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1.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1863631, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643689

RESUMO

We conducted a phase I dose-escalation trial of radiation with ipilimumab in patients with melanoma with ≥2 metastatic lesions. Here, we report the final full clinical analysis. Patients received RT (6 or 8 Gy x 2 or 3 doses) to a single lesion followed by 4 cycles of ipilimumab. The primary endpoint was maximum tolerated dose of RT, and secondary endpoint was response at non-radiated sites. Twenty-two patients with treatment-naïve (n = 11) or treatment-refractory (n = 11) Stage IV melanoma were enrolled. There were 31 treatment-related adverse events (AEs), of which 16 were deemed immune-related. Eleven patients had grade 3 AEs (no grade 4/5). There were no dose-limiting toxicities related to the radiation/ipilimumab combination. Five of 22 patients (22.7%, 95% CI 7.8-45.4%) had partial response as best response and three (13.6%) had stable disease. Median overall survival was 10.7 months (95% CI, 4.9 months to not-estimable) and median progression-free survival 3.6 months (95% CI, 2.9 months to 7.8 months). Seven patients were still alive at the time of last follow-up (median follow-up 89.2 months), most of whom received pembrolizumab after progression. Radiotherapy followed by ipilimumab was well tolerated and yielded a response rate that compares favorably to the objective response rate with ipilimumab alone. Furthermore, 32% of patients are long-term survivors, most of whom received pembrolizumab. Based on these results, the recommended dose that was used in subsequent Phase 2 trials was 8 Gy x 3 doses. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01497808 (www.clinicaltrials.gov).

2.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(1): 118-131, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard chemotherapy remains inadequate in metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Combining an agonistic CD40 monoclonal antibody with chemotherapy induces T-cell-dependent tumour regression in mice and improves survival. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the safety of combining APX005M (sotigalimab) with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel, with and without nivolumab, in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma to establish the recommended phase 2 dose. METHODS: This non-randomised, open-label, multicentre, four-cohort, phase 1b study was done at seven academic hospitals in the USA. Eligible patients were adults aged 18 years and older with untreated metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0-1, and measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. All patients were treated with 1000 mg/m2 intravenous gemcitabine and 125 mg/m2 intravenous nab-paclitaxel. Patients received 0·1 mg/kg intravenous APX005M in cohorts B1 and C1 and 0·3 mg/kg in cohorts B2 and C2. In cohorts C1 and C2, patients also received 240 mg intravenous nivolumab. Primary endpoints comprised incidence of adverse events in all patients who received at least one dose of any study drug, incidence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) in all patients who had a DLT or received at least two doses of gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel and one dose of APX005M during cycle 1, and establishing the recommended phase 2 dose of intravenous APX005M. Objective response rate in the DLT-evaluable population was a key secondary endpoint. This trial (PRINCE, PICI0002) is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03214250 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Aug 22, 2017, and July 10, 2018, of 42 patients screened, 30 patients were enrolled and received at least one dose of any study drug; 24 were DLT-evaluable with median follow-up 17·8 months (IQR 16·0-19·4; cohort B1 22·0 months [21·4-22·7], cohort B2 18·2 months [17·0-18·9], cohort C1 17·9 months [14·3-19·7], cohort C2 15·9 months [12·7-16·1]). Two DLTs, both febrile neutropenia, were observed, occurring in one patient each for cohorts B2 (grade 3) and C1 (grade 4). The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were lymphocyte count decreased (20 [67%]; five in B1, seven in B2, four in C1, four in C2), anaemia (11 [37%]; two in B1, four in B2, four in C1, one in C2), and neutrophil count decreased (nine [30%]; three in B1, three in B2, one in C1, two in C2). 14 (47%) of 30 patients (four each in B1, B2, C1; two in C2) had a treatment-related serious adverse event. The most common serious adverse event was pyrexia (six [20%] of 30; one in B2, three in C1, two in C2). There were two chemotherapy-related deaths due to adverse events: one sepsis in B1 and one septic shock in C1. The recommended phase 2 dose of APX005M was 0·3 mg/kg. Responses were observed in 14 (58%) of 24 DLT-evaluable patients (four each in B1, C1, C2; two in B2). INTERPRETATION: APX005M and gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel, with or without nivolumab, is tolerable in metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and shows clinical activity. If confirmed in later phase trials, this treatment regimen could replace chemotherapy-only standard of care in this population. FUNDING: Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Cancer Research Institute, and Bristol Myers Squibb.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD40/antagonistas & inibidores , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Idoso , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígenos CD40/imunologia , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
3.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(12): 2007-2013.e1, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143997

