Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 210
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(2): 162-173, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567189

RESUMO

This study was undertaken to determine the frequency, and the clinicopathologic and genetic features, of colon cancers driven by neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) gene fusions. Of the 7008 tumors screened for NTRK expression using a pan-Trk antibody, 16 (0.23%) had Trk immunoreactivity. ArcherDx assay detected TPM3-NTRK1 (n=9), LMNA-NTRK1 (n=3), TPR-NTRK1 (n=2) and EML4-NTRK3 (n=1) fusion transcripts in 15 cases with sufficient RNA quality. Patients were predominantly women (median age: 63 y). The tumors involved the right (n=12) and left colon unequally and were either stage T3 (n=12) or T4. Local lymph node and distant metastases were seen at presentation in 6 and 1 patients, respectively. Lymphovascular invasion was present in all cases. Histologically, tumors showed moderate to poor (n=11) differentiation with a partly or entirely solid pattern (n=5) and mucinous component (n=10), including 1 case with sheets of signet ring cells. DNA mismatch repair-deficient phenotype was seen in 13 cases. Tumor-infiltrating CD4/CD8 lymphocytes were prominent in 9 cases. Programmed death-ligand 1 positive tumor-infiltrating immune cells and focal tumor cell positivity were seen in the majority of cases. CDX2 expression and loss of CK20 and MUC2 expression were frequent. CK7 was expressed in 5 cases. No mutations in BRAF, RAS, and PIK3CA were identified. However, other genes of the PI3K-AKT/MTOR pathway were mutated. In several cases, components of Wnt/ß-catenin (APC, AMER1, CTNNB1), p53, and TGFß (ACVR2A, TGFBR2) pathways were mutated. However, no SMAD4 mutations were found. Two tumors harbored FBXW7 tumor suppressor gene mutations. NTRK fusion tumors constitute a distinct but rare subgroup of colorectal carcinomas.

2.
J Pathol ; 250(2): 205-216, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639216

RESUMO

Diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura (MPM) is a highly aggressive tumour that typically is associated with short survival. CD70 and CD27 belong to the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and the TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily, respectively. Under physiological conditions, the tightly regulated interaction between CD70 and CD27 plays a co-stimulatory role in promoting T-cell expansion and differentiation through the NFκB pathway. Aberrantly high CD70 expression has been documented in haematological and solid malignancies in association with immune evasion in malignant cells. In this study, 172 well-characterised primary diffuse MPM tumours including epithelioid (n = 145), biphasic (n = 15), and sarcomatoid (n = 12) histotypes were evaluated immunohistochemically for CD70, CD27, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56, PDCD1 (PD-1), and FOXP3 expression. Twenty per cent (34/172) of the mesothelioma cells expressed CD70 on the cell membrane. Overall survival was significantly decreased in the cohort of patients with CD70-expressing tumour cells (p < 0.01). Patients with MPM containing a higher number of CD3+ (p < 0.01), CD4+ (p < 0.01), CD8+ (p < 0.01), or FOXP3+ (p < 0.01) tumour-infiltrating lymphoid cells (TILs) showed significantly worse clinical outcomes. As potential independent risk factors for MPM patients, multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed CD70 expression on mesothelioma cells [hazard ratio (HR) 2.25; p = 0.010], higher FOXP3+ TILs (HR 2.81; p = 0.004), and higher CD3+ TIL accumulation (HR 6.12; p < 0.001). In contrast, as a potential independent favourable factor, higher CD27+ TIL accumulation (HR 0.48; p = 0.037) was identified. In vitro experiments and an immunodeficient mouse model revealed that CD70 enhances the invasiveness of MPM cells through MET-ERK axis activation. Further analyses in syngeneic mouse models demonstrated possible roles for CD70 in immune evasion. Collectively, these findings suggest that the CD70-CD27 pathway enhances the malignant phenotypes of MPM and diminishes anti-tumor immune response in patients with these neoplasms. These markers might be useful in MPM for prognostic evaluations as well as targeted therapeutics. © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

3.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(3): 457-461, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783178

