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1.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829513

RESUMO

The incidence and mortality of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma are growing over time. The management of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma involves a multidisciplinary team, ideally involving experts from surgery, diagnostic imaging, interventional endoscopy, medical oncology, radiation oncology, pathology, geriatric medicine, and palliative care. An adequate staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and re-assessment of the tumor after neoadjuvant therapy allows the multidisciplinary team to choose the most appropriate treatment for the patient. This review article discusses advancement in the molecular basis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, diagnostic tools available for staging and tumor response assessment, and management of resectable or borderline resectable pancreatic cancer.

2.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 86: 55-60, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808304

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A strong prognostic score that enables a stratification of newly diagnosed Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) to identify patients at high risk of refractory/relapsed disease is still needed. Our aim was to investigate the potential value of a radiomics analysis pipeline from whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) exams for clinical outcome prediction in patients with HL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Index lesions from baseline WB-MRIs of 40 patients (22 females; mean age 31.7 ± 11.4 years) with newly diagnosed HL treated by ABVD chemotherapy regimen were manually segmented on T1-weighted, STIR, and DWI images for texture analysis feature extraction. A machine learning approach based on the Extra Trees classifier and incorporating clinical variables, 18F-FDG-PET/CT-derived metabolic tumor volume, and WB-MRI radiomics features was tested using cross-validation to predict refractory/relapsed disease. RESULTS: Relapsed disease was observed in 10/40 patients (25%), two of whom died due to progression of disease and graft versus host disease, while eight reached the complete remission. In total, 1403 clinical and radiomics features were extracted, of which 11 clinical variables and 171 radiomics parameters from both original and filtered images were selected. The 3 best performing Extra Trees classifier models obtained an equivalent highest mean accuracy of 0.78 and standard deviation of 0.09, with a mean AUC of 0.82 and standard deviation of 0.08. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary results demonstrate that a combined machine learning and texture analysis model to predict refractory/relapsed HL on WB-MRI exams is feasible and may help in the clinical outcome prediction in HL patients.

3.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System algorithm allows category downgrade in the presence of ancillary features (AFs) favoring benignity, even in observations categorized as LR-5. This study aims to assess the role of AFs favoring benignity in LR-5 observations and their impact on category downgrade. METHODS: This study included high-risk patients with at least one LR-5 observation imaged with gadoxetate disodium MRI. Three readers with different experience levels independently evaluated the presence of AFs favoring malignancy (not hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in particular and HCC in particular) and AFs favoring benignity. Category downgrade was considered possible in the presence of ≥ 1 AF favoring benignity and no AF favoring malignancy. Correlation between observations size and number of AFs was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Cohen's kappa (k) test was used to assess inter-reader agreement. RESULTS: The final study cohort included 162 LR-5 (mean size: 23 ± 16 mm) in 119 patients. AFs favoring benignity were reported in 9 (5.6%), 20 (12.3%), and 10 (6.2%) LR-5 observations by reader 1, reader 2, and reader 3, respectively. Hepatobiliary phase isointensity was observed in 6 (3.7%), 2 (1.2%), and 7 (4.3%) observations, respectively. Category downgrade was considered possible in only one (0.6%) observation by reader 1 and reader 3. There was a significant correlation between observation size and number of AFs favoring malignancy (p < 0.001), not HCC in particular (p ≤ 0.010), and favoring HCC in particular (p < 0.001). Inter-reader agreement of AFs favoring benignity was poor to moderate (k range: - 0.01, 0.43). CONCLUSIONS: AFs favoring benignity are not uncommon in LR-5 observations, but category downgrade is exceptional. KEY POINTS: • Ancillary features favoring benignity are encountered in 5.6-12.3% of observations categorized as LR-5. • Category downgrade of LR-5 observations is very rare (0.6% of observations) in the presence of AFs favoring benignity due to the high prevalence (98-99%) of ancillary features favoring malignancy in LR-5 observations. • The inter-reader agreement of ancillary features favoring benignity is poor to moderate (k range: - 0.01, 0.43) in readers with different levels of experience.