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate total blood radioactivity (BR) after SIR-Spheres yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization and differences in BR based on delivery method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty participants with hepatic metastases undergoing first radioembolization were prospectively enrolled from December 2017 to June 2018. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and 0, 10, 20, 60, and 120 minutes after 90Y administration. BR was measured with a γ-counter and scaled by estimated blood volume. Percentage of instilled radioactivity in the bloodstream was calculated as area under the fitted curve, and differences between delivery methods were examined with nonparametric statistical tests. RESULTS: In 10 participants, resin microspheres were instilled with 50% Isovue 300 diluted in saline solution in the D line, and 10 others were treated with dextrose 5% in water (D5W) in the D line. Median administered activities were 944 MBq (range, 746-1,993 MBq) and 1,213 MBq (range, 519-2,066 MBq), respectively. Fraction of 90Y in blood was significantly higher with dilute contrast agent than with D5W (median, 0.5% of injected activity vs 0.2%; P = .001). Among all participants, the maximum activity delivered was 2,066 MBq, and a maximum of 1% of administered radioactivity was measured as free 90Y in blood. Assuming these highest-case values and complete decay of all free 90Y in bone, a dose to red marrow of 132.3 mGy was calculated by Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment/EXponential Modeling. CONCLUSIONS: Blood sampling after radioembolization allowed for estimation of the time-activity curve and BR. Delivery with 50% contrast agent in saline solution resulted in a significant increase in BR vs D5W, even though the total BR for both groups was nominal.

4.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436839

RESUMO

Importance: Local failure after chemoradiotherapy (CT-RT) significantly contributes to mortality in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). One approach to improve local control is through targeted radiosensitization of the tumor. Objective: To evaluate the dose-limiting toxic effects, maximally tolerated dose, and recommended phase 2 dose of the protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate, administered concurrently with CT-RT in patients with LA-NSCLC, and, in the phase 2 portion of the study, to estimate the objective response rate, local and distant failure rates, and overall survival. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, open-label, single-group, single-institution phase 1/2 trial tested the oral protease inhibitor nelfinavir in combination with concurrent CT-RT in 35 patients aged 18 to 89 years with biopsy-confirmed unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB LA-NSCLC and a minimum Karnofsky performance status from June 29, 2007, to February 22, 2012, with an analysis date of May 9, 2017. Median follow-up for all patients was 6.8 years, with a minimum 5 years of follow-up for all survivors. Interventions: Oral nelfinavir mesylate, 625 mg, twice daily or 1250 mg, twice daily was administered for 7 to 14 days before and during concurrent CT-RT. Main Outcomes and Measures: Graded toxic effects, overall survival, local failure, distant failure, objective response rate, and progression-free survival as measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Results: Thirty-five patients (16 women and 19 men; median age, 60 years [range, 39-79 years]) enrolled and met protocol-specified criteria for adherence, with 5 at a dose of 625 mg twice daily and 30 at a dose of 1250 mg twice daily. No dose-limiting toxic effects were observed. No grade 4 or higher nonhematologic toxic effects were observed. Thirty-three of the 35 patients had evaluable posttreatment computed tomographic scans, with an objective response rate of 94% (31 of 33; 95% CI, 86%-100%). The cumulative incidence of local failure was 39% (95% CI, 30.5%-47.5%). Median progression-free survival was 11.7 months (95% CI, 6.2-17.1 months). Median overall survival for all patients was 41.1 months (95% CI, 19.0-63.1 months); the 5-year mean (SE) overall survival rate was 37.1% (8.2%). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that nelfinavir administered with concurrent CT-RT is associated with acceptable toxic effects and a promising objective response rate, local failure, progression-free survival, and overall survival in unresectable LA-NSCLC. These data suggest that nelfinavir may enhance the efficacy of standard CT-RT in this disease. Additional testing in the randomized phase 3 setting should be conducted to establish the improvement associated with nelfinavir with concurrent CT-RT. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00589056.

