCAIWIN (Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Women in Innovations), #WomeninCardiology, and #WomeninEP (Women in Electrophysiology). Twitter data from 2016 to 2019 were obtained from Symplur Signals. Quantitative and descriptive content analyses were performed. The Women in Cardiology Twitter network generated 48 236 tweets, 266 180 903 impressions, and 12 485 users. Tweets increased by 706% (from 2083 to 16 780), impressions by 207% (from 26 755 476 to 82 080 472), and users by 440% (from 796 to 4300), including a 471% user increase internationally. The network generated 6530 (13%) original tweets and 43 103 (86%) amplification tweets. Most original and amplification tweets were authored by women (81% and 62%, respectively) and women physicians (76% and 52%, respectively), with an increase in original and amplification tweets authored by academic women physicians (98% and 109%, respectively) and trainees (390% and 249%, respectively) over time. Community building, professional development, and gender advocacy were the most common tweet contents over the study period. Community building was the most common tweet category for #ACCWIC, #AHAWIC, #ilooklikeacardiologist, #SCAIWIN, and #WomeninCardiology, whereas professional development was most common for #WomeninEP. Conclusions The Women in Cardiology Twitter network has grown immensely from 2016 to 2019, with women physicians as the driving contributors. This network has become an important channel for community building, professional development, and gender advocacy discussions in an effort to advance women in cardiology.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e019005, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619980

RESUMO

Background The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in authorship of manuscripts in select high-impact cardiology journals during the early coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods and Results All manuscripts published between March 1, 2019 to June 1, 2019 and March 1, 2020 to June 1, 2020 in 4 high-impact cardiology journals (Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Circulation, JAMA Cardiology, and European Heart Journal) were identified using bibliometric data. Authors' genders were determined by matching first name with predicted gender using a validated multinational database (Genderize.io) and manual adjudication. Proportions of women and men first, co-first, senior, and co-senior authors, manuscript types, and whether the manuscript was COVID-19 related were recorded. In 2019, women were first authors of 176 (22.3%) manuscripts and senior authors of 99 (15.0%) manuscripts. In 2020, women first authored 230 (27.4%) manuscripts and senior authored 138 (19.3%) manuscripts. Proportions of woman first and senior authors were significantly higher in 2020 compared with 2019. Women were more likely to be first authors if the manuscript's senior author was a woman (33.8% for woman first/woman senior versus 23.4% for woman first/man senior; P<0.001). Women were less likely to be first authors of COVID-19-related original research manuscripts (P=0.04). Conclusions Representation of women as key authors of manuscripts published in major cardiovascular journals increased during the early COVID-19 pandemic compared with similar months in 2019. However, women were significantly less likely to be first authors of COVID-19-related original research manuscripts. Future investigation into the gender-disparate impacts of COVID-19 on academic careers is critical.

9.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 103: 106318, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588078

RESUMO

The INdividual response to VITamin D (INVITe) trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial of vitamin D3 supplementation (2000 IU daily) designed to determine clinical and genetic characteristics that modify the response to vitamin D supplementation. To enhance internal and external validity and reduce cost, the INVITe trial was nested within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), an ongoing prospective observational cohort study. The INVITe trial enrolled a community-based population of 666 racially and ethnically diverse participants from January 2017 to April 2019. This represents 30% of 2210 MESA participants approached for screening, and 96% of those found to be eligible. Barriers to enrollment included delayed initiation of the trial relative to scheduled MESA study visits, a lower number of available MESA participants than expected, and a high prevalence (18%) of high-dose vitamin D supplementation (>1000 IU daily, an exclusion criterion). The final study visit was attended by 611 participants (92%), and median adherence was 98%. Our experience suggests that integration of a randomized trial into an existing observational cohort study may leverage strengths of the source population and enhance enrollment, retention, and adherence, although with limited enrollment capacity. The INVITe trial will use rigorously-collected data to advance understanding of individual determinants of vitamin D response.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621523