4.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1128): 20210340, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether MRI-based texture analysis improves diagnostic performance for the diagnosis of parotid gland tumors compared to conventional radiological approach. METHODS: Patients with parotid gland tumors who underwent salivary glands MRI between 2008 and 2019 were retrospectively selected. MRI analysis included a qualitative assessment by two radiologists (one of which subspecialized on head and neck imaging), and texture analysis on various sequences. Diagnostic performances including sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of qualitative features, radiologists' diagnosis, and radiomic models were evaluated. RESULTS: Final study cohort included 57 patients with 74 tumors (27 pleomorphic adenomas, 40 Warthin tumors, 8 malignant tumors). Sensitivity, specificity, and AUROC for the diagnosis of malignancy were 75%, 97% and 0.860 for non-subspecialized radiologist, 100%, 94% and 0.970 for subspecialized radiologist and 57.2%, 93.4%, and 0.927 using a MRI radiomics model obtained combining texture analysis on various MRI sequences. Sensitivity, specificity, and AUROC for the differential diagnosis between pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin tumors were 81.5%, 70%, and 0.757 for non-subspecialized radiologist, 81.5%, 95% and 0.882 for subspecialized radiologist and 70.8%, 82.5%, and 0.808 using a MRI radiomics model based on texture analysis of T2 weighted sequence. A combined radiomics model obtained with all MRI sequences yielded a sensitivity of 91.5% for the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma. CONCLUSION: MRI qualitative radiologist assessment outperforms radiomic analysis for the diagnosis of malignancy. MRI predictive radiomics models improves the diagnostic performance of non-subspecialized radiologist for the differential diagnosis between pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin tumor, achieving similar performance to the subspecialized radiologist. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Radiologists outperform radiomic analysis for the diagnosis of malignant parotid gland tumors, with some MRI qualitative features such as ill-defined margins, perineural spread, invasion of adjacent structures and enlarged lymph nodes being highly specific for malignancy. A radiomic model based on texture analysis of T2 weighted images yields higher specificity for the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma compared to a radiologist non-subspecialized in head and neck radiology, thus minimizing false-positive pleomorphic adenoma diagnosis rate and reducing unnecessary surgical complications.

5.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 21(6): 485-490, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) is becoming more and more adopted in neurosurgery, since it has been associated to greater extent of resection (EOR) and to gross total resection (GTR) during brain tumor surgery. IOUS main limitations are spatial resolution, width and orientation of the field of view and scan quality, which are operator-dependent. Furthermore, most neurosurgeons are not confident with this technique, which needs a long learning curve in order to identify and interpret anatomic structures. OBJECTIVE: To describe an effective procedure to take advantages of both IOUS and neuronavigation in case of lack of a navigated ultrasound system. METHODS: We propose a reliable "indirect-navigated" technique which is based on the optical tracking of un-navigated IOUS probe by the use of a multipurpose passive tracker and a proper configuration of common neuronavigation system. RESULTS: Navigated IOUS is not available in all neurosurgical operating rooms but ultrasound systems are common tools in many hospital facilities and neuronavigation systems are common in almost all the neurosurgical operating rooms. The proposed indirect-navigated technique shows some paramount advantages: since almost all the neurosurgical operating rooms are provided with a neuronavigation system, the only tool needed is the ultrasonography. Therefore, this procedure is largely accessible and costless, reliable, and may improve the neurosurgeon's ability in ultrasonographic anatomy. CONCLUSION: This technique is based on the coplanar and coupled use of both un-navigated IOUS probe and standard optical neuronavigation, in order to allow the intraoperative navigation of IOUS images when a navigated ultrasound system is not available.

