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1.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We hypothesized that biomarkers and dietary factors related to cardiovascular disease risk were associated with serum retinol and evaluated these potential associations in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 4116 patients hospitalised for suspected CAD. Dietary data were obtained from a subgroup of 1962 patients using a food frequency questionnaire. Potential biomarkers and dietary factors were explored using linear regression modelling adjusted for age and sex. Regression coefficients and corresponding confidence intervals (CI) are given as  % change in serum retinol per unit change in the predictors. Analyses were performed in the total population and in strata of serum retinol tertiles. RESULTS: In age- and sex-adjusted models, serum creatinine (standardized ß: 0.38, 95% CI [0.35, 0.42]), plasma total cysteine (0.26, [0.23, 0.29]), serum uric acid (0.30, [0.26, 0.33]) and plasma neopterin (0.22, [0.18, 0.25]) were positively associated, whereas plasma serine (- 0.15, [- 0.18, - 0.12]) and serum C-reactive protein (- 0.15, [- 0.18, - 0.12]) were inversely associated with serum retinol. When we included the significant biomarkers in a multivariate model, the model explained 33% of the variability (R2 = 0.33) in serum retinol. The results were similar in the lower and upper tertiles of serum retinol. Weak or no associations were observed for dietary factors. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with suspected CAD, concentrations of creatinine, cysteine and uric acid were positively associated with serum retinol. Future studies should assess whether retinol concentrations are influenced by metabolic alterations in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin B-6 status is routinely measured as pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) in plasma. Low concentrations of PLP are associated with rheumatic, cardiovascular, and neoplastic diseases. We have previously shown that vitamin B-6 status affects the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the use of Kyns as potential markers of functional vitamin B-6 status across 2 large cohorts. METHODS: We measured circulating concentrations of the first 6 metabolites in the Trp catabolic pathway by LC-MS-MS in the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK; n  = 7017) and cardiovascular patient-based Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort (WECAC; n = 4161). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of plasma PLP with Kyns were estimated using linear and nonlinear regression-based methods. RESULTS: 3'-Hydroxykynurenine (HK), a substrate, and all 4 products formed directly by the PLP-dependent enzymes kynurenine transaminase and kynureninase contributed to the explanation of circulating PLP in multivariable-adjusted regression models. The construct HK:(kynurenic acid + xanthurenic acid + 3'-hydroxyanthranilic acid + anthranilic acid), termed HK ratio (HKr), was related to plasma PLP with standardized regression coefficients (95% CIs) of -0.47 (-0.49, -0.45) and -0.46 (-0.49, -0.43) in HUSK and WECAC, respectively. Across strata of cohort and sex, HKr was 1.3- to 2.7-fold more sensitive, but also 1.7- to 2.9-fold more specific to changes in PLP than a previously proposed marker, HK:xanthurenic acid. Notably, the association was strongest at PLP concentrations < âˆ¼20 nmol/L, a recognized threshold for vitamin B-6 deficiency. Finally, PLP and HKr demonstrated highly sex-specific and corroborating associations with age. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that by combining 5 metabolites in the Kyn pathway into a simple index, HKr, a sensitive and specific indicator of intracellular vitamin B-6 status is obtained. The data also underscore the merit of evaluating alterations in Kyn metabolism when investigating vitamin B-6 and health.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While both adipose tissue accumulation and tryptophan metabolism alterations are features of HIV infection, their interplay is unclear. We investigated associations between abdominal adipose tissue, alterations in kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism, and systemic inflammation in people with HIV (PWH). METHODS: 864 PWH and 75 uninfected controls were included. Plasma samples were collected and analyzed for kynurenine metabolites, neopterin, high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP), lipids. Regression models were used to test associations in PWH. RESULTS: PWH had higher kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio than uninfected individuals (p-value < 0.001). In PWH, increase in waist-to-hip ratio was associated with higher kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (p-value 0.009) and quinolinic-to-kynurenic acid ratio (p-value 0.006) and lower kynurenic acid concentration (p-value 0.019). Quinolinic-to-kynurenic acid ratio was associated with higher hs-CRP (p-value < 0.001) and neopterin concentrations (p-value <0.001), while kynurenic acid was associated with lower hs-CRP (p-value 0.025) and neopterin concentrations (p-value 0.034). CONCLUSION: In PWH increase in abdominal adipose tissue was associated with increased quinolinic-to-kynurenic acid ratio, suggesting activation of pro-inflammatory pathway of kynurenine metabolism, with reduction of anti-inflammatory molecules, and increase in systemic inflammation. Our results suggest dysregulation of kynurenine metabolism associated with abdominal fat accumulation to be a potential source of inflammation in HIV infection.

