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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(18): 8147-8159, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239927

RESUMO

A rare example of a dinuclear iron core with a non-linearly bridged dinitrogen ligand is reported in this work. One-electron reduction of [(tBupyrr2py)Fe(OEt2)] (1) (tBupyrr2py2- = 2,6-bis((3,5-di-tert-butyl)pyrrol-2-yl)pyridine) with KC8 yields the complex [K]2[(tBupyrr2py)Fe]2(µ2-η1:η1-N2) (2), where the unusual cis-divacant octahedral coordination geometry about each iron and the η5-cation-π coordination of two potassium ions with four pyrrolyl units of the ligand cause distortion of the bridging end-on µ-N2 about the FeN2Fe core. Attempts to generate a Et2O-free version of 1 resulted instead in a dinuclear helical dimer, [(tBupyrr2py)Fe]2 (3), via bridging of the pyridine moieties of the ligand. Reduction of 3 by two electrons under N2 does not break up the dimer, nor does it result in formation of 2 but instead formation of the ate-complex [K(OEt2)]2[(tBupyrr2py)Fe]2 (4). Reduction of 1 by two electrons and in the presence of crown-ether forms the tetraanionic N2 complex [K2][K(18-crown-6)]2(tBupyrr2py)Fe]2(µ2-η1:η1-N2) (5), also having a distorted FeN2Fe moiety akin to 2. Complex 2 is thermally unstable and loses N2, disproportionating to Fe nanoparticles among other products. A combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies, solution and solid-state magnetic studies, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy has been applied to characterize complexes 2-5, whereas DFT studies have been used to help explain the bonding and electronic structure in these unique diiron-N2 complexes 2 and 5.

2.
Chem Sci ; 9(45): 8590-8597, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568784

RESUMO

In large-scale, hydrogen production from water-splitting represents the most promising solution for a clean, recyclable, and low-cost energy source. The realization of viable technological solutions requires suitable efficient electrochemical catalysts with low overpotentials and long-term stability for both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) based on cheap and nontoxic materials. Herein, we present a unique molecular approach to monodispersed, ultra-small, and superiorly active iron phosphide (FeP) electrocatalysts for bifunctional OER, HER, and overall water-splitting. They result from transformation of a molecular iron phosphide precursor, containing a [Fe2P3] core with mixed-valence FeIIFeIII sites bridged by an asymmetric cyclo-P(2+1) 3- ligand. The as-synthesized FeP nanoparticles act as long-lasting electrocatalysts for OER and HER with low overpotential and high current densities that render them one of the best-performing electrocatalysts hitherto known. The fabricated alkaline electrolyzer delivered low cell voltage with durability over weeks, representing an attractive catalyst for large-scale water-splitting technologies.

3.
iScience ; 7: 120-131, 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267674

RESUMO

Neutral zinc alkoxide complexes show high activity toward the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters and carbonates, to generate biodegradable plastics applicable in several areas. Herein, we use a ferrocene-chelating heteroscorpionate complex in redox-switchable polymerization reactions, and we show that it is a moderately active catalyst for the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide, ɛ-caprolactone, trimethylene carbonate, and δ-valerolactone. Uniquely for this type of catalyst, the oxidized complex has a similar polymerization activity as the corresponding reduced compound, but displays significantly different rates of reaction in the case of trimethylene carbonate and δ-valerolactone. Investigations of the oxidized compound suggest the presence of an organic radical rather than an Fe(III) complex. Electronic structure and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to support the proposed electronic states of the catalytic complex and to help explain the observed reactivity differences. The catalyst was also compared with a monomeric phenoxide complex to show the influence of the phosphine-zinc interaction on catalytic properties.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 57(18): 11552-11559, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148357

RESUMO

The reaction of elemental sulfur with the cis-divacant octahedral complex [(pyrr2py)Fe(OEt2)] (1; pyrr2py2- = 3,5-tBu2-bis(pyrrolyl)pyridine) yields the iron dimer [(pyrr-1-S-pyrrpy)Fe]2 (2; pyrr-1-S-pyrrpy2- = 3,5-(tBu2-pyrrolyl)(1-S-3,5-tBu2-pyrrolyl)pyridine) resulting from a pyrr2py2- ligand based S-oxidation of one pyrrole arm. Addition of the phosphorus ylide H2CPPh3 to 1 forms the ylide adduct [(pyrr2py)Fe(CH2PPh3)] (3), which upon reaction with elemental sulfur produces a rare example of a sulfurmethylenephosphorane adduct, [(pyrr2py)Fe(SCH2PPh3)] (4). The sulfur-oxidized pyrrole group of the ligand pyrr-1-S-pyrrpy2- can be reversed, since complex 2 exhibits S atom transferability via the addition of 2 equiv of H2CPPh3 to yield a mixture of compounds 3 and 4. For all complexes reported, the ferrous ion remains S = 2. Complexes 2-4 were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction as well as 1H NMR spectroscopy, solid and solution magnetic studies, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic measurements.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(35): 29532-29542, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088904