6.
J Imaging ; 7(2)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460633

RESUMO

Multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) is widely used as a triage test for men at a risk of prostate cancer. However, the traditional role of mpMRI was confined to prostate cancer staging. Radiomics is the quantitative extraction and analysis of minable data from medical images; it is emerging as a promising tool to detect and categorize prostate lesions. In this paper we review the role of radiomics applied to prostate mpMRI in detection and localization of prostate cancer, prediction of Gleason score and PI-RADS classification, prediction of extracapsular extension and of biochemical recurrence. We also provide a future perspective of artificial intelligence (machine learning and deep learning) applied to the field of prostate cancer.

7.
Forensic Sci Int ; 327: 110968, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455399

RESUMO

Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is one of the major causes of neonatal death and neurological disability in the child, and represents the most common birth injury claim. Intrapartum asphyxia often leads to several long-term sequalae, such as cerebral palsy and/or developmental delay, epilepsy. Through the neuroimaging it's possible to identify and define the different lesioned pictures and provide useful elements to establish the moment in which the damage occurred; indeed, timing of injury is a key element in the legal arena. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as one of the most important tools in identifying the etiologic of neonatal encephalopathy as well as in predicting long-term outcomes. The aim of this study is to evaluate all MRI tests performed in a group of infants and young patients with possible neonatal encephalopathy, in order to determine the role of MRI in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic damage and the specific patterns that can point towards a diagnosis of the time of the damage's onset. Another goal is to assess the role of MRI in cases subject to legal-medical ligation. Since the advent of hypothermic neuroprotection, new malpractice allegations have arisen, including the failure to initiate cooling in a timely manner. In all cases, documentation of the status of the baby at birth, including a thorough neurologic exam, can be extremely helpful to the later defence of a malpractice claim, which might occur years later.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem/métodos , Asfixia Neonatal/diagnóstico por imagem , Asfixia Neonatal/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315623

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Aim of this study was to evaluate a fully automated deep learning network named Efficient Neural Network (ENet) for segmentation of prostate gland with median lobe enlargement compared to manual segmentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-hundred-three patients with median lobe enlargement on prostate MRI were retrospectively included. Ellipsoid formula, manual segmentation and automatic segmentation were used for prostate volume estimation using T2 weighted MRI images. ENet was used for automatic segmentation; it is a deep learning network developed for fast inference and high accuracy in augmented reality and automotive scenarios. Student t-test was performed to compare prostate volumes obtained with ellipsoid formula, manual segmentation, and automated segmentation. To provide an evaluation of the similarity or difference to manual segmentation, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), dice similarity coefficient (DSC), volume overlap error (VOE), and volumetric difference (VD) were calculated. RESULTS: Differences between prostate volume obtained from ellipsoid formula versus manual segmentation and versus automatic segmentation were statistically significant (P < 0.049318 and P < 0.034305, respectively), while no statistical difference was found between volume obtained from manual versus automatic segmentation (P = 0.438045). The performance of ENet versus manual segmentations was good providing a sensitivity of 93.51%, a PPV of 87.93%, a DSC of 90.38%, a VOE of 17.32% and a VD of 6.85%. CONCLUSION: The presence of median lobe enlargement may lead to MRI volume overestimation when using the ellipsoid formula so that a segmentation method is recommended. ENet volume estimation showed great accuracy in evaluation of prostate volume similar to that of manual segmentation.

9.
Brain Sci ; 11(6)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207681

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms due to the degeneration of the pars compacta of the substantia nigra (SNc) with dopaminergic denervation of the striatum. Although the diagnosis of PD is principally based on a clinical assessment, great efforts have been expended over the past two decades to evaluate reliable biomarkers for PD. Among these biomarkers, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarkers may play a key role. Conventional MRI sequences are considered by many in the field to have low sensitivity, while advanced pulse sequences and ultra-high-field MRI techniques have brought many advantages, particularly regarding the study of brainstem and subcortical structures. Nowadays, nigrosome imaging, neuromelanine-sensitive sequences, iron-sensitive sequences, and advanced diffusion weighted imaging techniques afford new insights to the non-invasive study of the SNc. The use of these imaging methods, alone or in combination, may also help to discriminate PD patients from control patients, in addition to discriminating atypical parkinsonian syndromes (PS). A total of 92 articles were identified from an extensive review of the literature on PubMed in order to ascertain the-state-of-the-art of MRI techniques, as applied to the study of SNc in PD patients, as well as their potential future applications as imaging biomarkers of disease. Whilst none of these MRI-imaging biomarkers could be successfully validated for routine clinical practice, in achieving high levels of accuracy and reproducibility in the diagnosis of PD, a multimodal MRI-PD protocol may assist neuroradiologists and clinicians in the early and differential diagnosis of a wide spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders.

