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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Youth with chronic medical conditions (CMCs) have been reported to be at increased risk of developing anxiety disorders. Importantly, suffering from anxiety may also impact their disease-related outcomes. This study set out to systematically review the literature on anxiety and seven CMCs among youth (asthma, congenital heart disease, diabetes, epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and sickle cell disease). METHOD: A systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Searches were conducted across PubMed, PsycNET, Embase, and reference lists of the included studies (1990-2018). Three independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts and conducted full-text assessment. Studies were included if they reported the prevalence of anxiety or the association of anxiety on disease-related outcomes in children and/or adolescents with the focal CMCs. RESULTS: Fifty-three studies met the predetermined inclusion criteria. Across the CMCs, the prevalence of anxiety disorder was increased in youth with CMCs compared to the general population. Evidence for a relationship between anxiety and adverse disease-related outcomes was limited. For asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and sickle cell disease, there was some evidence indicating that anxiety was associated with adverse outcomes; supported by two longitudinal studies, one in asthma and one in inflammatory bowel disease. For diabetes, results were inconsistent; with some studies indicating that anxiety was associated with worse and others with better treatment adherence. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anxiety disorders in youth with CMCs is higher than that of the general population. Anxiety may also be associated with adverse disease-related outcomes for youth, but it is not possible to draw definitive conclusions. Longitudinal studies making use of parent/youth composite anxiety measures and a combination of parent/youth reported and objective measures of disease-related outcomes are needed. Given the burden of disease of anxiety disorders; regardless of the impact on the disease outcomes, screening for and treatment of anxiety is recommended in youth with CMCs.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585157

RESUMO

There has been growing interest in the associations among biological aging, stress, and psychopathology. Biological aging reflects an individual's functional and biological condition, and one of the indicators is telomere length.1 Telomeres consist of DNA repeats at chromosome ends.2 It is a normal process that telomeres shorten during the lifespan, but this process can be accelerated and result in biological aging associated with morbidity and mortality.2.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444904

RESUMO

The development of problem behavior in children is associated with exposure to environmental factors, including the maternal environment. Both are influenced by genetic factors, which may also be correlated, that is, environmental risk and problem behavior in children might be influenced by partly the same genetic factors. In addition, environmental and genetic factors could interact with each other increasing the risk of problem behavior in children. To date, limited research investigated these mechanisms in a genome-wide approach. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the association between genetic risk for psychiatric and related traits, as indicated by polygenetic risk scores (PRSs), exposure to previously identified maternal risk factors, and problem behavior in a sample of 1,154 children from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study at ages 5-6 and 11-12 years old. The PRSs were derived from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, neuroticism, and wellbeing. Regression analysis showed that the PRSs were associated with exposure to multiple environmental risk factors, suggesting passive gene-environment correlation. In addition, the PRS based on the schizophrenia GWAS was associated with externalizing behavior problems in children at age 5-6. We did not find any association with problem behavior for the other PRSs. Our results indicate that genetic predispositions for psychiatric disorders and wellbeing are associated with early environmental risk factors for children's problem behavior.

4.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence shows genetic overlap between multiple psychiatric disorders. However, the biological underpinnings of shared risk for psychiatric disorders are not yet fully uncovered. The identification of underlying biological mechanisms is crucial for the progress in the treatment of these disorders. METHODS: We applied gene-set analysis including 7372 gene sets, and 53 tissue-type specific gene-expression profiles to identify sets of genes that are involved in the etiology of multiple psychiatric disorders. We included genome-wide meta-association data of the five psychiatric disorders schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The total dataset contained 159 219 cases and 262 481 controls. RESULTS: We identified 19 gene sets that were significantly associated with the five psychiatric disorders combined, of which we excluded five sets because their associations were likely driven by schizophrenia only. Conditional analyses showed independent effects of several gene sets that in particular relate to the synapse. In addition, we found independent effects of gene expression levels in the cerebellum and frontal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: We obtained novel evidence for shared biological mechanisms that act across psychiatric disorders and we showed that several gene sets that have been related to individual disorders play a role in a broader range of psychiatric disorders.