5.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294762

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may benefit from locally ablative therapy (LAT) such as surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy. Prior studies were conducted before the advent of immunotherapy, and a strong biological rationale for the use of immunotherapy exists in a minimal residual disease state. Objective: To evaluate whether the addition of pembrolizumab after LAT improves outcomes for patients with oligometastatic NSCLC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-arm phase 2 trial of pembrolizumab therapy was performed from February 1, 2015, through September 30, 2017, at an academic referral cancer center. The 51 eligible patients enrolled had oligometastatic NSCLC (≤4 metastatic sites) and had completed LAT to all known sites of disease. Data were analyzed from February 1, 2015, to August 23, 2018. Interventions: Within 4 to 12 weeks of completing LAT, patients began intravenous pembrolizumab therapy, 200 mg every 21 days, for 8 cycles, with provision to continue to 16 cycles in the absence of progressive disease or untoward toxic effects. Main Outcomes and Measures: The 2 primary efficacy end points were progression-free survival (PFS) from the start of LAT (PFS-L), which preceded enrollment in the trial, and PFS from the start of pembrolizumab therapy (PFS-P). The study was powered for comparison with historical data on the first efficacy end point. Secondary outcomes included overall survival, safety, and quality of life as measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung instrument. Results: Of 51 patients enrolled, 45 (24 men [53%]; median age, 64 years [range, 46-82 years]) received pembrolizumab. At the time of analysis, 24 patients had progressive disease or had died. Median PFS-L was 19.1 months (95% CI, 9.4-28.7 months), significantly greater than the historical median of 6.6 months (P = .005). Median PFS-P was 18.7 months (95% CI, 10.1-27.1 months). Eleven patients died. Overall mean (SE) survival rate at 12 months was 90.9% (4.3%); at 24 months, 77.5% (6.7%). Neither programmed death ligand 1 expression nor CD8 T-cell tumor infiltration was associated with PFS-L. Pembrolizumab after LAT yielded no new safety signals and no reduction in quality of life. Conclusions and Relevance: Pembrolizumab after LAT for oligometastatic NSCLC appears to improve PFS with no reduction in quality of life. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02316002.

6.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(4): 358-364, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced oral thermal hyperalgesia (OTH) is a common and debilitating side effect of platinum-based anticancer agents. This study evaluated the efficacy of oral cryotherapy in preventing OTH during oxaliplatin chemotherapy infusion. METHODS: Patients with gastrointestinal cancer treated with biweekly oxaliplatin (85 mg/m2 over 120 minutes) at Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania were randomized to receive oral cryotherapy (ice chips) during oxaliplatin infusion or standard-of-care treatment. All patients completed baseline questionnaires regarding oral and peripheral symptoms and on-treatment questionnaires on day 1 of each subsequent chemotherapy cycle. Those in the treatment arm were asked to document how long they kept the ice chips in their mouths (0, <30, 30, 60, 90, or 120 minutes) and to report their discomfort associated with oral cryotherapy. Evaluable patients were those who had completed at least 2 cycles of oxaliplatin therapy. RESULTS: Of 62 randomized patients with a variety of gastrointestinal malignancies, 50 (25 per treatment arm) were evaluable for efficacy. The rate of patients with oral symptoms after the first treatment cycle was significantly lower in the intervention arm (n=8; 32%) than in the control arm (n=18; 72%), meeting the primary study objective (P=.01). The magnitude of difference in symptom scores before versus after the first treatment cycle was significantly less in the intervention versus control arm (P=.001). No difference in oral symptoms over time was seen between the intervention and control groups (P=.20), although a high attrition rate was noted. Duration of ice chip exposure was associated with improved oral symptoms over time (P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: Oral cryotherapy is a tolerable and cost-effective method of diminishing OTH in patients receiving oxaliplatin chemotherapy, and seems to be most effective in the early stages of treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Crioterapia/métodos , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina/farmacologia
7.
Nat Med ; 25(3): 454-461, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804515