4.
Br J Nutr ; 122(3): 262-273, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397239

RESUMO

Kidney function affects amino acid metabolism and vitamin status. The aims of the present study were to investigate urine and plasma concentrations of amino acids as well as plasma vitamin status in rats with impaired renal function (Zucker fa/fa rats) and in rats with normal kidney function (Long-Evans rats), and to explore the effects of salmon intake on these parameters and potential biomarkers of salmon intake in both rat strains. Male rats were fed diets with casein as sole protein source (control diet) or 25 % protein from baked salmon and 75 % casein for 4 weeks. Urine concentrations of markers of renal function and most amino acids and plasma concentrations of most vitamins were higher, and plasma concentrations of several amino acids including arginine, total glutathione and most tryptophan metabolites were lower in Zucker fa/fa rats compared with Long-Evans rats fed the control diet. Concentrations of kidney function markers were lower after salmon intake only in Zucker fa/fa rats. A trend towards lower urine concentrations of amino acids was seen in both rat strains fed the salmon diet, but this was more pronounced in Long-Evans rats and did not reflect the dietary amino acid content. Urine 1-methylhistidine, 3-methylhistidine, trimethylamineoxide and creatine concentrations, and plasma 1-methylhistidine and creatine concentrations were higher after salmon intake in both rat strains. To conclude, concentrations of amino acids in urine and plasma as well as vitamin status were different in Zucker fa/fa and Long-Evans rats, and the effects of salmon intake differed by rat strain for some of these parameters.

5.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401679

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify biomarkers to assess participants' compliance in an intervention study with high intake of cod or salmon, compared to a fish-free diet. METHODS: In this randomised clinical trial, 62 healthy overweight/obese participants consumed 750 g/week of either cod (N = 21) or salmon (N = 22) across 5 weekly dinners, or were instructed to continue their normal eating habits but avoid fish intake (Control group, N = 19) for 8 weeks. RESULTS: After cod intake, serum concentrations of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO, p = 0.0043), creatine (p = 0.024) and 1-methylhistidine (1-MeHis, p = 0.014), and urine concentrations (relative to creatinine) of TMAO (p = 2.8 × 10-5), creatine (p = 8.3 × 10-4) and 1-MeHis (p = 0.016) were increased when compared to Control group. After salmon intake, serum concentrations of 1-MeHis (p = 2.0 × 10-6) and creatine (p = 6.1 × 10-4), and urine concentrations (relative to creatinine) of 1-MeHis (p = 4.2 × 10-6) and creatine (p = 4.0 × 10-5) were increased when compared to Control group. Serum and urine concentrations of TMAO were more increased following cod intake compared to salmon intake (p = 0.028 and 2.9 × 10-4, respectively), and serum and urine 1-MeHis concentrations were more increased after salmon intake compared to cod intake (p = 8.7 × 10-5 and 1.2 × 10-4, respectively). Cod and salmon intake did not affect serum and urine concentrations of 3-methylhistidine, and only marginally affected concentrations of free amino acids and amino acid metabolites. CONCLUSION: TMAO measured in serum or urine is a potential biomarker of cod intake, and 1-MeHis measured in serum or urine is a potential biomarker of salmon intake.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

7.
Brain Stimul ; 12(5): 1135-1142, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest that activation of the tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway by proinflammatory cytokines may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for major depression (MD) with immunomodulation as one of the proposed modes of action. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of tryptophan and kynurenine pathway metabolites in MD patients and healthy controls, and to explore the effect of ECT on components of the kynurenine pathway. METHODS: The study included 27 moderately to severely depressed patients referred to ECT. Blood samples were collected prior to treatment and after the completed ECT-series. Baseline samples were also collected from 14 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Serum concentrations of tryptophan, kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine (HK), kynurenic acid (KA), xanthurenic acid (XA), anthranilic acid (AA), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (HAA), quinolinic acid (QA), picolinic acid (Pic), pyridoxal 5'-phosphat (PLP), riboflavin, neopterin and cotinine were measured. RESULTS: Patients with MD had lower levels of neuroprotective kynurenine-pathway metabolites (KA, XA and Pic) and lower metabolite ratios (KA/Kyn and KA/QA) reflecting reduced neuroprotection compared to controls. The concentration of the inflammatory marker neopterin was increased after ECT, along with Pic and the redox active and immunosuppressive metabolite HAA. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, we found increased concentrations of inflammatory marker neopterin and putative neuroprotective kynurenine metabolites HAA and Pic in MD patients after ECT. Further research in larger cohorts is required to conclude whether ECT exerts its therapeutic effects via changes in the kynurenine pathway.