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Children and young adults diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma may have unique genetic characteristics. In this study, we evaluated for the presence of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations in these patients. METHODS: In a prospective study of mesothelioma natural history (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01950572), we assessed for the presence of the ALK translocation in patients younger than 40 years, irrespective of the site of disease. The presence of this translocation was assessed by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). If the patients tested positive for the ALK translocation, both immunohistochemistry and RNA sequencing were performed on the tumor specimen. RESULTS: Between September 2013 and December 2018, 373 patients were enrolled in the mesothelioma natural history study, of which 32 patients were 40 years old or younger at the time of their mesothelioma diagnosis. There were 25 patients with peritoneal mesothelioma, five with pleural mesothelioma, one with pericardial mesothelioma, and one with bicompartmental mesothelioma. Presence of an ALK translocation by FISH was seen in two of the 32 patients (6%) with mesothelioma. Both patients, a 14-year-old female and a 27-year-old male, had peritoneal mesothelioma and had no history of asbestos exposure, prior radiation therapy, or predisposing germline mutations. Neither had detectable ALK expression by immunohistochemistry. RNA sequencing revealed the presence of an STRN fusion partner in the female patient but failed to identify any fusion protein in the male patient. CONCLUSIONS: Young patients with peritoneal mesothelioma should be evaluated for the presence of ALK translocations. Presence of this translocation should be assessed by FISH and these patients could potentially benefit from tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting ALK.

4.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-11, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are predisposed to visceral neurofibromas, some of which can progress to premalignant atypical neurofibromas (ANFs) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). Though subtotal resection of ANF may prevent malignant transformation and thus deaths with no neural complications, local recurrences require reoperation. The aim of this study was to assess the surgical morbidity associated with marginal resection of targeted ANF nodules identified via preoperative serial volumetric MRI and 18F-FDG-PET imaging. METHODS: The authors analyzed clinical outcomes of 16 NF resections of 21 tumors in 11 NF1 patients treated at the NIH Clinical Center between 2008 and 2018. Preoperative volumetric growth rates and 18F-FDG-PET SUVMax (maximum standardized uptake value within the tumor) of the target lesions and any electromyographic or nerve conduction velocity abnormalities of the parent nerves were measured and assessed in tandem with postoperative complications, histopathological classification of the resected tumors, and surgical margins through Dunnett's multiple comparisons test and t-test. The surgical approach for safe marginal resection of ANF was also described. RESULTS: Eleven consecutive NF1 patients (4 male, 7 female; median age 18.5 years) underwent 16 surgical procedures for marginal resections of 21 tumors. Preoperatively, 13 of the 14 (93%) sets of serial MRI studies and 10 of the 11 (91%) 18F-FDG-PET scans showed rapid growth (≥ 20% increase in volume per year) and avidity (SUVMax ≥ 3.5) of the identified tumor, respectively (median tumor size 48.7 cm3; median growth rate 92% per year; median SUVMax 6.45). Most surgeries (n = 14, 88%) resulted in no persistent postoperative parent nerve-related complications, and to date, none of the resected tumors have recurred. The median length of postoperative follow-up has been 2.45 years (range 0.00-10.39 years). Histopathological analysis confirmed significantly greater SUVMax among the ANFs (6.51 ± 0.83, p = 0.0042) and low-grade MPNSTs (13.8, p = 0.0001) than in benign neurofibromas (1.9). CONCLUSIONS: This report evaluates the utility of serial imaging (MRI and 18F-FDG-PET SUVMax) to successfully detect ANF and demonstrates that safe, fascicle-sparing gross-total, extracapsular resection of ANF is possible with the use of intraoperative nerve stimulation and microdissection of nerve fascicles.