RESUMO

Little is known about the association between acute prevalent conditions in patients with type 2 Myocardial Infarction (T2MI) and clinical outcomes, particularly between sexes. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2015-2017), we examined outcomes of T2MI in patients stratified by prevalent associated conditions (renal failure, decompensated heart failure, infection, acute respiratory failure, cardiac arrhythmias, bleeding) and sex. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the odds ratios (OR) of in-hospital all-cause mortality in each of the study groups. A total of 38,715 T2MI patients were included in the analysis, of which 47.9% (n=18,540) were females. Renal failure was the most common prevalent condition in both sexes (males: 60%; females: 52.6%). Acute respiratory failure was associated with the greatest odds of mortality (OR 5.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.02-5.94) when compared to other conditions: renal failure (OR 2.20 95% CI 2.01-2.40), infections (OR 2.96 95% CI 2.72-3.21), major bleeding (OR 1.71 95% CI 1.52-1.93), arrhythmias (OR 1.30 95% CI 1.19-1.43) and decompensated heart failure (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.65-0.77). However, there was no difference in mortality between sexes for all acute conditions except renal failure (females OR: 1.02, 95% CI 1.02-1.02, p=0.011). In conclusion, in-hospital mortality after T2MI differs according to the underlying acute condition, with acute respiratory failure being associated with the highest rate of mortality. No significant differences in mortality were observed between sexes amongst all prevalent acute conditions, with the exception of renal failure which was marginally higher in females.

11.
Circulation ; : CIR0000000000000947, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486973

RESUMO

As clinicians delivering health care, we are very good at treating disease but often not as good at treating the person. The focus of our attention has been on the specific physical condition rather than the patient as a whole. Less attention has been given to psychological health and how that can contribute to physical health and disease. However, there is now an increasing appreciation of how psychological health can contribute not only in a negative way to cardiovascular disease (CVD) but also in a positive way to better cardiovascular health and reduced cardiovascular risk. This American Heart Association scientific statement was commissioned to evaluate, synthesize, and summarize for the health care community knowledge to date on the relationship between psychological health and cardiovascular health and disease and to suggest simple steps to screen for, and ultimately improve, the psychological health of patients with and at risk for CVD. Based on current study data, the following statements can be made: There are good data showing clear associations between psychological health and CVD and risk; there is increasing evidence that psychological health may be causally linked to biological processes and behaviors that contribute to and cause CVD; the preponderance of data suggest that interventions to improve psychological health can have a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health; simple screening measures can be used by health care providers for patients with or at risk for CVD to assess psychological health status; and consideration of psychological health is advisable in the evaluation and management of patients with or at risk for CVD.

12.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e13798, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In-hospital deaths are an important outcome and little is known about deaths in the emergency department (ED). Among patients who died of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), we assessed causes of death, temporal trends and the relative distribution of deaths in the ED versus hospital. METHODS: Using the United States Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, we conducted a retrospective study of patients presenting to the ED with a primary diagnosis of CVD between 2006 and 2014. We used descriptive statistics to describe causes of deaths, temporal trends and location of death. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 27 144 508 visits to the ED with CVD diagnoses (~2% of all ED visits,). The most common CVD diagnoses were heart failure (n = 8 571 598), acute myocardial infarction (n = 4 827 518) and atrial fibrillation/flutter (n = 4 713 241). There were a total of 2.2 million deaths caused by the CVD, with the majority (57.6%) occurring in the ED. Cardiac arrest was the most common cause of in-hospital death (n = 1 225 095, 55.3%), followed by acute myocardial infarction (n = 279 310, 12.6%), heart failure (n = 217 367, 9.8%), intracranial hemorrhage (n = 168 009, 7.6%) and ischemic stroke (n = 151 615, 6.8%). The proportion of deaths in the ED for these causes were 91.9% cardiac arrest (n = 1 173 471), 3.6% acute myocardial infarction (n = 46 909), 1.0% heart failure (n = 12 599) and 1.1% intracranial hemorrhage (n = 13 579). There was a decrease in death for most CVDs over time. CONCLUSIONS: Inpatient CVD admissions and their associated death may not be a robust measure of the national burden of CVD since ED death-which are common for some conditions-are not captured.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(4): 437-449, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509400

RESUMO

Vitamin D and calcium supplements are commonly used, often together, to optimize bone health. Multiple observational studies have linked low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with increased cardiovascular risk. However, subsequent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) failed to demonstrate cardiovascular benefit with vitamin D supplementation. Although vitamin D supplements do not appear to be harmful for cardiovascular health, the lack of benefit in RCTs should discourage their use for this purpose, favoring optimizing vitamin D status through healthy lifestyles such as specific foods and modest sunlight exposure. Furthermore, some (but not all) observational and RCT studies of calcium supplementation have suggested potential for cardiovascular harm. Therefore, calcium supplementation should be used cautiously, striving for recommended intake of calcium predominantly from food sources. In this review, the authors examine the currently available evidence investigating whether vitamin D and calcium supplements are helpful, harmful, or neutral for cardiovascular health.