8.
J Nutr ; 149(5): 770-775, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A frequent observation in inflammatory conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is low circulating amounts of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the metabolically active form of vitamin B-6. Recently, a functional marker of vitamin B-6 status, the ratio of 3-hydroxykynurenine (HK): xanthurenic acid (XA) in plasma (HK: XA), was proposed. OBJECTIVE: We investigated vitamin B-6 status in patients with RA before and after established treatment with TNFα inhibitors. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal study of RA patients (n = 106, 36% men, median age 54 y) starting first treatment with a TNFα inhibitor (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab, or certolizumab). Clinical assessment (Disease Activity Score for 28 standard joints, DAS28), joint ultrasonography, and blood draw were performed at baseline and after 3 mo treatment. Plasma concentrations of PLP, HK, and XA were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Associations of changes in vitamin B-6 markers with change in DAS28 were assessed by generalized additive models regression and with European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response categories by linear regression. RESULTS: At baseline PLP was inversely correlated with CRP (ρ = -0.27, P = 0.007), whereas HK: XA correlated with DAS28 (ρ = 0.46, P < 0.001), CRP (ρ = 0.36, P < 0.001), and ultrasonography scores (ρ = 0.29-0.35, P ≤ 0.003). After 3 mo treatment, the change (a 33% overall reduction) in DAS28 was related to changes in both PLP (ß = -0.28, P = 0.01) and HK: XA (ß = 0.33, P < 0.001). Good responders (45%) according to EULAR criteria experienced a 31% increase in PLP (P = 0.003) and an 11% decrease in HK: XA (P = 0.1), whereas nonresponders (24%) experienced a 25% increase in HK: XA (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Two independent measures of vitamin B-6 status confirm an association with disease activity in RA patients. The association of HK: XA with disease activity may also imply perturbations in kynurenine metabolism in RA. This trial was registered at helseforskning.etikkom.no as 2011/490.

9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(5): 1239-1250, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Replacing dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduces the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and subsequently the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, beyond changes in LDL cholesterol, we lack a complete understanding of the physiologic alterations that occur when improving dietary fat quality. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of metabolic alterations paralleling improvements in the fat quality of the diet. METHODS: We recently conducted an 8-wk, double-blind, randomized controlled trial replacing SFAs with PUFAs in healthy subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia (n = 99). In the present substudy, we performed comprehensive metabolic profiling with multiple platforms (both nuclear magnetic resonance- and mass spectrometry-based technology) (n = 99), and analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression (n = 95) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: A large number of lipoprotein subclasses, myristoylcarnitine and palmitoylcarnitine, and kynurenine were reduced when SFAs were replaced with PUFAs. In contrast, bile acids, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, acetate, and acetoacetate were increased by the intervention. Some amino acids were also altered by the intervention. The mRNA levels of LXRA and LDLR were increased, in addition to several liver X receptor α target genes and genes involved in inflammation, whereas the mRNA levels of UCP2 and PPARD were decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after replacing SFAs with PUFAs. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed that the 30 most important variables that contributed to class separation spanned all classes of biomarkers, and was in accordance with the univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Applying metabolomics in randomized controlled dietary intervention trials has the potential to extend our knowledge of the biological and molecular effects of dietary fat quality. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01679496.

10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(7): 637-649, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037572

RESUMO

Ecological observations suggest an inverse relationship between smoking in pregnancy and celiac disease (CD) in offspring. While individual-level analyses have been inconsistent, they have mostly lacked statistical power or refined assessments of exposure. To examine the association between pregnancy-related smoking and CD in the offspring, as well as its consistency across data sets, we analyzed: (1) The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) of 94,019 children, followed from birth (2000-2009) through 2016, with 1035 developing CD; (2) a subsample from MoBa (381 with CD and 529 controls) with biomarkers; and (3) a register-based cohort of 536,861 Norwegian children, followed from birth (2004-2012) through 2014, with 1919 developing CD. Smoking behaviors were obtained from pregnancy questionnaires and antenatal visits, or, in the MoBa-subsample, defined by measurement of cord blood cotinine. CD and potential confounders were identified through nationwide registers and comprehensive parental questionnaires. Sustained smoking during pregnancy, both self-reported and cotinine-determined, was inversely associated with CD in MoBa (multivariable-adjusted [a] OR = 0.61 [95%CI, 0.46-0.82] and aOR = 0.55 [95%CI, 0.31-0.98], respectively); an inverse association was also found with the intensity of smoking. These findings differed from those of our register-based cohort, which revealed no association with sustained smoking during pregnancy (aOR = 0.97 [95%CI, 0.80-1.18]). In MoBa, neither maternal smoking before or after pregnancy, nor maternal or paternal smoking in only early pregnancy predicted CD. In a carefully followed pregnancy cohort, a more-detailed smoking assessment than oft-used register-based data, revealed that sustained smoking during pregnancy, rather than any smoking exposure, predicts decreased likelihood of childhood-diagnosed CD.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Cotinina/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Celíaca/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Antígenos HLA , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fumar/sangue , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
11.
Brain Behav Immun ; 75: 155-162, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675874