5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(3): 279-300, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887376

RESUMO

The impact of many unfavorable childhood traits or diseases, such as low birth weight and mental disorders, is not limited to childhood and adolescence, as they are also associated with poor outcomes in adulthood, such as cardiovascular disease. Insight into the genetic etiology of childhood and adolescent traits and disorders may therefore provide new perspectives, not only on how to improve wellbeing during childhood, but also how to prevent later adverse outcomes. To achieve the sample sizes required for genetic research, the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortia were established. The majority of the participating cohorts are longitudinal population-based samples, but other cohorts with data on early childhood phenotypes are also involved. Cohorts often have a broad focus and collect(ed) data on various somatic and psychiatric traits as well as environmental factors. Genetic variants have been successfully identified for multiple traits, for example, birth weight, atopic dermatitis, childhood BMI, allergic sensitization, and pubertal growth. Furthermore, the results have shown that genetic factors also partly underlie the association with adult traits. As sample sizes are still increasing, it is expected that future analyses will identify additional variants. This, in combination with the development of innovative statistical methods, will provide detailed insight on the mechanisms underlying the transition from childhood to adult disorders. Both consortia welcome new collaborations. Policies and contact details are available from the corresponding authors of this manuscript and/or the consortium websites.


Assuntos
Estudos de Coortes , Doença/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 117, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877270

RESUMO

The major depressive disorder (MDD) working group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) has published a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for MDD in 130,664 cases, identifying 44 risk variants. We used these results to investigate potential drug targets and repurposing opportunities. We built easily interpretable bipartite drug-target networks integrating interactions between drugs and their targets, genome-wide association statistics, and genetically predicted expression levels in different tissues, using the online tool Drug Targetor ( drugtargetor.com ). We also investigated drug-target relationships that could be impacting MDD. MAGMA was used to perform pathway analyses and S-PrediXcan to investigate the directionality of tissue-specific expression levels in patients vs. controls. Outside the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, 153 protein-coding genes are significantly associated with MDD in MAGMA after multiple testing correction; among these, five are predicted to be down or upregulated in brain regions and 24 are known druggable genes. Several drug classes were significantly enriched, including monoamine reuptake inhibitors, sex hormones, antipsychotics, and antihistamines, indicating an effect on MDD and potential repurposing opportunities. These findings not only require validation in model systems and clinical examination, but also show that GWAS may become a rich source of new therapeutic hypotheses for MDD and other psychiatric disorders that need new-and better-treatment options.

7.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 57(9): 669-677.e6, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Parental psychiatric symptoms can negatively affect the outcome of children's psychopathology. Studies thus far have mainly shown a negative effect of maternal depression. This study examined the associations between a broad range of psychiatric symptoms in mothers and fathers and the child's outcome. METHOD: Internalizing and externalizing psychiatric symptoms were assessed in 742 mothers, 440 fathers, and their 811 children at the first evaluation in 3 child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics and at follow-up (on average 1.7 years later). Predictions of child's symptoms scores were tested at follow-up by parental symptom scores at baseline, parental scores at follow-up, and offspring scores at baseline. RESULTS: Children whose mother or father scored above the (sub)clinical threshold for psychiatric symptoms at baseline had higher symptom scores at baseline and at follow-up. Offspring follow-up scores were most strongly predicted by offspring baseline scores, in addition to parental psychiatric symptoms at follow-up. Offspring symptom scores at follow-up generally were not predicted by parental scores at baseline. Maternal and paternal associations were of similar magnitude. CONCLUSION: Higher symptom scores at follow-up in children of parents with psychopathology were mainly explained by higher symptom scores at baseline. Continuing parent-offspring associations could be a result of reciprocal effects, ie, parental symptoms influencing offspring symptoms and offspring symptoms influencing parental symptoms. Nevertheless, the results show that these children are at risk for persisting symptoms, possibly indicating the need to treat maternal and paternal psychopathology.

8.
World Psychiatry ; 17(1): 26-28, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29352547
10.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 27(9): 1123-1132, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28638947

RESUMO

Conduct problems in children and adolescents can predict antisocial personality disorder and related problems, such as crime and conviction. We sought an explanation for such predictions by performing a genetic longitudinal analysis. We estimated the effects of genetic, shared environmental, and unique environmental factors on variation in conduct problems measured at childhood and adolescence and antisocial personality problems measured at adulthood and on the covariation across ages. We also tested whether these estimates differed by sex. Longitudinal data were collected in the Netherlands Twin Register over a period of 27 years. Age appropriate and comparable measures of conduct and antisocial personality problems, assessed with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, were available for 9783 9-10-year-old, 6839 13-18-year-old, and 7909 19-65-year-old twin pairs, respectively; 5114 twins have two or more assessments. At all ages, men scored higher than women. There were no sex differences in the estimates of the genetic and environmental influences. During childhood, genetic and environmental factors shared by children in families explained 43 and 44% of the variance of conduct problems, with the remaining variance due to unique environment. During adolescence and adulthood, genetic and unique environmental factors equally explained the variation. Longitudinal correlations across age varied between 0.20 and 0.38 and were mainly due to stable genetic factors. We conclude that shared environment is mainly of importance during childhood, while genetic factors contribute to variation in conduct and antisocial personality problems at all ages, and also underlie its stability over age.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/genética , Transtorno da Conduta/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/patologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Schizophr Bull ; 43(6): 1197-1207, 2017 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338919