14.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 101: 106272, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nucleotide analogue prodrug remdesivir was among the first antiviral therapies to be tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for COVID-19. We performed a meta-analysis to understand efficacy and safety. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases (from January 1, 2020 to November 5, 2020). We included RCTs comparing the efficacy and safety of remdesivir to control/placebo in COVID-19. Two independent investigators abstracted data, assessed the quality of evidence, and rated the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: A total of 4 RCTs with 7334 patients with COVID-19 were included. At a follow-up of 28-29 days from randomization, very low certainty evidence showed that use of remdesivir compared with control group (placebo and/or standard of care) was not associated with a significant decrease in time to clinical improvement (standardized mean difference -0.80 day; [CI, -2.12, 0.53]). However, moderate certainty of evidence showed that remdesivir was associated with higher rates of recovered patients (risk difference [RD] 0.07 [0.05, 0.08]) and discharged patients (RD 0.07 [0.03, 0.11]) and lower rates of developing serious adverse events (RD -0.05 [-0.10, -0.01]) compared with control. Moderate and very low certainty of evidence showed there was no significant difference in deaths at 28-29 days follow-up (RD -0.01 [-0.03, 0.01]) and developing any adverse events (RD 0.01 [-0.17, 0.19]) between both groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients given remdesivir are more likely to demonstrate recovery and were associated with higher rates of hospital discharge, but not with significant reduction in mean time to clinical improvement or mortality.

16.
Menopause ; 28(3): 284-291, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated isolated and joint effects of early menopause (occurrence before 45 y of age) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T elevation (hs-cTnT ≥ 14 ng/L) on heart failure (HF) incidence in postmenopausal women. METHODS: We included 2,276 postmenopausal women, aged 67-90 years, with hs-cTnT measurements and without prevalent HF from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study Visit 5 (2011-2013). Women were categorized according to early menopause and hs-cTnT group. Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 5.5 years, we observed 104 HF events. The incidence rates of HF were greater in women with hs-cTnT elevation when compared to those without hs-cTnT elevation. In unadjusted analysis, the hazard ratios for incident HF were threefold greater in women with hs-cTnT elevation, with or without early menopause, (3.03 [95% CI, 1.59-5.77]) and (3.29 [95% CI, 2.08-5.21]), respectively, but not significantly greater in women with early menopause without hs-cTnT elevation, when compared to women with neither early menopause nor hs-cTnT elevation at Visit 5. After adjusting for HF risk factors and NT-pro B-type natriuretic peptide, these associations were attenuated and became nonsignificant for women with hs-cTnT elevation, but became stronger and significant for women with early menopause without hs-cTnT elevation (2.39 [95% CI, 1.28-4.46]). CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of early menopause status, hs-cTnT elevation is associated with greater HF incidence but this association is partially explained by HF risk factors. Even in the absence of hs-cTnT elevation, early menopause is significantly associated with HF incidence after accounting for HF risk factors.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Representation trends of women, older adults, and ethnic/racial minorities in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of atrial fibrillation (AF) are uncertain. METHODS: We systematically reviewed 134 AF related RCTs (phase II and III) encompassing 149,162 participants using Medline and ClinicalTrials.gov through April 2019 to determine representation trends of women, older patients (≥75 years), and ethnic/racial minorities. Weighted data on the prevalence of AF from epidemiological studies were used to compare the representation of the studied groups of interest in AF RCTs to their expected burden of the disease. RESULTS: Only 18.7% of the RCTs reported proportion of older patients, and 12.7% RCTs reported ethnic/racial minorities. The proportions of women in RCTs versus general population were 35.2% and 35.1%, of Hispanics were 11.9% and 5.2%, of Blacks were 1.2% and 5.7%, of American Indian/Alaskans were 0.2% and 0.2%, of Asians were 14.2% and 2.4%, of native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders were 0.05% and 0.1% and of non-Whites were 19.5% and 22.5%, respectively. The weighted mean age (SD) across the trials was 65.3 (3.2) years which was less than the corresponding weighted mean age of 71.1 (4.5) years in the comparative epidemiological data. CONCLUSION: The reporting of older patients and ethnic/racial minorities was poor in RCTs of AF. The representation of women and American Indian/Alaskan natives matched their expected population share of disease burden. Hispanics and Asians were over-represented and Blacks, native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders and non-Whites were under-represented in RCTs of AF.