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tryptophan, its downstream metabolites in the kynurenine pathway and neopterin have been associated with inflammation and dementia. We aimed to study the associations between plasma levels of these metabolites and cognitive function in community-dwelling, older adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2174 participants aged 70-72 years of the community-based Hordaland Health Study. Tryptophan, kynurenine, neopterin and eight downstream kynurenines were measured in plasma. Kendrick Object Learning Test (KOLT), Digit Symbol Test (DST) and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) were all outcomes in standardized Zellner's regression. The Wald test of a composite linear hypothesis of an association with each metabolite was adjusted by the Bonferroni method. Age, body mass index, C-reactive protein, depressive symptoms, diabetes, education, glomerular filtration rate, hypertension, previous myocardial infarction, prior stroke, pyridoxal 5'phosphate, sex and smoking were considered as potential confounders. RESULTS: Higher levels of the kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (KTR) and neopterin were significantly associated with poorer, overall cognitive performance (p < 0.002). Specifically, KTR was negatively associated with KOLT (ß -0.08, p = 0.001) and COWAT (ß -0.08, p = 0.001), but not with DST (ß -0.03, p = 0.160). This pattern was also seen for neopterin (KOLT: ß -0.07; p = 0.001; COWAT: ß -0.06, p = 0.010; DST: ß -0.01, p = 0.800). The associations were not confounded by the examined variables. No significant associations were found between the eight downstream kynurenines and cognition. CONCLUSION: Higher KTR and neopterin levels, biomarkers of cellular immune activation, were associated with reduced cognitive performance, implying an association between the innate immune system, memory, and language.

12.
Acta Oncol ; 58(5): 579-587, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696326

RESUMO

Background: Exercise may improve depression in cancer patients, yet the molecular mechanism behind this protection is poorly understood. Here, we aimed to explore the link between exercise and regulation of kynurenine (Kyn) metabolism and inflammation in patients with operable gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) cancer patients, who improved significantly in depression score with exercise training. Material and Methods: Fifty GEJ cancer patients were allocated to 12 weeks of supervised training twice weekly including interval-based aerobic exercise and resistance training, or standard care. Depression score was evaluated by HADS, and blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected for determination of Kyn metabolism and inflammation across the intervention. Results: Depression scores decreased by -1.3 points in the exercise group (p < 0.01), whereas no changes were observed in the control group. Plasma 3-hydroxykynurenine (HK), a Kyn metabolite giving rise to other neurotoxic metabolites, increased by 48% (p <0.001) in the control group, while exercise training attenuated this accumulation. The production of HK is induced by inflammation, and while we observed no differences in systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines, exercise training ameliorated the treatment-induced intramuscular inflammation. Moreover, exercise has been suggested to convert Kyn to the neuroprotective metabolite, kynurenic acid (KA), but despite marked functional and muscular exercise-mediated adaptations, we did not observe any enhancement of KA production and related enzyme expression in the muscles of GEJ cancer patients. Conclusion: Exercise training reduced symptoms of depression in patients with GEJ cancer, and this effect was associated with an exercise-dependent attenuation of the inflammation-induced conversion of Kyn to neurotoxic metabolites.