10.
Pol J Radiol ; 86: e246-e254, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093922

RESUMO

Ascending thoracic aorta disease is often a life-threatening condition. Aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection are the most frequent ascending aorta diseases requiring surgical intervention. Surgical repair techniques of the ascending aorta are various; they include reconstruction of the ascending aorta by using a graft with or without a prosthetic valve, reconstruction with a composite artificial graft or using a biological graft, and reconstruction of the ascending aorta with a composite graft preserving the native valve and arch repair. The radiologist plays a key role in the identification of post-operative complications; differentiation from normal postoperative findings is fundamental. Our aim is to discuss the main diseases affecting the ascending aorta requiring surgery and the different techniques used to treat them. We also discuss the normal computed tomography (CT) imaging findings and after-surgery complications.

11.
Liver Int ; 41(9): 2179-2188, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The risk of progression of indeterminate observations to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after direct-acting antivirals (DAA) is still undetermined. To assess whether DAA therapy changes the risk of progression of observations with low (LR-2), intermediate (LR-3) and high (LR-4) probability for HCC in cirrhotic patients and to identify predictors of progression. METHODS: This retrospective study included cirrhotic patients treated with DAA who achieved sustained virological response between 2015 and 2019. A total of 68 patients had pre-DAA indeterminate observations and at least six months CT/MRI follow-up before and after DAA. Two radiologists reviewed CT/MRI studies to categorize observations according to the LI-RADSv2018 and assess the evolution on subsequent follow-ups. Predictors of evolutions were evaluated by using the Cox proportional hazard model, Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. RESULTS: A total of 109 untreated observations were evaluated, including 31 (28.4%) LR-2, 67 (61.5%) LR-3 and 11 (10.1%) LR-4. During a median follow-up of 41 months, 17.4% and 13.3% of observations evolved to LR-5 or LR-M and LR-5, before and after DAA respectively (P = .428). There was no difference in rate of progression of neither LR-2 (P = 1.000), LR-3 (P = .833) or LR-4 (P = .505). At multivariate analysis, only initial LI-RADS category was an independent predictor of progression to LR-5 or LR-M for all observations (hazard ratio 6.75, P < .001), and of progression to LR-5 after DAA (hazard ratio 4.34, P = .047). CONCLUSIONS: DAA therapy does not increase progression of indeterminate observations to malignant categories. The initial LI-RADS category is an independent predictor of observations upgrade.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C Crônica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Neuroradiol J ; 34(5): 470-475, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872085

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate prospectively whether an intravenous gadolinium injection could improve the detection of the central vein sign on susceptibility-weighted imaging sequences obtained with a 1.5 T magnetic resonance scanner in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to unenhanced susceptibility-weighted images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, institution review board-approved study included 19 patients affected by multiple sclerosis (six men; 13 women; mean age 40.8 years, range 20-74 years). Patients had the relapsing-remitting clinical subtype in 95% of cases, and only one (5%) patient had the primary progressive clinical subtype of multiple sclerosis. T2-weighted images, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images, unenhanced and contrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted images were evaluated in consensus by two neuroradiologists for the presence of the central vein sign. The readers were blinded to magnetic resonance imaging reports, clinical information, the presence and the localisation of focal hyperintense white matter lesions. Any discordance between readers was resolved through a joint review of the recorded images with an additional neuroradiologist. RESULTS: A total of 317 multiple sclerosis lesions were analysed. The central vein sign had a higher prevalence detection rate on gadolinium-enhanced susceptibility-weighted images (272 of 317 lesions, 86%) compared to unenhanced susceptibility-weighted images (172 of 317 lesions, 54%). CONCLUSION: Gadolinium-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging improves the detection rate of the central vein sign in multiple sclerosis lesions.