18.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504633

RESUMO

AIMS: Our aim was to explore sex differences and inequalities in terms of medical management and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in a low/middle-income country (LMIC), where reports are scarce. METHODS: We examined sex differences in presentation, management and clinical outcomes in 21 374 patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Kerala, India enrolled in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Quality Improvement in Kerala trial. The main outcomes were the rates of in-hospital and 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) defined as composite of death, reinfarction, stroke and major bleeding. We fitted log Poisson multivariate random effects models to obtain the relative risks comparing women with men, and adjusted for clustering by centre and for age, CVD risk factors and cardiac presentation. RESULTS: A total of 5191 (24.3%) patients were women. Compared with men, women presenting with ACS were older (65±12 vs 58±12 years; p<0.001), more likely to have hypertension and diabetes. They also had longer symptom onset to hospital presentation time (median, 300 vs 238 min; p<0.001) and were less likely to receive primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (45.9% vs 49.8% of men, p<0.001). After adjustment, women were more likely to experience in-hospital (adjusted relative risk (RR)=1.53; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.77; p<0.001) and 30-day MACE (adjusted RR=1.39; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.57, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Women presenting with ACS in Kerala, India had greater burden of CVD risk factors, including hypertension and diabetes mellitus, longer delays in presentation, and were less likely to receive guideline-directed management. Women also had worse in-hospital and 30-day outcomes. Further efforts are needed to understand and reduce cardiovascular care disparities between men and women in LMICs.

20.
Ann Intern Med ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D supplementation may prevent falls in older persons, but evidence is inconsistent, possibly because of dosage differences. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of 4 doses of vitamin D3 supplements on falls. DESIGN: 2-stage Bayesian, response-adaptive, randomized trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02166333). SETTING: 2 community-based research units. PARTICIPANTS: 688 participants, aged 70 years and older, with elevated fall risk and a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] level of 25 to 72.5 nmol/L. INTERVENTION: 200 (control), 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU of vitamin D3 per day. During the dose-finding stage, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 vitamin D3 doses, and the best noncontrol dose for preventing falls was determined. After dose finding, participants previously assigned to receive noncontrol doses received the best dose, and new enrollees were randomly assigned to receive 200 IU/d or the best dose. MEASUREMENTS: Time to first fall or death over 2 years (primary outcome). RESULTS: During the dose-finding stage, the primary outcome rates were higher for the 2000- and 4000-IU/d doses than for the 1000-IU/d dose, which was selected as the best dose (posterior probability of being best, 0.90). In the confirmatory stage, event rates were not significantly different between participants with experience receiving the best dose (events and observation time limited to the period they were receiving 1000 IU/d; n = 308) and those randomly assigned to receive 200 IU/d (n = 339) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.94 [95% CI, 0.76 to 1.15]; P = 0.54). Analysis of falls with adverse outcomes suggested greater risk in the experience-with-best-dose group versus the 200-IU/d group (serious fall: HR, 1.87 [CI, 1.03 to 3.41]; fall with hospitalization: HR, 2.48 [CI, 1.13 to 5.46]). LIMITATIONS: The control group received 200 IU of vitamin D3 per day, not a placebo. Dose finding ended before the prespecified thresholds for dose suspension and dose selection were reached. CONCLUSION: In older persons with elevated fall risk and low serum 25-(OH)D levels, vitamin D3 supplementation at doses of 1000 IU/d or higher did not prevent falls compared with 200 IU/d. Several analyses raised safety concerns about vitamin D3 doses of 1000 IU/d or higher. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institute on Aging.

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