RESUMO

Immunologic responses to anti-PD-1 therapy in melanoma patients occur rapidly with pharmacodynamic T cell responses detectable in blood by 3 weeks. It is unclear, however, whether these early blood-based observations translate to the tumor microenvironment. We conducted a study of neoadjuvant/adjuvant anti-PD-1 therapy in stage III/IV melanoma. We hypothesized that immune reinvigoration in the tumor would be detectable at 3 weeks and that this response would correlate with disease-free survival. We identified a rapid and potent anti-tumor response, with 8 of 27 patients experiencing a complete or major pathological response after a single dose of anti-PD-1, all of whom remain disease free. These rapid pathologic and clinical responses were associated with accumulation of exhausted CD8 T cells in the tumor at 3 weeks, with reinvigoration in the blood observed as early as 1 week. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated a pretreatment immune signature (neoadjuvant response signature) that was associated with clinical benefit. In contrast, patients with disease recurrence displayed mechanisms of resistance including immune suppression, mutational escape, and/or tumor evolution. Neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 treatment is effective in high-risk resectable stage III/IV melanoma. Pathological response and immunological analyses after a single neoadjuvant dose can be used to predict clinical outcome and to dissect underlying mechanisms in checkpoint blockade.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Transcriptoma , Evasão Tumoral
8.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e031103, 2019 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892649

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The global burden of cancer continues to increase in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Botswana, a middle-income country in SSA, has the second highest prevalence of HIV worldwide and has seen an increase in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical cancer over the last decade in the setting of improved survival of HIV-infected women. There is an urgent need to understand more clearly the causes and consequences of HPV-associated cervical cancer in the setting of HIV infection. We initiated the Ipabalele ('take care of yourself' in Setswana) programme to address this need for new knowledge and to initiate long-term research programme capacity building in the region. In this manuscript, we describe the components of the programme, including three main research projects as well as a number of essential cores to support the activities of the programme. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Our multidisciplinary approach aims to further current understanding of the problem by implementing three complementary studies aimed at identifying its molecular, behavioural and clinical determinants. Three participant cohorts were designed to represent the early, intermediate and late stages of the natural history of cervical cancer.The functional structure of the programme is coordinated through programmatic cores. These allow for integration of each of the studies within the cohorts while providing support for pilot studies led by local junior investigators. Each project of the Ipabalele programme includes a built-in capacity building component, promoting the establishment of long-lasting infrastructure for future research activities. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Institutional review board approvals were granted by the University of Pennsylvania, University of Botswana and Ministry of Health and wellness of Botswana. Results will be disseminated via the participating institutions and with the help of the Community Advisory Committee, the project's Botswana advisory group.

9.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(3): 515-521, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315941

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the most common treatment-related complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Lymphocyte migration plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of GVHD. A previous phase I/II trial demonstrated that CCR5 blockade with maraviroc in the first 30days after allo-HCT resulted in a low incidence of early acute GVHD, primarily in visceral organs, but with no impact on late acute or chronic GVHD. We conducted a phase II trial to examine the efficacy of an extended course of maraviroc, administered through post-transplantation day +90 in addition to standard prophylaxis in 37 recipients of reduced-intensity-conditioned unrelated donor allo-HCT performed to treat hematologic malignancies. Extended maraviroc treatment was safe and feasible. The primary study endpoint, day +180 rate of grade II-IV acute GVHD, was 22 ± 7%, liver GVHD was not observed, and gut GVHD was uncommon. The day +180 rate of grade III-IV acute GVHD was 5 ± 4%. The 1-year rate of moderate to severe chronic GVHD was 8 ± 5% and that of disease relapse was 30 ± 8%. Overall survival at 1 year was 70 ± 8%. Compared with the previously studied short course of maraviroc, the extended course resulted in a significantly higher GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], .45; 95% confidence interval [CI], .25 to .82; P = .009) and overall survival (adjusted HR, .48; 95% CI, .24 to .96; P = .037). A combined analysis of both trials showed that high maraviroc trough concentrations on the day of hematopoietic cell infusion were associated with lower rates of acute GVHD. An extended course of maraviroc after reduced-intensity-conditioned unrelated donor allo-HCT is safe and effective in preventing acute and chronic GVHD and is associated with favorable survival.