5.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 246, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plexiform fibromyxoma (PF) is a rare gastric tumor often confused with gastrointestinal stromal tumor. These so-called "benign" tumors often present with upper GI bleeding and gastric outlet obstruction. It was recently demonstrated that approximately one-third of PF have activation of the GLI1 oncogene, a transcription factor in the hedgehog (Hh) pathway, via a MALAT1-GLI1 fusion protein or GLI1 up-regulation. Despite this discovery, the biology of most PFs remains unknown. METHODS: Next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples of PF specimens collected from three institutions (UCSD, NCI and OHSU). Fresh frozen tissue from one tumor was utilized for in vitro assays, including quantitative RT-PCR and cell viability assays following drug treatment. RESULTS: Eight patients with PF were identified and 5 patients' tumors were analyzed by NGS. An index case had a mono-allelic PTCH1 deletion of exons 15-24 and a second case, identified in a validation cohort, also had a PTCH1 gene loss associated with a suspected long-range chromosome 9 deletion. Building on the role of Hh signaling in PF, PTCH1, a tumor suppressor protein, functions upstream of GLI1. Loss of PTCH1 induces GLI1 activation and downstream gene transcription. Utilizing fresh tissue from the index PF case, RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated expression of Hh pathway components, SMO and GLI1, as well as GLI1 transcriptional targets, CCND1 and HHIP. In turn, short-term in vitro treatment with a Hh pathway inhibitor, sonidegib, resulted in dose-dependent cell killing. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we report a novel association between PTCH1 inactivation and the development of plexiform fibromyxoma. Hh pathway inhibition with SMO antagonists may represent a target to study for treating a subset of plexiform fibromyxomas.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(21): 6302-6308, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439578

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Most GIST in children are wild-type for KIT and PDGFRA (WT GIST) and deficient in expression of succinate dehydrogenase (dSDH GIST). We tested the activity of vandetanib, an oral small-molecule inhibitor of VEGFR2, EGFR, and RET, in patients with dSDH GIST. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Phase II study of vandetanib (300 mg orally once daily to patients ≥18 years, and 100 mg/m2/dose to patients < 18 years) on a continuous dosing schedule (1 cycle = 28 days) to assess the clinical activity (partial and complete response rate RECIST v1.1) in patients with dSDH GIST. A Simon optimal two-stage design (target response rate 25%, rule out 5%) was used: If ≥1 of 9 patients in stage 1 responded, enrollment would be expanded to 24 patients, and if ≥3 of 24 responded, vandetanib would be considered active. RESULTS: Nine patients (7 female and 2 male; median age, 24 years; range, 11-52) with metastatic disease were enrolled. Three of the initial 5 adult patients developed treatment-modifying toxicities. After a protocol amendment, two adults received vandetanib at 200 mg/dose with improved tolerability. The two children (<18 years old) enrolled did not experience treatment-modifying toxicities. No partial or complete responses were observed (median number of cycles, 4; range, 2-18). CONCLUSIONS: Vandetanib at a dose of 300 mg daily was not well tolerated by adults with dSDH GIST. Two of 9 patients had prolonged stable disease, but no partial or complete responses were observed, and vandetanib is thus not considered active in dSDH GIST.

7.
Pathol Int ; 69(9): 541-546, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273885

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most important and common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the stomach. GISTs are usually driven by activating mutations in either KIT or PDGFRA genes. It is known that activating gene mutations predicts, to a certain extent, not only the morphology of the tumor cells but also a response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here, we present a case of an epithelioid variant of GIST harboring PDGFRA and MLH1 gene alterations in the stomach of a 55-year-old Japanese woman. The tumor of 98 mm with multiple cysts showed exophytic growth from the gastric fundus. Histopathologically, it consisted of scattered medium-sized epithelioid tumor cells in a loose myxoid background. Based on c-kit and DOG-1 immunoreactivity and a PDGFRA mutation (p.Trp559_Arg560del), the tumor was diagnosed as an epithelioid variant GIST. Interestingly, it had a gene alteration (p.Met524Ile) in the MLH1 gene of unknown pathogenicity. It was assigned to Group 3a (low risk for malignant behavior). After surgery, the patient has been on imatinib therapy and disease-free for 10 months.