13.
Emerg Radiol ; 28(4): 845-856, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683517

RESUMO

Ingestion of caustic substances, whether accidental or for the purpose of suicide, can cause severe lesions of the lips, oral cavity, pharynx, upper gastrointestinal system, and upper airways. In particular, caustic agents could be responsible for severe esophageal injuries resulting in short- and long-term complications. Because of these important clinical implications, timely diagnosis and appropriate management are crucial. In the evaluation of esophageal injuries, thoraco-abdominal computed tomography (CT) is preferable to endoscopy as it avoids the risk of esophageal perforation and allows the evaluation of esophageal injuries as well as of the surrounding tissue. In this review, we report CT findings of esophageal injuries and possible related thoracic complications caused by caustic ingestion.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Queimaduras Químicas , Cáusticos , Queimaduras Químicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cáusticos/toxicidade , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
Ann Hematol ; 100(5): 1139-1147, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742225

RESUMO

We prospectively evaluated changes in cardiac and hepatic iron overload (IO) and in morpho-functional cardiac parameters and myocardial fibrosis by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with low-risk and intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Fifty patients enrolled in the Myocardial Iron Overload in MyElodysplastic Diseases (MIOMED) study were followed for 12 months. IO was quantified by the T2* technique and biventricular function parameters by cine images. Macroscopic myocardial fibrosis was detected by late gadolinium enhancement technique. Twenty-eight patients (71.89±8.46 years; 8 females) performed baseline and follow-up MRIs. Thirteen patients had baseline hepatic IO, with a higher frequency among transfusion-dependent patients. Out of the 15 patients with a baseline MRI liver iron concentration <3 mg/g/dw, two (non-chelated) developed hepatic IO. Thirteen (46.4%) patients had an abnormal T2* value in at least one myocardial segment. One patient without hepatic IO and non-transfused had baseline global T2* <20 ms. Among the 15 patients with no baseline myocardial IO (MIO), 2 worsened. There was a significant increase in both left and right ventricular end-diastolic volume indexes. Thirty-six percent of patients showed myocardial fibrosis correlating with aging. Two new occurrences were detected at the follow-up. In conclusion, by a more sensitive segmental approach, MIO is quite frequent in MDS patients and it can be present also in non-transfused patients and in absence of detectable hepatic iron. The incidence of cardiac and hepatic IO and of myocardial fibrosis and the increase in biventricular volumes after a 12-month interval suggest performing periodic MRI scans to better manage MDS patients.


Assuntos
Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Sobrecarga de Ferro/complicações , Sobrecarga de Ferro/diagnóstico por imagem , Itália/epidemiologia , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/epidemiologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Front Oncol ; 11: 645854, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738262

RESUMO

Brain gliomas require a deep knowledge of their effects on brain connectivity. Understanding the complex relationship between tumor and functional brain is the preliminary and fundamental step for the subsequent surgery. The extent of resection (EOR) is an independent variable of surgical effectiveness and it correlates with the overall survival. Until now, great efforts have been made to achieve gross total resection (GTR) as the standard of care of brain tumor patients. However, high and low-grade gliomas have an infiltrative behavior and peritumoral white matter is often infiltrated by tumoral cells. According to these evidences, many efforts have been made to push the boundary of the resection beyond the contrast-enhanced lesion core on T1w MRI, in the so called supratotal resection (SpTR). SpTR is aimed to maximize the extent of resection and thus the overall survival. SpTR of primary brain tumors is a feasible technique and its safety is improved by intraoperative neuromonitoring and advanced neuroimaging. Only transient cognitive impairments have been reported in SpTR patients compared to GTR patients. Moreover, SpTR is related to a longer overall and progression-free survival along with preserving neuro-cognitive functions and quality of life.