Assuntos
Antagonistas dos Receptores CCR5/uso terapêutico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Maraviroc/uso terapêutico , Receptores CCR5/deficiência , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Maraviroc/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Doadores não Relacionados
10.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(4): 569-579, 2019 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407516

RESUMO

The RNA-binding protein insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1 (IMP1) is overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, evidence for a direct role for IMP1 in CRC metastasis is lacking. IMP1 is regulated by let-7 microRNA, which binds in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the transcript. The availability of binding sites is in part controlled by alternative polyadenylation, which determines 3' UTR length. Expression of the short 3' UTR transcript (lacking all microRNA sites) results in higher protein levels and is correlated with increased proliferation. We used in vitro and in vivo model systems to test the hypothesis that the short 3' UTR isoform of IMP1 promotes CRC metastasis. Herein we demonstrate that 3' UTR shortening increases IMP1 protein expression and that this in turn enhances the metastatic burden to the liver, whereas expression of the long isoform (full length 3' UTR) does not. Increased tumor burden results from elevated tumor surface area driven by cell proliferation and cell survival mechanisms. These processes are independent of classical apoptosis pathways. Moreover, we demonstrate the shifts toward the short isoform are associated with metastasis in patient populations where IMP1-long expression predominates. Overall, our work demonstrates that different IMP1 expression levels result in different functional outcomes in CRC metastasis and that targeting IMP1 may reduce tumor progression in some patients.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Oncoimmunology ; 7(10): e1468956, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288340

RESUMO

We report long-term clinical outcomes and immune responses observed from a phase 1 trial of agonist CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and blocking CTLA-4 mAb in patients with metastatic melanoma. Twenty-four patients previously untreated with checkpoint blockade were enrolled. The agonistic CD40 mAb CP-870,893 and the CTLA-4 blocking mAb tremelimumab were dosed concomitantly every 3 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively, across four dose combinations. Two patients developed dose-limiting grade 3 immune-mediated colitis that led to the definition of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Other immune-mediated toxicity included uveitis (n = 1), hypophysitis (n = 1), hypothyroidism (n = 2), and grade 3 cytokine release syndrome (CRS) (n = 1). The estimated MTD was 0.2 mg/kg of CP-870,893 and 10 mg/kg of tremelimumab. In 22 evaluable patients, the objective response rate (ORR) was 27.3%: two patients (9.1%) had complete responses (CR) and four (18.2%) patients had partial responses (PR). With a median follow-up of 45 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.2 months (95% CI, 1.3-5.1 months) and median overall survival (OS) was 23.6 months (95% CI, 11.7-35.5 months). Nine patients are long-term survivors (> 3 years), 8 of whom subsequently received other therapy including PD-1 mAb, surgery, or radiation therapy. Elevated baseline soluble CD25 was associated with shorter OS. Immunologically, treatment was associated with evidence of T cell activation and increased tumor T cell infiltration that was accomplished without therapeutic PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. These results suggest opportunities for immune activation and cancer immunotherapy beyond PD-1.

12.
Br J Cancer ; 119(10): 1200-1207, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a phase I trial evaluating pembrolizumab+hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) for patients with metastatic cancers. METHODS: There were two strata (12 patients each): (i) NSCLC/melanoma progressing on prior anti-PD-1 therapy, (ii) other cancer types; anti-PD-1-naive. Patients received 6 cycles of pembrolizumab, starting 1 week before HFRT. Patients had ≥2 lesions; only one was irradiated (8 Gy × 3 for first half; 17 Gy × 1 for second half in each stratum) and the other(s) followed for response. RESULTS: Of the 24 patients, 20 (83%) had treatment-related adverse events (AEs) (all grade 1 or 2). There were eight grade 3 AEs, none treatment related. There were no dose-limiting toxicities or grade 4/5 AEs. Stratum 1: two patients (of 12) with progression on prior PD-1 blockade experienced prolonged responses (9.2 and 28.1 months). Stratum 2: one patient experienced a complete response and two had prolonged stable disease (7.4 and 7.0 months). Immune profiling demonstrated that anti-PD-1 therapy and radiation induced a consistent increase in the proliferation marker Ki67 in PD-1-expressing CD8 T cells. CONCLUSIONS: HFRT was well tolerated with pembrolizumab, and in some patients with metastatic NSCLC or melanoma, it reinvigorated a systemic response despite previous progression on anti-PD-1 therapy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02303990 ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/radioterapia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Metástase Neoplásica/radioterapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
13.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(436)2018 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29643231