RESUMO

Background: Several nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence can precede the onset of schizophrenia, but the etiology of this relationship remains unclear. We investigated to what extent the association between schizophrenia and psychiatric disorders in childhood is explained by correlated genetic risk factors. Methods: Polygenic risk scores (PRS), reflecting an individual's genetic risk for schizophrenia, were constructed for 2588 children from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) and 6127 from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC). The associations between schizophrenia PRS and measures of anxiety, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) were estimated at age 7, 10, 12/13, and 15 years in the 2 cohorts. Results were then meta-analyzed, and a meta-regression analysis was performed to test differences in effects sizes over, age and disorders. Results: Schizophrenia PRS were associated with childhood and adolescent psychopathology. Meta-regression analysis showed differences in the associations over disorders, with the strongest association with childhood and adolescent depression and a weaker association for ODD/CD at age 7. The associations increased with age and this increase was steepest for ADHD and ODD/CD. Genetic correlations varied between 0.10 and 0.25. Conclusion: By optimally using longitudinal data across diagnoses in a multivariate meta-analysis this study sheds light on the development of childhood disorders into severe adult psychiatric disorders. The results are consistent with a common genetic etiology of schizophrenia and developmental psychopathology as well as with a stronger shared genetic etiology between schizophrenia and adolescent onset psychopathology.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno da Conduta , Transtorno Depressivo , Herança Multifatorial , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Países Baixos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Reino Unido
12.
Biol Psychiatry ; 81(4): 325-335, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27519822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a disabling mood disorder, and despite a known heritable component, a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies revealed no replicable genetic risk variants. Given prior evidence of heterogeneity by age at onset in MDD, we tested whether genome-wide significant risk variants for MDD could be identified in cases subdivided by age at onset. METHODS: Discovery case-control genome-wide association studies were performed where cases were stratified using increasing/decreasing age-at-onset cutoffs; significant single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in nine independent replication samples, giving a total sample of 22,158 cases and 133,749 control subjects for subsetting. Polygenic score analysis was used to examine whether differences in shared genetic risk exists between earlier and adult-onset MDD with commonly comorbid disorders of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and coronary artery disease. RESULTS: We identified one replicated genome-wide significant locus associated with adult-onset (>27 years) MDD (rs7647854, odds ratio: 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.21, p = 5.2 × 10-11). Using polygenic score analyses, we show that earlier-onset MDD is genetically more similar to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder than adult-onset MDD. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that using additional phenotype data previously collected by genetic studies to tackle phenotypic heterogeneity in MDD can successfully lead to the discovery of genetic risk factor despite reduced sample size. Furthermore, our results suggest that the genetic susceptibility to MDD differs between adult- and earlier-onset MDD, with earlier-onset cases having a greater genetic overlap with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Idade de Início , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Behav Genet ; 47(2): 152-163, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796610

RESUMO

In studies of child psychopathology, phenotypes of interest are often obtained by parental ratings. When behavioral ratings are obtained in the context of a twin study, this allows for the decomposition of the phenotypic variance, into a genetic and a non-genetic part. If a phenotype is assessed by a single rater, heritability is based on the child's behavior as expressed in the presence of that particular rater, whereas heritability based on assessments by multiple raters allows for the estimation of the heritability of the phenotype based on rater agreement, as well as the heritability of the rater specific view of the behavior. The aim of this twin study was to quantify the rater common and rater specific contributions to the variation in children's behavioral problems. We estimated the heritability of maternal and paternal ratings of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) 6-18 empirical emotional and behavioral problem scales in a large sample of 12,310 7-year old Dutch twin pairs. Between 30 and 59% of variation in the part of the phenotype parents agree upon was explained by genetic effects. Common environmental effects that make children in the same family similar explained less variance, ranging between 0 and 32%. For unique views of their children's behavioral problems, heritability ranged between 0 and 20% for maternal and between 0 and 22% for paternal views. Between 7 and 24% of the variance was accounted for by common environmental factors specific to mother and father's views. The proportion of rater shared and rater specific heritability can be translated into genetic correlations between parental views and inform the design and interpretation of results of molecular genetic studies. Genetic correlations were nearly or above 0.7 for all CBCL based psychopathology scales. Such large genetic correlations suggest two practical guidelines for genome-wide association studies (GWAS): when studies have collected data from either fathers or mothers, the shared genetic aetiology in parental ratings indicates that is possible to analyze paternal and maternal assessments in a single GWAS or meta-analysis. Secondly, if a study has collected information from both parents, a gain in statistical power may be realized in GWAS by the simultaneous analysis of the data.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/genética , Psicometria/métodos , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Mães/psicologia , Países Baixos , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gêmeos/genética , Gêmeos/psicologia
14.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 174(3): 251-260, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27774759