8.
Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 53(2): 144-147, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057686

RESUMO

A 36-year-old male patient initially presented with hypertension, tinnitus, bilateral carotid masses, a right jugular foramen, and a periaortic arch mass with an elevated plasma dopamine level but an otherwise normal biochemical profile. On surveillance MRI 4 years after initial presentation, he was found to have a 2.2-cm T2 hyperintense lesion with arterial enhancement adjacent to the gallbladder, which demonstrated avidity on 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT and retrospectively on 18F-FDOPA PET/CT but was non-avid on 18F-FDG PET/CT. Biochemical work-up including plasma catecholamines, metanephrines, and chromogranin A levels were found to be within normal limits. This lesion was surgically resected and was confirmed to be a paraganglioma (PGL) originating from the gallbladder wall on histopathology. Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and PGL are rare tumors of the autonomic nervous system. Succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) pathogenic variants of the succinate dehydrogenase complex are usually involved in parasympathetic, extra-adrenal, multifocal head, and neck PGLs. We report an unusual location of PGL in the gallbladder associated with SDHD mutation which could present as a potential pitfall on 18F-FDOPA PET/CT as its normal excretion occurs through biliary system and gallbladder. This case highlights the superiority of 68Ga-DOTATATE in comparison to 18F-FDOPA and 18F-FDG in the detection of SDHD-related parasympathetic PGL. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00004847.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(5)2019 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083581

RESUMO

Therapeutic options for metastatic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) are limited. Here, we tested an immunotherapeutic approach based on intratumoral injections of mannan-BAM with toll-like receptor ligands into subcutaneous PHEO in a mouse model. This therapy elicited a strong innate immunity-mediated antitumor response and resulted in a significantly lower PHEO volume compared to the phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-treated group and in a significant improvement in mice survival. The cytotoxic effect of neutrophils, as innate immune cells predominantly infiltrating treated tumors, was verified in vitro. Moreover, the combination of mannan-BAM and toll-like receptor ligands with agonistic anti-CD40 was associated with increased mice survival. Subsequent tumor re-challenge also supported adaptive immunity activation, reflected primarily by long-term tumor-specific memory. These results were further verified in metastatic PHEO, where the intratumoral injections of mannan-BAM, toll-like receptor ligands, and anti-CD40 into subcutaneous tumors resulted in significantly less intense bioluminescence signals of liver metastatic lesions induced by tail vein injection compared to the PBS-treated group. Subsequent experiments focusing on the depletion of T cell subpopulations confirmed the crucial role of CD8+ T cells in inhibition of bioluminescence signal intensity of liver metastatic lesions. These data call for a new therapeutic approach in patients with metastatic PHEO/PGL using immunotherapy that initially activates innate immunity followed by an adaptive immune response.

10.
Pharmacol Ther ; 201: 94-102, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128155

RESUMO

Schlafen 11 (SLFN11) sensitizes cells to a broad range of anti-cancer drugs including platinum derivatives (cisplatin and carboplatin), inhibitors of topoisomerases (irinotecan, topotecan, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, mitoxantrone and etoposide), DNA synthesis inhibitors (gemcitabine, cytarabine, hydroxyurea and nucleoside analogues), and poly(ADPribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (olaparib, rucaparib, niraparib and talazoparib). In spite of their different primary mechanisms of action, all these drugs damage DNA during S-phase, activate the intra-S-phase checkpoint and induce replication fork slowing and stalling with single-stranded DNA segments coated with replication protein A. Such situation with abnormal replication forks is known as replication stress. SLFN11 irreversibly blocks replication in cells under replication stress, explaining why SLFN11-positive cells are markedly more efficiently killed by DNA-targeting drugs than SLFN11-negative cells. SLFN11 is inactivated in ~50% of cancer cell lines and in a large fraction of tumors, and is linked with the native immune, interferon and T-cells responses, implying the translational relevance of measuring SLFN11 expression as a predictive biomarker of response and resistance in patients. SLFN11 is also a plausible epigenetic target for reactivation by inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC), DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) and EZH2 histone methyltransferase and for combination of these epigenetic inhibitors with DNA-targeting drugs in cells lacking SLFN11 expression. In addition, resistance due to lack of SLFN11 expression in tumors is a potential indication for cell-cycle checkpoint inhibitors in combination with DNA-targeting therapies.