16.
Ultrasonography ; 40(3): 407-416, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561928

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study prospectively assessed the performance of liver stiffness measurements using point shear-wave elastography (p-SWE) in comparison with transient elastography (TE) in patients with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Fifty-six consecutive adult patients with a histological diagnosis of NAFLD prospectively underwent TE and p-SWE on the same day. The median of 10 measurements (SWE-10), the first five (SWE-5), and the first three (SWE-3) measurements were analyzed for p-SWE. Liver biopsy was considered as the reference standard for liver fibrosis grade. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and areas under the ROC curves (AUROCs) were calculated to assess the performance of TE and p-SWE for the diagnosis of significant (F2-F4) and advanced fibrosis (F3-F4). RESULTS: Forty-six patients (27 men, 19 women; mean age, 54.7±9.1 years) had valid p-SWE and TE measurements. Twenty-seven patients (58.7%) had significant fibrosis and 18 (39.1%) had advanced fibrosis. For significant fibrosis, both SWE-10 (AUROC, 0.787; P=0.002) and SWE- 5 (AUROC, 0.809; P=0.001) provided higher diagnostic performance than TE (AUROC, 0.719; P=0.016) and SWE-3 (AUROC, 0.714; P=0.021), albeit without statistical significance (P=0.301). For advanced fibrosis, SWE-5 showed higher diagnostic performance (AUROC, 0.809; P<0.001) than TE (AUROC, 0.799; P<0.001), SWE-10 (AUROC, 0.797; P<0.001), and SWE-3 (AUROC, 0.736; P=0.003), although the differences were not statistically significant (P=0.496). The optimal SWE-10 and SWE-5 cutoff values were ≥8.4 and ≥7.8 for significant fibrosis, and ≥9.1 and ≥8.8 for advanced fibrosis, respectively. CONCLUSION: TE and p-SWE showed similar performance for the diagnosis of significant and advanced fibrosis in NAFLD patients.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2524, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510338

RESUMO

The prevalence and impact of imaging findings detected during screening procedures in patients undergoing transcranial MR-guided Focused Ultrasound (tcMRgFUS) thalamotomy for functional neurological disorders has not been assessed yet. This study included 90 patients who fully completed clinical and neuroradiological screenings for tcMRgFUS in a single-center. The presence and location of preoperative imaging findings that could impact the treatment were recorded and classified in three different groups according to their relevance for the eligibility and treatment planning. Furthermore, tcMRgFUS treatments were reviewed to evaluate the number of transducer elements turned off after marking as no pass regions the depicted imaging finding. A total of 146 preoperative imaging findings in 79 (87.8%) patients were detected in the screening population, with a significant correlation with patients' age (rho = 483, p < 0.001). With regard of the group classification, 119 (81.5%), 26 (17.8%) were classified as group 1 or 2, respectively. One patient had group 3 finding and was considered ineligible. No complications related to the preoperative imaging findings occurred in treated patients. Preoperative neuroradiological findings are frequent in candidates to tcMRgFUS and their identification may require the placement of additional no-pass regions to prevent harmful non-targeted heating.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tálamo/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur Radiol ; 31(7): 4595-4605, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was (1) to investigate the application of texture analysis of choline PET/CT images in prostate cancer (PCa) patients and (2) to propose a machine-learning radiomics model able to select PET features predictive of disease progression in PCa patients with a same high-risk class at restaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-four high-risk PCa patients who underwent restaging Cho-PET/CT were analyzed. Follow-up data were recorded for a minimum of 13 months after the PET/CT scan. PET images were imported in LIFEx toolbox to extract 51 features from each lesion. A statistical system based on correlation matrix and point-biserial-correlation coefficient has been implemented for features reduction and selection, while Discriminant analysis (DA) was used as a method for features classification in a whole sample and sub-groups for primary tumor or local relapse (T), nodal disease (N), and metastatic disease (M). RESULTS: In the whole group, 2 feature (HISTO_Entropy_log10; HISTO_Energy_Uniformity) results were able to discriminate the occurrence of disease progression at follow-up, obtaining the best performance in DA classification (sensitivity 47.1%, specificity 76.5%, positive predictive value (PPV) 46.7%, and accuracy 67.6%). In the sub-group analysis, the best performance in DA classification for T was obtained by selecting 3 features (SUVmin; SHAPE_Sphericity; GLCM_Correlation) with a sensitivity of 91.6%, specificity 84.1%, PPV 79.1%, and accuracy 87%; for N by selecting 2 features (HISTO = _Energy Uniformity; GLZLM_SZLGE) with a sensitivity of 68.1%, specificity 91.4%, PPV 83%, and accuracy 82.6%; and for M by selecting 2 features (HISTO_Entropy_log10 - HISTO_Entropy_log2) with a sensitivity 64.4%, specificity 74.6%, PPV 40.6%, and accuracy 72.5%. CONCLUSION: This machine learning model demonstrated to be feasible and useful to select Cho-PET features for T, N, and M with valuable association with high-risk PCa patients' outcomes. KEY POINTS: • Artificial intelligence applications are feasible and useful to select Cho-PET features. • Our model demonstrated the presence of specific features for T, N, and M with valuable association with high-risk PCa patients' outcomes. • Further prospective studies are necessary to confirm our results and to develop the application of artificial intelligence in PET imaging of PCa.