13.
BMJ ; 364: k4981, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls. EXPOSURE: Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499135

RESUMO

Vitamin B supplementation can have side effects for human health, including cancer risk. We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin B12 in lung cancer aetiology via direct measurements of pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin B12 concentrations in a nested case-control study, complemented with a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach in an independent case-control sample. We used pre-diagnostic biomarker data from 5,183 case-control pairs nested within 20 prospective cohorts, and genetic data from 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. Exposures included directly measured circulating vitamin B12 in pre-diagnostic blood samples from the nested case-control study, and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with vitamin B12 concentrations in the MR study. Our main outcome of interest was increased risk for lung cancer, overall and by histological subtype, per increase in circulating vitamin B12 concentrations. We found circulating vitamin B12 to be positively associated with overall lung cancer risk in a dose response fashion (odds ratio for a doubling in B12 [ORlog2B12 ] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.06-1.25). The MR analysis based on 8 genetic variants also indicated that genetically determined higher vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with overall lung cancer risk (OR per 150 pmol/L standard deviation increase in B12 [ORSD ]= 1.08, 95%CI= 1.00-1.16). Considering the consistency of these two independent and complementary analyses, these findings support the hypothesis that high vitamin B12 status increases the risk of lung cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

15.
J Neuroinflammation ; 15(1): 327, 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The host response to intruders in the central nervous system (CNS) may be beneficial but could also be harmful and responsible for neurologic symptoms and sequelae in CNS infections. This immune response induces the activation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) with the production of neuroactive metabolites. Herein, we explored cytokine and KP responses in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum in patients with encephalitis, aseptic, and bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Cytokines were measured in CSF and serum by multiplex assay in adult patients with encephalitis of infectious, autoimmune or unknown etiology (n = 10), aseptic meningitis (ASM, n = 25), acute bacterial meningitis (ABM, n = 6), and disease control patients with similar symptoms but without pleocytosis in CSF (n = 42). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) was used to measure KP metabolites in CSF and serum. RESULTS: A characteristic pattern of increasing cytokine levels and KP metabolites was found in CSF from encephalitis to ASM, with the highest levels in ABM. In ASM and ABM, most inflammatory mediators, including IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), showed markedly elevated levels in CSF compared with serum, indicating production within the CNS. In contrast to most mediators, the highest level of IP-10 was found in the ASM group, suggesting a potential role for IP-10 in aseptic/viral meningitis. Neopterin and IP-10 were associated with marked changes in KP metabolites in CSF with increasing kynurenine/tryptophan ratio reflecting indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. Neopterin, a marker of IFN-γ activity, was associated with an unfavorable balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic tryptophan metabolites. CONCLUSION: We show that parenchymal and meningeal inflammations in CNS share a characteristic cytokine profile with a general immune response in the CSF with limited influence from the systemic circulation. IFN-γ activity, assessed by neopterin and IP-10 levels, may play a role in the activation of the KP pathway in these patients, potentially mediating neurotoxic effects.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318764

RESUMO

B-group vitamins, as components of the one carbon metabolism pathway, are involved in DNA synthesis, repair and methylation. Our aim was to investigate associations between circulating plasma levels of B vitamins and urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC). We conducted a nested case-control study of UCC within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. B vitamins were measured in pre-diagnostic plasma samples. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for UCC risk associated with circulating B vitamins in 363 matched cases and controls. In a case-only analysis (N = 390), hazard ratios (HR) for overall survival associated with plasma B vitamins were estimated using Cox regression. There were no strong associations between UCC risk and pre-diagnostic levels of plasma B vitamins. No heterogeneity in UCC risk was observed by subtype (invasive or superficial), sex, smoking status or alcohol intake. There was no heterogeneity by country of birth for most B vitamins, except for folate (p-homogeneity = 0.03). In UCC cases, there were no strong associations between plasma B vitamins and overall survival. We found no associations between pre-diagnostic plasma concentrations of B-group vitamins and UCC risk or survival.

17.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205558, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth and low birth weight are associated with reduced nephron numbers and increased risk of hypertension and kidney disease in later life. AIMS: We tested the hypothesis that extremely preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction is associated with decreased renal function in mid childhood. METHODS: At 11 years of age the following measures were obtained in a regional cohort of children born extremely premature (EP, i.e. < 28 weeks gestational age-GA) or with extremely low birth weight (ELBW, i.e. BW < 1000 grams) and in matched controls born at term with appropriate BW (AGA): Height, weight, abdominal circumference, triceps and subscapular skin fold thicknesses, blood pressure, plasma levels of creatinine, cystatin C and symmetric dimethyl arginine (SDMA). Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as a BW < 10th percentile for GA. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated according to the equations by Schwartz, Zappitelli and Gao. RESULTS: Fifty-seven of 61 eligible EP/ELBW children, 20 (35%) born SGA, and 54 controls, were assessed. Estimated GFR decreased while plasma SDMA increased from the children born AGA at term through those born preterm AGA to preterm SGA. Systolic BP was correlated to fat mass indices (p<0.03), but not to renal function (p>0.2) and did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Children born EP/ELBW, particularly those born SGA, had impaired renal function at age 11 years as judged from estimated GFRs and plasma levels of SDMA. Since reduced renal function is associated with an increased risk of later disease, these children should be followed in order to minimize additional risk factors.