RESUMO

The assessment of children's psychopathology is often based on parental report. Earlier studies have suggested that rater bias can affect the estimates of genetic, shared environmental and unique environmental influences on differences between children. The availability of a large dataset of maternal as well as paternal ratings of psychopathology in 7-year old children enabled (i) the analysis of informant effects on these assessments, and (ii) to obtain more reliable estimates of the genetic and non-genetic effects. DSM-oriented measures of affective, anxiety, somatic, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, oppositional-defiant, conduct, and obsessive-compulsive problems were rated for 12,310 twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register by mothers (N = 12,085) and fathers (N = 8,516). The effects of genetic and non-genetic effects were estimated on the common and rater-specific variance. For all scales, mean scores on maternal ratings exceeded paternal ratings. Parents largely agreed on the ranking of their child's problems (r 0.60-0.75). The heritability was estimated over 55% for maternal and paternal ratings for all scales, except for conduct problems (44-46%). Unbiased shared environmental influences, i.e., on the common variance, were significant for affective (13%), oppositional (13%), and conduct problems (37%). In clinical settings, different cutoffs for (sub)clinical scores could be applied to paternal and maternal ratings of their child's psychopathology. Only for conduct problems, shared environmental and genetic influences explain an equal amount in differences between children. For the other scales, genetic factors explain the majority of the variance, especially for the common part that is free of rater bias. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Viés , Psicologia da Criança/métodos , Criança , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Mães , Países Baixos , Pais , Psicopatologia/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gêmeos/psicologia
15.
Dev Psychopathol ; 29(3): 919-928, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27427290

RESUMO

This study sought to identify trajectories of DSM-IV based internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) problem scores across childhood and adolescence and to provide insight into the comorbidity by modeling the co-occurrence of INT and EXT trajectories. INT and EXT were measured repeatedly between age 7 and age 15 years in over 7,000 children and analyzed using growth mixture models. Five trajectories were identified for both INT and EXT, including very low, low, decreasing, and increasing trajectories. In addition, an adolescent onset trajectory was identified for INT and a stable high trajectory was identified for EXT. Multinomial regression showed that similar EXT and INT trajectories were associated. However, the adolescent onset INT trajectory was independent of high EXT trajectories, and persisting EXT was mainly associated with decreasing INT. Sex and early life environmental risk factors predicted EXT and, to a lesser extent, INT trajectories. The association between trajectories indicates the need to consider comorbidity when a child presents with INT or EXT disorders, particularly when symptoms start early. This is less necessary when INT symptoms start at adolescence. Future studies should investigate the etiology of co-occurring INT and EXT and the specific treatment needs of these severely affected children.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Depressão/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
16.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 55(10): 896-905.e6, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27663945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to elucidate the influence of common genetic variants on childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, to identify genetic variants that explain its high heritability, and to investigate the genetic overlap of ADHD symptom scores with ADHD diagnosis. METHOD: Within the EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ADHD symptom scores were available for 17,666 children (<13 years of age) from nine population-based cohorts. SNP-based heritability was estimated in data from the three largest cohorts. Meta-analysis based on genome-wide association (GWA) analyses with SNPs was followed by gene-based association tests, and the overlap in results with a meta-analysis in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) case-control ADHD study was investigated. RESULTS: SNP-based heritability ranged from 5% to 34%, indicating that variation in common genetic variants influences ADHD symptom scores. The meta-analysis did not detect genome-wide significant SNPs, but three genes, lying close to each other with SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium (LD), showed a gene-wide significant association (p values between 1.46 × 10(-6) and 2.66 × 10(-6)). One gene, WASL, is involved in neuronal development. Both SNP- and gene-based analyses indicated overlap with the PGC meta-analysis results with the genetic correlation estimated at 0.96. CONCLUSION: The SNP-based heritability for ADHD symptom scores indicates a polygenic architecture, and genes involved in neurite outgrowth are possibly involved. Continuous and dichotomous measures of ADHD appear to assess a genetically common phenotype. A next step is to combine data from population-based and case-control cohorts in genetic association studies to increase sample size and to improve statistical power for identifying genetic variants.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genética Populacional/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(12): 1803-1809, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27436263