RESUMO

We conducted a pilot clinical trial testing a personalized vaccine generated by autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with oxidized autologous whole-tumor cell lysate (OCDC), which was injected intranodally in platinum-treated, immunotherapy-naïve, recurrent ovarian cancer patients. OCDC was administered alone (cohort 1, n = 5), in combination with bevacizumab (cohort 2, n = 10), or bevacizumab plus low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide (cohort 3, n = 10) until disease progression or vaccine exhaustion. A total of 392 vaccine doses were administered without serious adverse events. Vaccination induced T cell responses to autologous tumor antigen, which were associated with significantly prolonged survival. Vaccination also amplified T cell responses against mutated neoepitopes derived from nonsynonymous somatic tumor mutations, and this included priming of T cells against previously unrecognized neoepitopes, as well as novel T cell clones of markedly higher avidity against previously recognized neoepitopes. We conclude that the use of oxidized whole-tumor lysate DC vaccine is safe and effective in eliciting a broad antitumor immunity, including private neoantigens, and warrants further clinical testing.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo
14.
Invest New Drugs ; 36(4): 657-666, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29607465

RESUMO

Background Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitors enhance chemotherapy response in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells in vitro. However whether inhibiting mTORC1 enhances clinical response to AML chemotherapy remains controversial. We previously optimized measurement of mTORC1's kinase activity in AML blasts during clinical trials using serial phospho-specific flow cytometry of formaldehyde-fixed whole blood or marrow specimens. To validate mTORC1 as a therapeutic target in AML, we performed two clinical trials combining an mTORC1 inhibitor (sirolimus) and MEC (mitoxantrone, etoposide, cytarabine) in patients with relapsed, refractory, or untreated high-risk AML. Methods Flow cytometric measurements of ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation (pS6) were performed before and during sirolimus treatment to determine whether mTORC1 inhibition enriched for chemotherapy response. Results In 51 evaluable subjects, the overall response rate (ORR) to the combination regimen was 47% (95% confidence interval 33-61%, 33% CR, 2% CRi, 12% PR) and similar toxicity to historic experience with MEC alone. 37 subjects had baseline pS6 measured pre-sirolimus, of whom 27 (73%) exhibited mTORC1 activity. ORR was not significantly different between subjects with and without baseline mTORC1 activity (52% vs 40%, respectively, p = 0.20). The ORR among subjects with baseline target activation and mTORC1 inhibition during therapy was 71% (12/17) compared to 20% (2/10) in subjects without target inhibition. Conclusions Fixed, whole blood pS6 by flow cytometry may be a predictive biomarker for clinical response to mTORC1 inhibitor-based regimens. These data provide clinical confirmation that mTORC1 activation mediates chemotherapy resistance in patients with AML.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitoxantrona/uso terapêutico , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Projetos Piloto , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 43(10): 2859-2867, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500644

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate safety, time to recurrence, and overall survival (OS) in patients with liver metastases (LM), treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) followed by ablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included all patients with LM treated with combined TACE and ablation from August 1998 to September 2015. Forty-two patients (12 women, 30 men; age 62.9 ± 11.9 years) were treated for 44 LMs. Tumor characteristics, imaging response to treatment, recurrence, and OS data were reviewed. Statistical analysis included Kaplan-Meier estimation, Cox regression and Fisher's exact, Wilcoxon rank sum, or log rank tests. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 10.3 months. Eighteen patients had 1 hepatic lesion, 16 had 2-5, and 8 had > 5. Median index lesion size was 4.7 cm (range 1.5-8 .0 cm). Tumor response (mRECIST) was available for 41/44 treated lesions, with CR in 32 (78.0%), PR in 8 (19.5%), and PD in 1 (2.4%). Long-term imaging follow-up was available for 38 patients. Freedom from local recurrence was 61% at 1 year and 50% at 2 years. OS was 55% at 1 year and 30% at 2 years (median OS, 14.5 months). Tumor size and histology were not predictors of time to progression or OS. Complications occurred in 19 patients (45%). Major complications occurred in 19% of patients and included hospitalization for fever (n = 2), hepatic abscess (n = 3) and fall requiring transfusion, portal vein thrombus causing lobar infarct, biliary fistula, and retroperitoneal hematoma (n = 1 each). CONCLUSIONS: Combined TACE and ablation is effective for local tumor control of liver metastases up to 8 cm when part of a multidisciplinary treatment strategy. Major complications occurred in 19% of patients.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 81(3): 609-614, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29362902

