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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627544

RESUMO

Defect engineering can enhance key properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Tailoring the distribution of defects, for example in correlated nanodomains, requires characterization across length scales. However, a critical nanoscale characterization gap has emerged between the bulk diffraction techniques used to detect defect nanodomains and the subnanometer imaging used to observe individual defects. Here, we demonstrate that the emerging technique of scanning electron diffraction (SED) can bridge this gap uniquely enabling both nanoscale crystallographic analysis and the low-dose formation of multiple diffraction contrast images for defect analysis in MOFs. We directly image defect nanodomains in the MOF UiO-66(Hf) over an area of ca. 1000 nm and with a spatial resolution ca. 5 nm to reveal domain morphology and distribution. Based on these observations, we suggest possible crystal growth processes underpinning synthetic control of defect nanodomains. We also identify likely dislocations and small angle grain boundaries, illustrating that SED could be a key technique in developing the potential for engineering the distribution of defects, or "microstructure", in functional MOF design.

2.
Nature ; 580(7803): 360-366, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296189

RESUMO

Halide perovskite materials have promising performance characteristics for low-cost optoelectronic applications. Photovoltaic devices fabricated from perovskite absorbers have reached power conversion efficiencies above 25 per cent in single-junction devices and 28 per cent in tandem devices1,2. This strong performance (albeit below the practical limits of about 30 per cent and 35 per cent, respectively3) is surprising in thin films processed from solution at low-temperature, a method that generally produces abundant crystalline defects4. Although point defects often induce only shallow electronic states in the perovskite bandgap that do not affect performance5, perovskite devices still have many states deep within the bandgap that trap charge carriers and cause them to recombine non-radiatively. These deep trap states thus induce local variations in photoluminescence and limit the device performance6. The origin and distribution of these trap states are unknown, but they have been associated with light-induced halide segregation in mixed-halide perovskite compositions7 and with local strain8, both of which make devices less stable9. Here we use photoemission electron microscopy to image the trap distribution in state-of-the-art halide perovskite films. Instead of a relatively uniform distribution within regions of poor photoluminescence efficiency, we observe discrete, nanoscale trap clusters. By correlating microscopy measurements with scanning electron analytical techniques, we find that these trap clusters appear at the interfaces between crystallographically and compositionally distinct entities. Finally, by generating time-resolved photoemission sequences of the photo-excited carrier trapping process10,11, we reveal a hole-trapping character with the kinetics limited by diffusion of holes to the local trap clusters. Our approach shows that managing structure and composition on the nanoscale will be essential for optimal performance of halide perovskite devices.

3.
Nano Lett ; 20(2): 1272-1279, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944111

RESUMO

Vibrational spectroscopies directly record details of bonding in materials, but spatially resolved methods have been limited to surface techniques for mapping functional groups at the nanoscale. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope presents a route to functional group analysis from nanoscale volumes using transmitted subnanometer electron probes. Here, we now use vibrational EELS to map distinct carboxylate and imidazolate linkers in a metal-organic framework (MOF) crystal-glass composite material. Domains <100 nm in size are observed using vibrational EELS, with recorded spatial resolution <15 nm at interfaces in the composite. This nanoscale functional group mapping is confirmed by correlated EELS at core ionization edges as well as X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy for elemental mapping of the metal centers of the two constituent MOFs. These results present a complete nanoscale analysis of the building blocks of the MOF composite and establish spatially resolved functional group analysis using electron beam spectroscopy for crystalline and amorphous organic and metal-organic solids.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(39): 15641-15648, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491080

RESUMO

Metal-organic framework crystal-glass composites (MOF-CGCs) are materials in which a crystalline MOF is dispersed within a MOF glass. In this work, we explore the room-temperature stabilization of the open-pore form of MIL-53(Al), usually observed at high temperature, which occurs upon encapsulation within a ZIF-62(Zn) MOF glass matrix. A series of MOF-CGCs containing different loadings of MIL-53(Al) were synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An upper limit of MIL-53(Al) that can be stabilized in the composite was determined for the first time. The nanostructure of the composites was probed using pair distribution function analysis and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Notably, the distribution and integrity of the crystalline component in a sample series were determined, and these findings were related to the MOF-CGC gas adsorption capacity in order to identify the optimal loading necessary for maximum CO2 sorption capacity.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2580, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189892

RESUMO

The majority of research into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) focuses on their crystalline nature. Recent research has revealed solid-liquid transitions within the family, which we use here to create a class of functional, stable and porous composite materials. Described herein is the design, synthesis, and characterisation of MOF crystal-glass composites, formed by dispersing crystalline MOFs within a MOF-glass matrix. The coordinative bonding and chemical structure of a MIL-53 crystalline phase are preserved within the ZIF-62 glass matrix. Whilst separated phases, the interfacial interactions between the closely contacted microdomains improve the mechanical properties of the composite glass. More significantly, the high temperature open pore phase of MIL-53, which spontaneously transforms to a narrow pore upon cooling in the presence of water, is stabilised at room temperature in the crystal-glass composite. This leads to a significant improvement of CO2 adsorption capacity.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(26): 8724-8729, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050138