Assuntos
Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Neoplasias da Próstata , Inteligência Artificial , Colina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Brain Sci ; 11(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-quality intraoperative imaging is needed for optimal monitoring of patients undergoing transcranial MR-guided Focused Ultrasound (tcMRgFUS) thalamotomy. In this paper, we compare the intraoperative imaging obtained with dedicated FUS-Head coil and standard body radiofrequency coil in tcMRgFUS thalamotomy using 1.5-T MR scanner. METHODS: This prospective study included adult patients undergoing tcMRgFUS for treatment of essential tremor. Intraoperative T2-weighted FRFSE sequences were acquired after the last high-energy sonication using a dedicated two-channel FUS-Head (2ch-FUS) coil and body radiofrequency (body-RF) coil. Postoperative follow-ups were performed at 48 h using an eight-channel phased-array (8ch-HEAD) coil. Two readers independently assessed the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and evaluated the presence of concentric lesional zones (zone I, II and III). Intraindividual differences in SNR and lesional findings were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test and McNemar test. RESULTS: Eight patients underwent tcMRgFUS thalamotomy. Intraoperative T2-weighted FRFSE images acquired using the 2ch-FUS coil demonstrated significantly higher SNR (R1 median SNR: 10.54; R2: 9.52) compared to the body-RF coil (R1: 2.96, p < 0.001; R2: 2.99, p < 0.001). The SNR was lower compared to the 48-h follow-up (p < 0.001 for both readers). Intraoperative zone I and zone II were more commonly visualized using the 2ch-FUS coil (R1, p = 0.031 and p = 0.008, R2, p = 0.016, p = 0.008), without significant differences with 48-h follow-up (p ≥ 0.063). The inter-reader agreement was almost perfect for both SNR (ICC: 0.85) and lesional findings (k: 0.82-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: In the study population, the dedicated 2ch-FUS coil significantly improved the SNR and visualization of lesional zones on intraoperative imaging during tcMRgFUS performed with a 1.5-T MR scanner.

20.
Neurol Sci ; 42(3): 1139-1143, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094429

RESUMO

Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound is a recently introduced incisionless treating option for essential tremor and tremor-dominant idiopathic Parkinson disease. There is preliminary evidence that it may result in a promising effective treatment option for other movement disorders too. Here, we report on two patients with multiple sclerosis with medication refractory debilitating essential tremor comorbidity who successfully underwent unilateral Vim tcMRgFUS thalamotomy for tremor control. Patients' clinical condition and expanded disability status scale scores showed no changes during the 1-year follow-up period with no evidence of multiple sclerosis activity or progression.


Assuntos
Tremor Essencial , Esclerose Múltipla , Tremor Essencial/diagnóstico por imagem , Tremor Essencial/cirurgia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
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