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer typically have poor outcomes, with a median survival of approximately 16 months. Novel methods to improve outcomes are needed. Nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane) has shown efficacy in pancreatic cancer and is FDA-approved for metastatic disease in combination with gemcitabine. Nab-paclitaxel is also a promising radiosensitizer based on laboratory studies, but it has never been clinically tested with definitive radiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma. METHODS: We performed a phase 1 study using a 3 + 3 dose escalation strategy to determine the safety and tolerability of dose-escalated nab-paclitaxel with fractionated radiotherapy for patients with unresectable or borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. Following induction chemotherapy with two cycles of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine, patients were treated with weekly nab-paclitaxel and daily radiotherapy to a dose of 52.5 Gy in 25 fractions. Final dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) determination was performed at day 65 after the start of radiotherapy. RESULTS: Nine patients received nab-paclitaxel at a dose level of either 100 mg/m2 (n = 3) or 125 mg/m2 (n = 6). There were no observed grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicities. One DLT (grade 3 neuropathy) was observed in a patient who received 125 mg/m2 of nab-paclitaxel. Other grade 3 toxicities included fatigue (11%), anemia (11%) and neutropenia (11%). No grade 4 toxicities were observed. Following chemoradiotherapy, four patients (borderline resectable, n = 2 and unresectable, n = 2) underwent surgical resection, all with negative margins and with significant treatment effect with limited tumor viability. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of fractionated radiation and weekly full dose nab-paclitaxel was safe and well-tolerated.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Idoso , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 20182018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30766968

RESUMO

Purpose: TP53 mutation (MT) in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) -MT non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with poor response to targeted therapy; however, its impact on survival is not clearly established. Patients and Methods: We performed an analysis of patients with stage IV EGFR MT NSCLC with available gene sequencing data. Associations between baseline characteristics; molecular profile, including TP53 MT; and survival outcomes were assessed. Results: We identified 131 consecutive patients with EGFR MT; 81 (62%) had a TP53 MT, and 55 (42%) had other coexisting oncogenic MTs. Emergent EGFR T790M MT was observed in 42 patients (32%). Overall survival (OS) was longer for younger patients (P = .003), never smokers (P = .002), those with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 1 (P = .004), and emergent T790M MT (P = .018). TP53 MT (P = .021) and other coexisting oncogenic MTs (P = 0.011) were associated with inferior OS. In a multivariable regression analysis adjusted for age, smoking, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and the presence of TP53 MT (P = .063) and other coexisting MTs (P = .064) did not achieve statistical significance. Patients with EGFR T790M/TP53 double MT had worse OS compared with patients with T790M MT alone (46.4 months v 82.9 months). In our series, five patients transformed to small-cell lung cancer (5.6%). All had TP53 MT. In four patients, allelic fraction of TP53 MT increased at the time of transformation. Conclusion: The presence of TP53 and other coexisting MTs in EGFR MT NSCLC were associated with inferior OS, including patients with emergent T790M MT. An increase in TP53 mutation allelic fraction may potentially be a useful clinical predictor of small-cell transformation.