RESUMO

Heritability may be estimated using phenotypic data collected in relatives or in distantly related individuals using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We combined these approaches by re-parameterizing the model proposed by Zaitlen et al and extended this model to include moderation of (total and SNP-based) genetic and environmental variance components by a measured moderator. By means of data simulation, we demonstrated that the type 1 error rates of the proposed test are correct and parameter estimates are accurate. As an application, we considered the moderation by age or year of birth of variance components associated with body mass index (BMI), height, attention problems (AP), and symptoms of anxiety and depression. The genetic variance of BMI was found to increase with age, but the environmental variance displayed a greater increase with age, resulting in a proportional decrease of the heritability of BMI. Environmental variance of height increased with year of birth. The environmental variance of AP increased with age. These results illustrate the assessment of moderation of environmental and genetic effects, when estimating heritability from combined SNP and family data. The assessment of moderation of genetic and environmental variance will enhance our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Modelos Genéticos , Linhagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/genética , Atenção , Índice de Massa Corporal , Depressão/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
18.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 25(4): 255-266, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27417386

RESUMO

To achieve sample sizes necessary for effectively conducting genome-wide association studies (GWASs), researchers often combine data from samples possessing multiple potential sources of heterogeneity. This is particularly relevant for psychiatric disorders, where symptom self-report, differing assessment instruments, and diagnostic comorbidity complicates the phenotypes and contribute to difficulties with detecting and replicating genetic association signals. We investigated sources of heterogeneity of anxiety disorders (ADs) across five large cohorts used in a GWAS meta-analysis project using a dimensional structural modeling approach including confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) and measurement invariance (MI) testing. CFA indicated a single-factor model provided the best fit in each sample with the same pattern of factor loadings. MI testing indicated degrees of failure of metric and scalar invariance which depended on the inclusion of the effects of sex and age in the model. This is the first study to examine the phenotypic structure of psychiatric disorder phenotypes simultaneously across multiple, large cohorts used for GWAS. The analyses provide evidence for higher order invariance but possible break-down at more detailed levels that can be subtly influenced by included covariates, suggesting caution when combining such data. These methods have significance for large-scale collaborative studies that draw on multiple, potentially heterogeneous datasets. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Metanálise como Assunto , Fenótipo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 171(5): 719-32, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26913573

RESUMO

Human aggression encompasses a wide range of behaviors and is related to many psychiatric disorders. We introduce the different classification systems of aggression and related disorders as a basis for discussing biochemical biomarkers and then present an overview of studies in humans (published between 1990 and 2015) that reported statistically significant associations of biochemical biomarkers with aggression, DSM-IV disorders involving aggression, and their subtypes. The markers are of different types, including inflammation markers, neurotransmitters, lipoproteins, and hormones from various classes. Most studies focused on only a limited portfolio of biomarkers, frequently a specific class only. When integrating the data, it is clear that compounds from several biological pathways have been found to be associated with aggressive behavior, indicating complexity and the need for a broad approach. In the second part of the paper, using examples from the aggression literature and psychiatric metabolomics studies, we argue that a better understanding of aggression would benefit from a more holistic approach such as provided by metabolomics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Agressão/classificação , Agressão/fisiologia , Biomarcadores , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais , Metabolômica/métodos , Psiquiatria
20.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 25(8): 919-27, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26757722

RESUMO

Knowledge is lacking regarding current psychopathology in parents whose children are evaluated in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. This especially accounts for fathers. We provide insight into the prevalence rates of parental psychopathology and the association with their offspring psychopathology by analyzing data on psychiatric problems collected in 701 mothers and 530 fathers of 757 referred children. Prevalence rates of parental psychopathology were based on (sub)clinical scores on the adult self report. Parent-offspring associations were investigated in multivariate analyses taking into account co-morbidity. Around 20 % of the parents had a (sub)clinical score on internalizing problems and around 10 % on attention deficit hyperactivity (ADH) problems. Prevalence rates did not differ between mothers and fathers. Parent-offspring associations did not differ between girls and boys. Maternal anxiety was associated with all offspring problem scores. In addition, maternal ADH problems were associated with offspring ADH problems. Paternal anxiety and ADH problems scores were specifically associated with offspring internalizing and externalizing problem scores, respectively. Associations with offspring psychopathology were of similar magnitude for mothers and fathers and were not influenced by spousal resemblance. Our study shows that both fathers and mothers are at increased risk for psychiatric problems at the time of a child's evaluation and that their problems are equally associated with their offspring problems. The results emphasize the need to screen mothers as well as fathers for psychiatric problems. Specific treatment programs should be developed for these families in especially high need.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/estatística & dados numéricos , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia
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