RESUMO

Controlling the structure sensitivity of catalyzed reactions over metals is central to developing atom-efficient chemical processes. Approaching the minimum ensemble size, the properties enter a non-scalable regime in which each atom counts. Almost all trends in this ultra-small frontier derive from surface science approaches using model systems, because of both synthetic and analytical challenges. Exploiting the unique coordination chemistry of carbon nitride, we discriminate through experiments and simulations the interplay between the geometry, electronic structure, and reactivity of palladium atoms, dimers, and trimers. Catalytic tests evidence application-dependent requirements of the active ensemble. In the semi-hydrogenation of alkynes, the nuclearity primarily impacts activity, whereas the selectivity and stability are affected in Suzuki coupling. This powerful approach will provide practical insights into the design of heterogeneous catalysts comprising well-defined numbers of atoms.

7.
Chem Sci ; 10(12): 3592-3601, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996951

RESUMO

Recent demonstrations of melting in the metal-organic framework (MOF) family have created interest in the interfacial domain between inorganic glasses and amorphous organic polymers. The chemical and physical behaviour of porous hybrid liquids and glasses is of particular interest, though opportunities are limited by the inaccessible melting temperatures of many MOFs. Here, we show that the processing technique of flux melting, 'borrowed' from the inorganic domain, may be applied in order to melt ZIF-8, a material which does not possess an accessible liquid state in the pure form. Effectively, we employ the high-temperature liquid state of one MOF as a solvent for a secondary, non-melting MOF component. Differential scanning calorimetry, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, electron microscopy and X-ray total scattering techniques are used to show the flux melting of the crystalline component within the liquid. Gas adsorption and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy measurements show that this results in enhanced, accessible porosity to a range of guest molecules in the resultant flux melted MOF glass.

8.
Adv Mater ; 31(16): e1806598, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844122

RESUMO

The intense research effort investigating magnetic skyrmions and their applications for spintronics has yielded reports of more exotic objects including the biskyrmion, which consists of a bound pair of counter-rotating vortices of magnetization. Biskyrmions have been identified only from transmission electron microscopy images and have not been observed by other techniques, nor seen in simulations carried out under realistic conditions. Here, quantitative Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, X-ray holography, and micromagnetic simulations are combined to search for biskyrmions in MnNiGa, a material in which they have been reported. Only type-I and type-II magnetic bubbles are found and images purported to show biskyrmions can be explained as type-II bubbles viewed at an angle to their axes. It is not the magnetization but the magnetic flux density resulting from this object that forms the counter-rotating vortices.

9.
Chem Sci ; 10(2): 359-369, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746085

RESUMO

Carbon-supported gold catalysts have the potential to replace the toxic mercuric chloride-based system applied industrially for acetylene hydrochlorination, a key technology for the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride. However, the design of an optimal catalyst is essentially hindered by the difficulties in assessing the nature of the active site. Herein, we present a platform of carbon supported gold nanostructures at a fixed metal loading, ranging from single atoms of tunable oxidation state and coordination to metallic nanoparticles, by varying the structure of functionalised carbons and use of thermal activation. While on activated carbon particle aggregation occurs progressively above 473 K, on nitrogen-doped carbon gold single atoms exhibit outstanding stability up to temperatures of 1073 K and under reaction conditions. By combining steady-state experiments, density functional theory, and transient mechanistic studies, we assess the relation between the metal speciation, electronic properties, and catalytic activity. The results indicate that the activity of gold-based catalysts correlates with the population of Au(i)Cl single atoms and the reaction follows a Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. Strong interaction with HCl and thermodynamically favoured acetylene activation were identified as the key features of the Au(i)Cl sites that endow their superior catalytic performance in comparison to N-stabilised Au(iii) counterparts and gold nanoparticles. Finally, we show that the carrier (activated carbon versus nitrogen-doped carbon) does not affect the catalytic response, but determines the deactivation mechanism (gold particle aggregation and pore blockage, respectively), which opens up different options for the development of stable, high-performance hydrochlorination catalysts.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(2): 407-412, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598434