11.
Mod Pathol ; 32(6): 764-773, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723300

RESUMO

Poorly differentiated neoplasms lacking characteristic histopathologic features represent a significant challenge to the pathologist for diagnostic classification. Classically, NUT carcinoma (previously NUT midline carcinoma) is poorly differentiated but typically exhibits variable degrees of squamous differentiation. Diagnosis is genetically defined by NUTM1 rearrangement, usually with BRD4 as the fusion partner. In this multi-institutional next-generation sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization study, 26 new NUTM1-rearranged neoplasms are reported, including 20 NUT carcinomas, 4 sarcomas, and 2 tumors of an uncertain lineage. NUTM1 fusion partners were available in 24 of 26 cases. BRD4 was the fusion partner in 18/24 (75%) cases, NSD3 in 2/24 cases (8.3%), and BRD3 in 1/24 (4.2%) cases. Two novel fusion partners were identified: MGA in two sarcomas (myxoid spindle cell sarcoma and undifferentiated sarcoma) (2/24 cases 8.3%) and MXD4 in a round cell sarcoma in the cecum (1/24 cases 4.2%). Eleven cases tested for NUT immunoexpression were all positive, including the MGA and MXD4-rearranged tumors. Our results confirm that NUTM1 gene rearrangements are found outside the classic clinicopathological setting of NUT carcinoma. In addition, as novel fusion partners like MGA and MXD4 may not be susceptible to targeted therapy with bromodomain inhibitors, detecting the NUTM1 rearrangement may not be enough, and identifying the specific fusion partner may become necessary. Studies to elucidate the mechanism of tumorigenesis of novel fusion partners are needed.

12.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722027

RESUMO

Background: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a tumor-predisposition disorder caused by germline mutations in NF1. NF1 patients have an 8-16% lifetime risk of developing a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), a highly-aggressive soft-tissue sarcoma, often arising from pre-existing benign plexiform neurofibromas (PN) and atypical neurofibromas (ANF). ANF are distinct from both PN and MPNST, representing an intermediate step in malignant transformation. Methods: In the first comprehensive genomic analysis of ANF originating from multiple patients, we performed tumor/normal whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 16 ANFs. In addition, we conducted WES of three MPNSTs, copy-number meta-analysis of 26 ANFs and 28 MPNSTs, and whole transcriptome sequencing analysis of five ANFs and five MPNSTs. Results: We identified a low number of mutations (median 1, range 0-5) in the exomes of ANFs (only NF1 somatic mutations were recurrent), and frequent deletions of CDKN2A/B (69%) and SMARCA2 (42%). We determined that polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) genes EED or SUZ12 were frequently mutated, deleted or downregulated in MPNSTs but not in ANFs. Our pilot gene expression study revealed upregulated NRAS, MDM2, CCND1/2/3 and CDK4/6 in ANFs and MPNSTs, and overexpression of EZH2 in MPNSTs only. Conclusions: The PN-ANF transition is primarily driven by the deletion of CDKN2A/B. Further progression from ANF to MPNST likely involves broad chromosomal rearrangements and frequent inactivation of the PRC2 genes, loss of the DNA repair genes, and copy-number increase of signal transduction, cell cycle and pluripotency self-renewal genes.

13.
J Med Genet ; 56(6): 370-379, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745422

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a cancer syndrome associated with variants in E-cadherin (CDH1), diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast cancer. There is considerable heterogeneity in its clinical manifestations. This study aimed to determine associations between CDH1 germline variant status and clinical phenotypes of HDGC. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two HDGC families, including six previously unreported families, were identified. CDH1 gene-specific guidelines released by the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) CDH1 Variant Curation Expert Panel were applied for pathogenicity classification of truncating, missense and splice site CDH1 germline variants. We evaluated ORs between location of truncating variants of CDH1 and incidence of colorectal cancer, breast cancer and cancer at young age (gastric cancer at <40 or breast cancer <50 years of age). RESULTS: Frequency of truncating germline CDH1 variants varied across functional domains of the E-cadherin receptor gene and was highest in linker (0.05785 counts/base pair; p=0.0111) and PRE regions (0.10000; p=0.0059). Families with truncating CDH1 germline variants located in the PRE-PRO region were six times more likely to have family members affected by colorectal cancer (OR 6.20, 95% CI 1.79 to 21.48; p=0.004) compared with germline variants in other regions. Variants in the intracellular E-cadherin region were protective for cancer at young age (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.64; p=0.0071) and in the linker regions for breast cancer (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.99; p=0.0493). Different CDH1 genotypes were associated with different intracellular signalling activation levels including different p-ERK, p-mTOR and ß-catenin levels in early submucosal T1a lesions of HDGC families with different CDH1 variants. CONCLUSION: Type and location of CDH1 germline variants may help to identify families at increased risk for concomitant cancers that might benefit from individualised surveillance and intervention strategies.