RESUMO

Noble metal cocatalysts are conventionally a crucial factor in oxide-semiconductor-based photocatalytic hydrogen generation. In the present work, we show that optimized high-temperature hydrogenation of commercially available strontium titanate (SrTiO3) powder can be used to engineer an intrinsic cocatalytic shell around nanoparticles that can create a photocatalyst that is highly effective without the use of any additional cocatalyst for hydrogen generation from neutral aqueous methanol solutions. This intrinsic activation effect can also be observed for SrTiO3[100] single crystal as well as Nb-doped SrTiO3[100] single crystal. For all types of SrTiO3 samples (nanopowders and either of the single crystals), hydrogenation under optimum conditions leads to a surface-hydroxylated layer together with lattice defects visible by transmission electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and photoluminescence (PL). Active samples provide specific defects identified by EPR, PL, and electron-energy loss spectroscopy as Ti3+ states in a defective matrix-this is in contrast to the inactive defects formed in other reductive atmospheres. In aqueous media, active SrTiO3 samples show a significant negative shift of the flatband potential (in photoelectrochemical as well as in capacitance data) and a lower charge-transfer resistance for photoexcited electrons. We therefore ascribe the remarkable cocatalyst-free activation of the material to a synergy between thermodynamics (altered interface energetics induced by hydroxylation) and kinetics (charge transfer mediation by suitable Ti3+ states).

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(36): 11594-11597, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775229

RESUMO

An unprecedented, super oxidized all-ferric iron-sulfur cubanoid cluster with all terminal thiolates, Fe4 S4 (STbt)4 (3) [Tbt=2,4,6-tris{bis(trimethylsilyl)methyl}phenyl], has been isolated from the reaction of the bis-thiolate complex Fe(STbt)2 (2) with elemental sulfur. This cluster 3 has been characterized by X-ray crystallography, zero-field 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and other relevant physico-chemical methods. Based on all the data, the electronic ground state of the cluster has been assigned to be Stot =0.

7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(16): 2052-2055, 2018 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29417099

RESUMO

Reduction of the group 4 transition metal precursors [(PN)2MCl2] (M = Zr (1), and Hf (2)); PN- = (N-(2-(diisopropylphosphino)-4-methylphenyl)-2,4,6-trimethylanilide), both readily prepared by transmetallation of 2 LiPN with [MCl4(THF)2], with a slight excess of KC8, resulted in the isolation of the trivalent complexes [(PN)2MCl] (M = Zr (3), and Hf (4)). Complexes 1-4 were all identified by solid-state X-ray diffraction analysis, whereas in the case of 3 and 4 low temperature X-band EPR spectroscopy allowed for the identification of these metal-centered d1 radicals. A comparison with the isostructural and isoelectronic but more stable [(PN)2TiCl] is also presented.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(28): 3436-3439, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424850

RESUMO

The first synthesized and X-ray structurally characterized "classical" iron(i) dioximate showed an unrivaled stability towards strong acids, thus calling for a reassessment of the origins of the electrocatalytic activity of similar low-valent cobalt and iron cage complexes with electron-withdrawing ribbed substituents, shown previously to be effective electrocatalysts of the HER.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(35): 10506-10510, 2017 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678439

RESUMO

A highly active FeSe2 electrocatalyst for durable overall water splitting was prepared from a molecular 2Fe-2Se precursor. The as-synthesized FeSe2 was electrophoretically deposited on nickel foam and applied to the oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions (OER and HER, respectively) in alkaline media. When used as an oxygen-evolution electrode, a low 245 mV overpotential was achieved at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 , representing outstanding catalytic activity and stability because of Fe(OH)2 /FeOOH active sites formed at the surface of FeSe2 . Remarkably, the system is also favorable for the HER. Moreover, an overall water-splitting setup was fabricated using a two-electrode cell, which displayed a low cell voltage and high stability. In summary, the first iron selenide material is reported that can be used as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for the OER and HER, as well as overall water splitting.

10.
ChemSusChem ; 10(1): 62-67, 2017 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27933749

RESUMO

'Black' TiO2 -in the widest sense, TiO2 reduced by various treatments-has attracted tremendous scientific interest in recent years because of some outstanding properties; most remarkably in photocatalysis. While the material effects visible light absorption (the blacker, the better), black titania produced by high pressure hydrogenation was recently reported to show another highly interesting feature; noble-metal-free photocatalytic H2 generation. In a systematic investigation of high-temperature hydrogen treatments of anatase nanoparticles, TEM, XRD, EPR, XPS, and photoelectrochemistry are used to characterize different degrees of surface hydrogenation, surface termination, electrical conductivity, and structural defects in the differently treated materials. The materials' intrinsic activity for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution is coupled neither with their visible light absorption behavior nor the formation of amorphous material, but rather must be ascribed to optimized and specific defect formation (gray is better than black). This finding is further confirmed by using a mesoporous anatase matrix as a hydrogenation precursor, which, after conversion to the gray state, even further enhances the overall photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Titânio/química , Catálise , Hidrogenação
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