18.
Epidemiology ; 29(6): 848-856, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A few prospective studies suggest an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and lower risk of type 1 diabetes. However, the role of unmeasured confounding and misclassification remains unclear. METHODS: We comprehensively evaluated whether maternal smoking in pregnancy predicts lower risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in two Scandinavian pregnancy cohorts (185,076 children; 689 cases) and a Norwegian register-based cohort (434,627 children; 692 cases). We measured cord blood cotinine as an objective marker of nicotine exposure during late pregnancy in 154 cases and 476 controls. We also examined paternal smoking during pregnancy, in addition to environmental tobacco smoke exposure the first 6 months of life, to clarify the role of characteristics of smokers in general. RESULTS: In the pregnancy cohorts, maternal smoking beyond gestational week 12 was inversely associated with type 1 diabetes, pooled adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.66 (95% CI = 0.51, 0.85). Similarly, in the Norwegian register-based cohort, children of mothers who still smoked at the end of pregnancy had lower risk of type 1 diabetes, aHR 0.65 (95% CI = 0.47, 0.89). Cord blood cotinine ≥30 nmol/L was also associated with reduced risk of type 1 diabetes, adjusted odds ratio 0.42 (95% CI = 0.17, 1.0). We observed no associations of paternal smoking during pregnancy, or environmental tobacco smoke exposure, with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSION: Maternal sustained smoking during pregnancy is associated with lower risk of type 1 diabetes in children. This sheds new light on the potential intrauterine environmental origins of the disease.

19.
Br J Nutr ; 120(7): 740-750, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156176

RESUMO

Obesity increases the risk for developing kidney disease, and protection of kidneys through changes in diet should be investigated. Fish intake has been associated with reduced risk of developing kidney disease; therefore, we wanted to investigate whether cod protein intake could prevent or delay the development of kidney damage in an obese rat model that spontaneously develops proteinuria and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The aim of the study was to investigate any effects of cod protein intake on established markers of kidney function, amino acid composition, protein utilisation and growth in obese Zucker fa/fa rats in the early stage of decreased renal function. Male obese Zucker fa/fa rats (HsdOla:Zucker-Lepr) were fed cod muscle proteins in an amount corresponding to 25 % of dietary protein, with the remaining protein from a casein/whey mixture (COD diet). A control group was fed a diet with a casein/whey mixture as the only protein source (CAS diet). The intervention started when rats were 9-10 weeks old, and the rats were fed these diets for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, rats fed the COD diet had lower urine concentration of cystatin C, T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-1 (TIM-1), amino acids, carbamide, uric acid and ammonium and higher concentrations of creatine, trimethylamine N-oxide, 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine, lower kidney concentration of TIM-1 and showed better growth when compared with the CAS group. To conclude, cod protein may have the potential to delay the development of kidney damage in young obese Zucker rats and to improve protein utilisation and growth.

20.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 25(15): 1612-1620, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014716

RESUMO

Background Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Vitamin A (Vit-A) is involved in homocysteine metabolism and we therefore explored the potential interaction between plasma tHcy and serum Vit-A in relation to incident acute myocardial infarction. Methods Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the prospective relationships between tHcy and acute myocardial infarction in 2205 patients from Western Norway undergoing elective coronary angiography for suspected stable angina pectoris. Results are reported as hazard ratio per standard deviation increase in log-transformed tHcy. An interaction term for tHcy × Vit-A was added to multivariate models including age, sex, smoking, apolipoprotein B fasting, statin and aspirin prescription and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Results Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) age of the participants (64.3% men) was 62.3 (1.24) years. Plasma tHcy was higher among participants in the upper versus lower Vit-A tertile. During 7 (2.4) years of follow-up, 15.1% suffered an AMI. A significant association of plasma tHcy with AMI in the total study population was observed. When we stratified the population according to Vit-A tertiles, plasma tHcy was associated with acute myocardial infarction only in the upper Vit-A tertile (hazard ratio per SD: 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.53, pinteraction = 0.03). Conclusions The risk relationship between plasma tHcy and acute myocardial infarction was modified by serum concentrations of Vit-A in patients with suspected stable angina pectoris. This finding may clarify the relationship between tHcy and cardiovascular disease.

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