14.
Mod Pathol ; 32(7): 957-966, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760858

RESUMO

Primary malignant melanoma of esophagus is very rare, and its clinicopathologic and genetic features have not been extensively investigated. In this study, 20 tumors from 14 male and 6 female patients (40-79 years old) were evaluated. Dysphagia, chest pain, and weight loss were frequent symptoms. Thirteen melanomas, including two with multiple lesions, involved the distal third of esophagus. The median tumor diameter was 6 cm. Epithelioid morphology, moderate atypia, and pigmentation were typical findings. None of the patients had melanoma elsewhere, and all tumors exhibited a junctional peri-epithelial component consistent with a primary lesion. The median mitotic activity was 11 per 10 high-power fields (range, 0-31). Nine patients died of tumor within 4-22 months, however, two showed long-term (96 and 104 months) survival. In 15 cases, tissue for further immunohistochemical and molecular studies were available. BRAF, KIT, and NRAS mutation status was assessed by Sanger sequencing in all 15 tumors. The next-generation sequencing of 50 or 409 genes was performed in five and three cases, respectively. IGF1R expression indicating activation of the IGF axis was seen in 82% (9/11) of tumors. However, no BRAF mutations were identified. In 33% (5/15) of tumors, NRAS mutations were detected. KIT expression was seen in 50% (7/14) of melanomas including single KIT mutant. Two of three tumors evaluated with 409 genes panel revealed multiple driver mutations indicating sub-clonal expansion, whereas a single mutation (TSC1 p.H371Q) was the sole change in the third case. SF3B1 p.K666T and p.R625C mutations were detected in two cases. However, no co-occurrence of SF3B1 and GNAQ or GNA11 mutations, seen in uveal melanoma, was detected. FBXW7 p.R465C and p.R479G mutations, linked to cancer progression, were found in two of eight tumors. In summary, esophageal melanoma mutation profile indicates complexity of molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis.

15.
Hum Pathol ; 86: 57-65, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633925

RESUMO

Many sarcomas contain gene fusions that can be pathogenetic mechanisms and diagnostic markers. In this article we review selected fusion sarcomas and techniques for their detection. CIC-DUX4 fusion sarcoma is a round cell tumor now considered an entity separate from Ewing sarcoma with a more aggressive clinical course, occurrence in older age, and predilection to soft tissues. It is composed of larger cells than Ewing sarcoma and often has prominent necrosis. Nuclear DUX4 expression is a promising immuno histochemical marker. BCOR-CCNB3 fusion sarcoma is cyclin B3-positive, usually occurs in bone or soft tissue of children, and may mimic a poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma. EWSR1-NFATC2 sarcoma may present in bone or soft tissue. It is typically composed of small round cells in a trabecular pattern in a myxoid matrix resembling myoepithelioma. ACTB-GLI1 fusion sarcoma may mimic a skin adnexal carcinoma, showing focal expression of epithelial markers and S100 protein. NTRK-fusion sarcomas include, in addition to infantile fibrosarcoma with ETV6-NTRK3 fusion, LMNA-NTRK1 fusion sarcoma, a low-grade spindle cell sarcoma seen in peripheral soft tissues in children and young adults. Methods to detect gene fusions include next-generation sequencing panels, anchored multiplex polymerase chain reaction systems to detect partner for a known fusion gene, and comprehensive RNA sequencing to detect virtually all gene fusions. In situ hybridization testing using probes for both fusion partners can be used as an alternative confirmation technique, especially in the absence of satisfactory RNA yield. In addition, fusion protein-related and other immunohistochemical markers can have a high specificity for fusion sarcomas.