18.
Hum Pathol ; 72: 66-70, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29137934

RESUMO

The Notch signaling pathway is integral to normal human development and homeostasis and has a deterministic function on cell differentiation. Recent studies suggest aberrant Notch signaling may contribute to neoplastic progression by an increase in stem cell survival, chemoresistance, and the promotion of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The goals of our study were to determine, utilizing quantitative technologies, the expression of activated Notch 1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to determine the relationship between Notch 1 expression and various clinicopathologic parameters. Immunohistochemical staining for Notch intracellular domain (NICD) was performed on 60 consecutive cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 42 cases of benign esophageal squamous epithelium, and 13 cases of eosinophilic esophagitis diagnosed in our department from 2007 through 2015, and exact nuclear staining and nuclear characteristics were graded using the Vectra imaging system. Clinicopathologic data (gender, age at diagnosis, smoking status, tumor grade, tumor stage, tumor location, and survival) were collected for each SCC case and these were correlated with NICD staining. Cases of esophageal SCC demonstrated significantly higher NICD staining compared to cases of benign and reactive esophageal epithelium (P=.003 and .005, respectively). Among cases of esophageal SCC, nuclear NICD staining was significantly correlated with both tumor grade and stage. Following classification and regression tree analysis, esophageal SCC patients with increased NICD expression were found to be more likely to die from their disease than those with lower levels of expression. Taken together, the findings suggest that increased Notch 1 may contribute to the development and aggressiveness of esophageal SCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/metabolismo , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
19.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 21: 28-35, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29113960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report on a Phase 1 trial of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for superficial head and neck (H&N) lesions. Due to known oxygen dependencies of PDT, translational measurements of lesion hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2) and blood volume (tHb) were studied for associations with patient outcomes. METHODS: PDT with aminolevulinc acid (ALA) and escalating light doses was evaluated for high-grade dysplasia, carcinoma-in-situ, and microinvasive carcinomas of the H&N. Among 29 evaluable patients, most (18) had lesions of the tongue or floor of mouth (FOM). Disease was intact in 18 patients and present at surgical margins in 11 patients. In 26 patients, lesion StO2 and tHb was measured. RESULTS: Local control (LC) at 24 months was 57.5% among all patients. In patients with tongue/FOM lesions LC was 42.7%, and it was 50.1% for those with intact lesions. Lesion tHb was not associated with 3-month complete response (CR), but StO2 was higher in patients with CR. In tongue/FOM lesions, baseline StO2 [mean(SE)] was 54(4)% in patients (n=12) with CR versus 23(8)% in patients (n=6) with local recurrence/persistence (p=0.01). Similarly, for intact disease, baseline StO2 was 54(3)% in patients (n=10) with CR versus 28(8)% in patients (n=5) without CR (p=0.03). In patients with intact disease, higher baseline StO2 associated with 24-month local control (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of the physiologic properties of target lesions may allow for identification of patients with the highest probability of benefiting from PDT. This provides opportunity for optimizing light delivery based on lesion characteristics and/or informing ongoing clinical decision-making in patients who would most benefit from PDT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Aminolevulínico , Carcinoma in Situ/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma in Situ/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lasers Semicondutores/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/fisiopatologia , Doses de Radiação
20.
Oncoimmunology ; 6(9): e1207032, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28932627

RESUMO

HER2-directed therapies are less effective in patients with ERpos compared to ERneg breast cancer, possibly reflecting bidirectional activation between HER2 and estrogen signaling pathways. We investigated dual blockade using anti-HER2 vaccination and anti-estrogen therapy in HER2pos/ERpos early breast cancer patients. In pre-clinical studies of HER2pos breast cancer cell lines, ERpos cells were partially resistant to CD4+ Th1 cytokine-induced metabolic suppression compared with ERneg cells. The addition of anti-estrogen treatment significantly enhanced cytokine sensitivity in ERpos, but not ERneg, cell lines. In two pooled phase-I clinical trials, patients with HER2pos early breast cancer were treated with neoadjuvant anti-HER2 dendritic cell vaccination; HER2pos/ERpos patients were treated with or without concurrent anti-estrogen therapy. The anti-HER2 Th1 immune response measured in the peripheral blood significantly increased following vaccination, but was similar across the three treatment groups (ERneg vaccination alone, ERpos vaccination alone, ERpos vaccination + anti-estrogen therapy). In the sentinel lymph nodes, however, the anti-HER2 Th1 immune response was significantly higher in ERpos patients treated with combination anti-HER2 vaccination plus anti-estrogen therapy compared to those treated with anti-HER2 vaccination alone. Similar rates of pathologic complete response (pCR) were observed in vaccinated ERneg patients and vaccinated ERpos patients treated with concurrent anti-estrogen therapy (31.4% vs. 28.6%); both were significantly higher than the pCR rate in vaccinated ERpos patients who did not receive anti-estrogen therapy (4.0%, p = 0.03). Since pCR portends long-term favorable outcomes, these results support additional clinical investigations using HER2-directed vaccines in combination with anti-estrogen treatments for ERpos/HER2pos DCIS and invasive breast cancer.

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