RESUMO

Zircon crystals from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, are one of the few surviving mineralogical records of Earth's first 500 million years and have been proposed to contain a paleomagnetic record of the Hadean geodynamo. A prerequisite for the preservation of Hadean magnetization is the presence of primary magnetic inclusions within pristine igneous zircon. To date no images of the magnetic recorders within ancient zircon have been presented. Here we use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that all observed inclusions are secondary features formed via two distinct mechanisms. Magnetite is produced via a pipe-diffusion mechanism whereby iron diffuses into radiation-damaged zircon along the cores of dislocations and is precipitated inside nanopores and also during low-temperature recrystallization of radiation-damaged zircon in the presence of an aqueous fluid. Although these magnetites can be recognized as secondary using transmission electron microscopy, they otherwise occur in regions that are indistinguishable from pristine igneous zircon and carry remanent magnetization that postdates the crystallization age by at least several hundred million years. Without microscopic evidence ruling out secondary magnetite, the paleomagnetic case for a Hadean-Eoarchean geodynamo cannot yet been made.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(2): 1027-1034, 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582804

RESUMO

Melt quenched metal-organic framework (MOF) glasses define a new category of glass, distinct from metallic, organic, and inorganic glasses, owing to the dominant role of metal-ligand coordination bonding. The mechanical properties of glasses in general are important given their application in protective coatings and display technologies, though little is known about MOF glasses in this respect. The experimental elucidation of key properties such as their scratch resistance has been limited by the lack of processing methodologies capable of producing bulk glass samples. Here, nanoindentation was used to investigate the Young's modulus and hardness of four melt-quenched glasses formed from zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF): agZIF-4, agZIF-62, agZIF-76, and agZIF-76-mbIm. The creep resistance of the melt-quenched glasses was studied via strain-rate jump (SRJ) tests and through constant load and hold (CLH) indentation creep experiments. Values for the strain-rate sensitivity were found to be close to those for other glassy polymers and Se-rich GeSe chalcogenide glasses. Vacuum hot-pressing of agZIF-62 resulted in an inhomogeneous bulk sample containing the glass and amorphous non-melt-quenched aZIF-62. Remelting and annealing, however, resulted in the fabrication of a transparent, bubble-free bulk specimen, which allowed the first scratch testing experiments to be performed on an MOF glass.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(51): 17862-17866, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525554

RESUMO

Microstructured metal-organic framework (MOF) glasses have been produced by combining two amorphous MOFs. However, the electronic structure of these materials has not been interrogated at the length scales of the chemical domains formed in these glasses. Here, we report a subwavelength spatially resolved physicochemical analysis of the electronic states at visible and UV energies in a blend of two zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs), ZIF-4-Co and ZIF-62-Zn. By combining spectroscopy at visible and UV energies as well as at core ionization energies in electron energy loss spectroscopy in the scanning transmission electron microscope with density functional theory calculations, we show that domains less than 200 nm in size retain the electronic structure of the precursor crystalline ZIF phases. Prototypical signatures of coordination chemistry including d- d transitions in ZIF-4-Co are assigned and mapped with nanoscale precision.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(49): E11436-E11445, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446616

RESUMO

Meteorites contain a record of their thermal and magnetic history, written in the intergrowths of iron-rich and nickel-rich phases that formed during slow cooling. Of intense interest from a magnetic perspective is the "cloudy zone," a nanoscale intergrowth containing tetrataenite-a naturally occurring hard ferromagnetic mineral that has potential applications as a sustainable alternative to rare-earth permanent magnets. Here we use a combination of high-resolution electron diffraction, electron tomography, atom probe tomography (APT), and micromagnetic simulations to reveal the 3D architecture of the cloudy zone with subnanometer spatial resolution and model the mechanism of remanence acquisition during slow cooling on the meteorite parent body. Isolated islands of tetrataenite are embedded in a matrix of an ordered superstructure. The islands are arranged in clusters of three crystallographic variants, which control how magnetic information is encoded into the nanostructure. The cloudy zone acquires paleomagnetic remanence via a sequence of magnetic domain state transformations (vortex to two domain to single domain), driven by Fe-Ni ordering at 320 °C. Rather than remanence being recorded at different times at different positions throughout the cloudy zone, each subregion of the cloudy zone records a coherent snapshot of the magnetic field that was present at 320 °C. Only the coarse and intermediate regions of the cloudy zone are found to be suitable for paleomagnetic applications. The fine regions, on the other hand, have properties similar to those of rare-earth permanent magnets, providing potential routes to synthetic tetrataenite-based magnetic materials.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4402, 2018 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337537

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained an error in Figure 1b, where the blue '(ZIF-4-Zn)0.5 (ZIF-62)0.5 blend' data curve was omitted from the enthalpy response plot. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

15.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(8): 702-707, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941887