Assuntos
Fusão Oncogênica/fisiologia , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Sarcoma/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Humanos , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia
16.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(1): 145-156, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138550

RESUMO

Melorheostosis is a rare hyperostotic disease of the long bones classically characterized by a "dripping candle-wax" radiographic appearance. We recently described somatic activating mutations in MAP2K1 as a cause of melorheostosis. Here, we report distinguishing characteristics of patients with MAP2K1-positive melorheostosis. Fifteen unrelated patients with radiographic appearance of melorheostosis underwent paired biopsies of affected and unaffected bone for whole-exome sequencing, histology, and cell culture. Eight patients with mutations in MAP2K1 in affected bone were compared to the seven MAP2K1-negative patients to identify distinguishing characteristics. Patients with MAP2K1-positive melorheostosis had a distinct phenotype with classic "dripping candle-wax" appearance on radiographs (p = 0.01), characteristic vascular lesions on skin overlying affected bone (p = 0.01), and higher prevalence of extraosseous mineralization and joint involvement (p = 0.04 for both). Melorheostotic bone from both MAP2K1-positive and MAP2K1-negative patients showed two zones of distinct morphology-an outer segment of parallel layers of primary lamellar bone and a deeper zone of intensely remodeled highly porous osteonal-like bone. Affected bone from MAP2K1-positive patients showed excessive osteoid (p = 0.0012), increased number of osteoblasts (p = 0.012) and osteoclasts (p = 0.04), and increased vascularity on histology in comparison to paired unaffected bone which was not seen in affected bone in most MAP2K1-negative patients. The identification of a distinct phenotype of patients with MAP2K1-positive melorheostosis demonstrates clinical and genetic heterogeneity among patients with the disease. Further studies are needed to better understand the underlying pathophysiology and associated skin findings. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

17.
Hum Pathol ; 86: 66-75, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529752

RESUMO

Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors that express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), a phenomenon that constitutes a basis for tumor imaging and treatment with somatostatin analogues and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of SSTR1-5 in 151 primary tumors, including 14 metastasized and 16 SDHB-deficient tumors. SSTR2 and SSTR3 were most abundantly present in these tumors, whereas the tumors were mostly negative for SSTR1, SSTR4, and SSTR5. All metastasized PGLs (9/9), but only one metastasized PHEO (1/5), were strongly SSTR2 positive. SSTR3 expression was lower in metastatic tumors and tumors with a high proliferation rate (MIB1 ≥ 5%), but tumors had variable individual SSTR profiles. No correlation was found between SDHB status and SSTR expression. Our results suggest that new SSTR analogues with affinity for several SSTRs could be relevant for a subgroup of patients with these tumors. Better knowledge of tumor SSTR profiles could open the door for personalized imaging and treatment in the future. Because SSTR profiles vary in PHEOs and PGLs, individual analysis is required for each tumor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Paraganglioma/metabolismo , Feocromocitoma/metabolismo , Receptores de Somatostatina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/metabolismo , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraganglioma/patologia , Feocromocitoma/patologia , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/patologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 43(4): 489-496, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520817