RESUMO

Palladium-catalysed cross-coupling reactions, central tools in fine-chemical synthesis, predominantly employ soluble metal complexes despite recognized challenges with product purification and catalyst reusability1-3. Attempts to tether these homogeneous catalysts on insoluble carriers have been thwarted by suboptimal stability, which leads to a progressively worsening performance due to metal leaching or clustering4. The alternative application of supported Pd nanoparticles has faced limitations because of insufficient activity under the mild conditions required to avoid thermal degradation of the substrates or products. Single-atom heterogeneous catalysts lie at the frontier5-18. Here, we show that the Pd atoms anchored on exfoliated graphitic carbon nitride (Pd-ECN) capture the advantages of both worlds, as they comprise a solid catalyst that matches the high chemoselectivity and broad functional group tolerance of state-of-the-art homogeneous catalysts for Suzuki couplings, and also demonstrate a robust stability in flow. The adaptive coordination environment within the macroheterocycles of ECN facilitates each catalytic step. The findings illustrate the exciting opportunities presented by nanostructuring single atoms in solid hosts for catalytic processes that remain difficult to heterogenize.

16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2135, 2018 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907760

RESUMO

The liquid and glass states of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently become of interest due to the potential for liquid-phase separations and ion transport, alongside the fundamental nature of the latter as a new, fourth category of melt-quenched glass. Here we show that the MOF liquid state can be blended with another MOF component, resulting in a domain structured MOF glass with a single, tailorable glass transition. Intra-domain connectivity and short range order is confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and pair distribution function measurements. The interfacial binding between MOF domains in the glass state is evidenced by electron tomography, and the relationship between domain size and Tg investigated. Nanoindentation experiments are also performed to place this new class of MOF materials into context with organic blends and inorganic alloys.

17.
Nat Mater ; 17(2): 174-179, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29251723

RESUMO

A critical bottleneck for the use of natural gas as a transportation fuel has been the development of materials capable of storing it in a sufficiently compact form at ambient temperature. Here we report the synthesis of a porous monolithic metal-organic framework (MOF), which after successful packing and densification reaches 259 cm3 (STP) cm-3 capacity. This is the highest value reported to date for conformed shape porous solids, and represents a greater than 50% improvement over any previously reported experimental value. Nanoindentation tests on the monolithic MOF showed robust mechanical properties, with hardness at least 130% greater than that previously measured in its conventional MOF counterparts. Our findings represent a substantial step in the application of mechanically robust conformed and densified MOFs for high volumetric energy storage and other industrial applications.

18.
Proc Math Phys Eng Sci ; 473(2206): 20170274, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29118660

RESUMO

Determining the local orientation of crystals in engineering and geological materials has become routine with the advent of modern crystallographic mapping techniques. These techniques enable many thousands of orientation measurements to be made, directing attention towards how such orientation data are best studied. Here, we provide a guide to the visualization of misorientation data in three-dimensional vector spaces, reduced by crystal symmetry, to reveal crystallographic orientation relationships. Domains for all point group symmetries are presented and an analysis methodology is developed and applied to identify crystallographic relationships, indicated by clusters in the misorientation space, in examples from materials science and geology. This analysis aids the determination of active deformation mechanisms and evaluation of cluster centres and spread enables more accurate description of transformation processes supporting arguments regarding provenance.

19.
ACS Nano ; 11(10): 10281-10288, 2017 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28945360

RESUMO

Recently, aluminum has been established as an earth-abundant alternative to gold and silver for plasmonic applications. Particularly, aluminum nanocrystals have shown to be promising plasmonic photocatalysts, especially when coupled with catalytic metals or oxides into "antenna-reactor" heterostructures. Here, a simple polyol synthesis is presented as a flexible route to produce aluminum nanocrystals decorated with eight varieties of size-tunable transition-metal nanoparticle islands, many of which have precedence as heterogeneous catalysts. High-resolution and three-dimensional structural analysis using scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography shows that abundant nanoparticle island decoration in the catalytically relevant few-nanometer size range can be achieved, with many islands spaced closely to their neighbors. When coupled with the Al nanocrystal plasmonic antenna, these small decorating islands will experience increased light absorption and strong hot-spot generation. This combination makes transition-metal decorated aluminum nanocrystals a promising material platform to develop plasmonic photocatalysis, surface-enhanced spectroscopies, and quantum plasmonics.

20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 5406, 2017 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28710378

RESUMO

Surface chemical composition, electronic structure, and bonding characteristics determine catalytic activity but are not resolved for individual catalyst particles by conventional spectroscopy. In particular, the nano-scale three-dimensional distribution of aliovalent lanthanide dopants in ceria catalysts and their effect on the surface electronic structure remains unclear. Here, we reveal the surface segregation of dopant cations and oxygen vacancies and observe bonding changes in lanthanum-doped ceria catalyst particle aggregates with sub-nanometer precision using a new model-based spectroscopic tomography approach. These findings refine our understanding of the spatially varying electronic structure and bonding in ceria-based nanoparticle aggregates with aliovalent cation concentrations and identify new strategies for advancing high efficiency doped ceria nano-catalysts.

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