RESUMO

The spectrum of tumors arising in the salivary glands is wide and has recently been shown to harbor a network of tumor-specific fusion genes. Acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) is one of the more frequently encountered types of salivary gland carcinoma, but it has remained a genetic orphan until recently when a fusion between the HTN3 and MSANTD3 genes was described in one case. Neither of these 2 genes is known to be implicated in any other malignancy. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the HTN3-MSANTD3 fusion is a recurrent genetic event in AciCC and whether it is a characteristic of one of its histological variants. Of the 273 AciCCs screened, 9 cases showed rearrangement of MSANTD3 by break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization, 2 had 1 to 2 extra signals, and 1 had gain, giving a total of 4.4% with MSANTD3 aberrations. In 6 of 7 available cases with MSANTD3 rearrangement, the HTN3-MSANTD3 fusion transcript was demonstrated with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Histologically, all fusion-positive cases were predominantly composed of serous tumor cells growing in solid sheets, with serous tumor cells expressing DOG-1 and the intercalated duct-like cell component being CK7 positive and S-100 positive in 6/9 cases. All but one case arose in the parotid gland, and none of the patients experienced a recurrence during follow-up. In contrast, the case with MSANTD3 gain metastasized to the cervical lymph nodes and lungs. In conclusion, we find the HTN3-MSANTD3 gene fusion to be a recurrent event in AciCC with prominent serous differentiation and an indolent clinical course.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Acinares/genética , Carcinoma de Células Acinares/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Histatinas/genética , Fusão Oncogênica , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 27(1): 54-58, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28777148

RESUMO

A great majority of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are primarily driven by gain-of-function KIT receptor tyrosine kinase mutations that subsequently lead to activation of phosphatidiylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, a downstream effector of KIT signaling. KIT tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib mesylate, has been successfully used for the treatment of primary, advanced, and disseminated GISTs. Recently, activation of mTOR pathway independent of KIT signaling was demonstrated in imatinib mesylate naïve malignant GISTs and treatment-resistant metastatic tumors. This activation was attributed to oncogenic mutations in PIK3CA encoding PI3K 110α subunit, or to the inactivation of PTEN tumor suppressor, a potent mTOR negative regulator. In this study, mTOR pathway genes were evaluated in 14 imatinib mesylate naïve, KIT-mutant, malignant small intestinal GISTs using next-generation sequencing. Mutations were detected in 3 (21%) of 14 analyzed tumors: (1) c.3200A>T substitution in PIK3CB encoding PI3K 110ß subunit, (2) c.1040A>G substitution in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC2) encoding tuberin, mTOR down-regulator (3) c.6625C>G substitution in mTOR. At the protein level, these changes were predicted to cause, respectively, PIK3CB p.D1067V, TSC2 p.K347R, and mTOR p.L2209V mutations. Previously reported "in vitro" experiments with mouse 3T3 fibroblasts demonstrated oncogenic potential of PIK3CB p.D1067V and mTOR p.L2209V mutants; whereas, PolyPhen-2 software analysis predicted TSC2 p.K347R mutation to likely have a damaging impact on tuberin function. The results of this and previous studies indicate diversity of genetic changes leading to activation of PI3K-AKT-TSC-mTOR pathway in malignant GISTs. Extensive genotyping of the genes involved in mTOR pathway demonstrates common alterations that need to be considered in targeted treatment.

20.
Neuro Oncol ; 20(6): 818-825, 2018 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409029

RESUMO

Background: Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) leads to the development of benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). MPNST have been described to develop in preexisting benign plexiform neurofibromas (PN) and have a poor prognosis. Atypical neurofibromas (ANF) were recently described as precursor lesions for MPNST, making early detection and management of ANF a possible strategy to prevent MPNST. We aimed to clinically characterize ANF and identify management approaches. Methods: We analyzed clinical, imaging, and pathology findings of all patients with NF1 and ANF at 3 institutions. Results: Sixty-three patients had 76 ANF (32M/31F; median age 27.1 y). On MRI, most ANF appeared as distinct nodular lesions and were 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid. Forty-six ANF were associated with pain, 19 with motor weakness, 45 were palpable or visible, and 13 had no clinical signs. Completely resected ANF (N = 57) have not recurred (median follow-up, 4.1 y; range, 0-14 y). Four ANF transformed into MPNST and 17 patients had a history of MPNST in a different location than was their ANF. Conclusions: Growth of distinct nodular lesions, pain, and FDG-PET avidity should raise concern for ANF in NF1. Patients with ANF are at greater risk for development of MPNST. Complete resection of ANF may prevent development of MPNST.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neurofibroma/patologia , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia , Neurofibrossarcoma/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurofibroma/complicações , Neurofibroma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurofibromatose 1/etiologia , Neurofibrossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurofibrossarcoma/etiologia , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA