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1.
Hum Genomics ; 15(1): 6, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509297

RESUMO

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare chronic progressive liver disease with autoimmune features. It mainly affects middle-aged women. AIH is occasionally complicated with liver cirrhosis that worsens the prognosis. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of AIH. Genetic studies of other diseases have been revealing of pathogenesis and drug efficacy. In this review, we summarize the genetic risk factors for AIH, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) on European AIH revealed the strongest associations to be with single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in HLA. Predisposing alleles for AIH were DRB1*03:01 and DRB1*04:01 in Europeans; DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:05, and DRB1*13:01 in Latin Americans; and DRB1*04:01 and DRB1*04:05 in Japanese. Other risk SNVs in non-HLA genes for AIH were found by a candidate gene approach, but several SNVs were confirmed in replication studies. Some genetic factors of AIH overlapped with those of other autoimmune diseases. Larger-scale GWASs of other ethnic groups are required. The results of genetic studies might provide an explanation for the phenotypic heterogeneity of AIH and biomarkers for drug responses.

2.
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 117(12): 1100-1108, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298676

RESUMO

A 57-year-old man had been detected to have an elevated transaminase level. He had a history of alcohol consumption, and abdominal ultrasonography revealed an increase in the echogenicity of the liver;hence, he was diagnosed as having alcoholic liver disease. He restricted his alcohol intake, but the elevated transaminase level did not improve. Further medical examination was performed. He was found to have hyperferritinemia (serum ferritin, 6574ng/mL) and high transferrin saturation (TSAT, 90.5%). Computed tomography (CT) revealed high CT values of the liver and spleen (94 and 84HU, respectively). These findings differed from the characteristics of a typical alcoholic liver disease. Liver biopsy revealed iron deposition within the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells and liver fibrosis (F1-2). From the gene analysis of HFE, HJV, TFR2, HAMP, and SLC40A1 genes, he was heterozygous for the G>A (G490D) mutation in the ferroportin gene (SLC40A1). He was diagnosed as having ferroportin disease. It was reported that patients with a G490D mutation exhibited ferroportin disease A, which occurs owing to a loss-of-function mutation of SLC40A1. However, he was considered to have some characteristics of ferroportin disease B, which occurs owing to a gain-of-function mutation of SLC40A1. In this case, alcohol consumption might affect the progression of iron deposition in the liver. Therapeutic venesection was performed, and his hyperferritinemia with high TSAT gradually improved. In the course of the disease, other organ damages and progression of liver fibrosis did not occur.

3.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 127(5): 49-52, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The modification and pathogenesis of MEFV exon 2 or 3 variants in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) remains unclear. We compared the clinical and laboratory characteristics between the coexistence and noncoexistence of MEFV exon 2 or 3 variants in patients with FMF that had a heterozygous MEFV exon 10 mutation. METHODS: We excluded patients with FMF that had two MEFV exon 10 mutations in one or more alleles and/or MEFV mutations in exons other than in exons 2, 3, or 10. Finally, we reviewed 131 Japanese patients with FMF that had a heterozygous MEFV exon 10 mutation, and they were divided into the groups with and without MEFV exon 2 or 3 variants of 97 and 34, respectively. RESULTS: All patients with MEFV exon 2 variants had either E148Q and/or L110P variants, none of patients had exon 3 variants. In the univariate analysis, the group with variants had significantly earlier onset, a higher percentage of thoracic pain with febrile attacks, a higher frequency of attack, and a higher IL-18 level at remission compared to the group without variants (all, p<0.05). Importantly, multivariate analyses showed that the coexistence of MEFV exon 2 variants was independently and significantly associated with earlier onset of FMF and thoracic pain (both, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that coexistence of MEFV exon 2 variants have additional effects on manifestations of FMF with MEFV exon 10 mutations. Our findings highlighted the modifications and pathogenesis of such MEFV variants in FMF.


Assuntos
Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo , Inflamassomos , Éxons , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/diagnóstico , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/genética , Humanos , Japão , Mutação , Pirina/genética
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0238540, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a disorder of unknown etiology in which immune-mediated liver injury progress to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of the present study was to determine whether circulating soluble TIM3 (sTIM3) is elevated in patients with AIH patients and whether sTIM-3 levels are associated with clinical parameters of AIH. METHODS: We enrolled 123 Japanese patients with AIH who were identified from the National Hospital Organization-AIH-liver-network database, as well as 32 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), 30 patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and healthy control subjects. Serum sTIM-3 concentrations were quantified by ELISA. RESULTS: Serum levels of sTIM-3 were significantly higher in AIH patients (median 4865 pg/ml; [interquartile range (IQR); 3122-7471]) compared to those in CHC (1026 pg/ml [IQR: 806-1283] p<0.001), PBC (2395 pg/ml [IQR: 2012-3422] p<0.001) or healthy controls (1285 pg/ml [IQR: 1098-1812] p<0.001). In AIH group, serum sTIM-3 were correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT), or total bilirubin (TB) and negatively correlated with serum levels of albumin (Alb). Serum levels of sTIM-3 were also strongly correlated with Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) levels, but did not correlate with the histological grade of liver fibrosis. Steroid treatment of AIH patients significantly reduced serum sTIM-3 levels (2147±623pg/ml versus 1321±378pg/ml, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating sTIM-3 levels were elevated in AIH patients and are associated with AIH disease activity and AIH-related liver damage. These findings indicate that serum sTIM-3 correlated with disease status of AIH and could be useful biomarkers to detect autoimmune-mediated liver injury. Our data suggest a possible link between the TIM-3/GAL-9 pathway and AIH severity or phenotype, and further investigations of the TIM-3 pathway and AIH pathophysiology is warranted.


Assuntos
Galectina 3/metabolismo , Hepatite Autoimune/imunologia , Hepatite Autoimune/metabolismo , Domínios de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Mucina-3/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/imunologia , Albuminas/metabolismo , Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicosilação , Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite C Crônica/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
5.
Fukushima J Med Sci ; 66(3): 160-166, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162488

RESUMO

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is caused by dysfunction of the MEFV gene product, pyrin. Here we report a case of FMF phenotype which developed into rheumatoid arthritis (RA), based on a positive result for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody (Ab). A 42-year-old woman presented to our clinic with more than 6 months of intermittent arthralgia in the wrists, feet, and fingers associated with menstruation. No fever was reported and there was no family history of FMF or other autoimmune diseases. Laboratory tests revealed elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RF). Tests for autoantibodies including anti-CCP Ab, antinuclear Ab, and anti-DNA Ab were all negative. Genetic analysis identified an R304R homozygous mutation in MEFV; however, the pathological significance is unclear because this mutation does not cause amino acid substitution. We diagnosed incomplete FMF phenotype despite the lack of fever due to periodic arthritis, lack of autoantibodies, and complete resolution of arthritis following colchicine treatment within a day. Several months later, increased stiffness and arthralgia persistently occurred in finger joints on both sides. Ultrasonography revealed synovitis at the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints. Laboratory analysis revealed the patient to be positive for anti-CCP Ab. Therefore, we finally diagnosed RA. Her arthritis diminished following administration of methotrexate and salazosulfapyridine. We consider the possibility that pyrin dysfunction may have affected the acquired immunity, contributing to the onset of RA as an autoimmune disease. This is an interesting case of equivalent FMF progressing into RA and will be valuable to raise awareness of a continuum from autoinflammatory to autoimmune disease.

6.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (TIM-3) is implicated in the development of various autoimmune diseases. We aimed to investigate the levels of soluble TIM-3 (sTIM-3) and their associations between clinical parameters in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 65 patients with SLE and 35 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). The SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) damage index (SDI) were used to assess SLE disease activity and SLE-related organ damage. British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG)-2004 index was also used to assess SLE disease activity. Soluble TIM-3 (sTIM-3) in sera from patients with SLE and HCs were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results were compared with the clinical parameters of SLE including SLE disease activity. RESULTS: Serum sTIM-3 levels in patients with SLE (median 2123 pg/mL (interquartile range (IQR), 229-7235)) were significantly higher than those in HCs (1363 pg/mL; IQR, 1097-1673; p = 0.0015). Serum levels of sTIM-3 were correlated with disease activity of SLE using the SLEDAI-2K score (p < 0.001, r = 0.53). The serum sTIM-3 levels in SLE patients with active renal disease (BILAG renal index A-B) were significantly higher than those without the active renal disease (BILAG renal index C-E). However, no significant difference was observed in serum sTIM-3 levels between SLE patients with and without active involvement in other organs (BILAG index). Serum sTIM-3 levels were significantly elevated in SLE patients with organ damage (2710 pg/mL; IQR, 256-7235) compared to those without organ damage (1532 pg/mL; IQR, 228-5274), as assessed by the SDI (p = 0.0102). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating sTIM-3 levels are elevated in SLE patients, and serum sTIM-3 levels are associated with SLE disease activity and SLE-related organ damage. The data indicate a possible link between the TIM-3/Gal-9 pathway and SLE clinical phenotypes, and further investigation of the TIM-3 pathway in SLE pathophysiology is warranted.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22892, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126340

RESUMO

T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) is a surface molecule expressed on immune cells which play a role in immune regulation. The aims of the present study were to determine whether circulating soluble T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin-3 (sTIM-3) are elevated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and investigate the relationships between sTIM-3 and clinical features of RA.The study included 116 patients with established RA and 27 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of sTIM-3 were measured via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Correlations between serum sTIM-3 and a range of parameters including anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) titer, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) were assessed.Serum sTIM-3 was significantly elevated in RA patients compared with those in healthy subjects, and it was positively correlated with ACPA titer (r = 0.27 P = .005), ESR (r = 0.27, P = .004) and MMP-3 (r = 0.35, P < .001). In RA patients with high ACPA titers (≥200 U/mL), sTIM-3 was not correlated with ESR or MMP-3. Whereas, sTIM-3 was significantly correlated with ESR and MMP-3 in RA patients with low ACPA titers (<200 U/mL).Serum sTIM-3 was increased in RA patients, and it was associated with proinflammatory markers and disease activity in RA patients under a particular ACPA status. Our data suggest that circulating sTIM-3 may be a useful biomarker for the determination of disease activity in RA patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Proteína Citrulinada/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Correlação de Dados , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Articulações/imunologia , Articulações/patologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Imunológica/métodos , Gravidade do Paciente
8.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the whole nucleotide sequence of the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and reveal novel single nucleotide variants (SNVs) associated with the susceptibility of FMF. METHODS: SeqCap capturing technique followed by Illumina next-generation sequencing have been used to assess two hundred SNVs in the whole region of MEFV in 266 Japanese patients with FMF and 288 ethnically matched controls. We performed an association analysis using these SNVs to identify genetic variants that predispose to FMF. RESULTS: We identified the two most significant SNVs [rs28940578; M694I in exon 10, odds ratio (OR) = 153, p=2.47×10-21 and rs3743930; E148Q in exon 2, OR = 1.65, p<0.0005]. Stratified analysis identified rs28940578 as a risk allele in typical FMF. Haplotype AG, defined by rs401298 and rs28940578, was the most significant and prevalent among patients with typical FMF compared with controls (22.4% vs. 0%, respectively; OR = 137, p=1.44×10-31). Haplotype GTC, defined by rs11466018, rs224231, and rs401877, was the most significant among patients with typical FMF without the rs28940578 mutation compared with controls (15.9% vs. 6%, respectively; OR = 12.4, p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: rs28940578 is associated with the highest risk in typical FMF cases. This is consistent with results from previous studies in Japan. We found a novel MEFV gene haplotype that confers susceptibility of FMF among typical FMF without the rs28940578 mutation. There were no relevant SNVs identified in MEFV among the atypical FMF group.

9.
Case Rep Rheumatol ; 2020: 8872774, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014503

RESUMO

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is associated with not only sicca symptoms but also various symptoms caused by extraglandular manifestation. The pathophysiology and comorbidities of TAFRO syndrome (thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis, and organomegaly), which is thought to be a variant of multicentric Castleman's disease, are not fully understood, and there are few data on the effectiveness of treatments. We report a patient of SS with TAFRO syndrome-like clinical features. A 52-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal distension. Laboratory data showed thrombocytopenia, and image findings showed massive ascites without evidence of malignant disease as confirmed by cytology. She was diagnosed with SS based on dysfunction of salivary secretion and positivity for anti-Ro/SS-A and La/SS-B antibodies, accompanied by clinical features of TAFRO syndrome based on the presence of anasarca and thrombocytopenia. High-dose corticosteroid for inflammation, anasarca, and thrombocytopenia was not effective. Cyclosporine was administered next, but anasarca and thrombocytopenia did not immediately improve until tolvaptan and eltrombopag were added. Although tolvaptan and eltrombopag were used for only a few months, the patient maintained a good condition with cyclosporine and low-dose prednisolone. In SS patients, activation of antigen-specific T lymphocytes is thought to be an important trigger that accelerates the immune response and is followed by hypercytokinemia. Therefore, using cyclosporine to suppress the activity of T lymphocytes is a reasonable treatment for SS accompanied with TAFRO syndrome-like pathophysiology. It might also be useful to administer tolvaptan or eltrombopag before the effects of immunosuppressants appear. If refractory inflammation with anasarca, thrombocytopenia, or lymphadenopathy is observed in an SS patient, complications with TAFRO syndrome-like pathophysiology should be considered.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13562, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782316

RESUMO

NLRP3, an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, recognizes numerous pathogens and/or its own damage-associated molecules, and forms complexes with the adaptor protein ASC. These complexes constitute the NLRP3 inflammasome, a platform for processing interleukin (IL)-1ß and/or IL-18. Several NLRP3 mutations result in constitutive activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, causing cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS). To the best of our knowledge, small compounds that specifically inhibit inflammasome activation through the pyrin domain (PYD) have not yet been developed. This study describes an attempt to develop small compounds targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome. A core chemical library of 9,600 chemicals was screened against reconstituted NLRP3 inflammasome in a cell-free system with an amplified luminescence proximity homogeneous assay and a cell-based assay by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Inflammasome activation was evaluated by ASC-speck formation in human PBMCs, accompanied by IL-1ß secretion and processing, and by using IL-1ß-based dual operating luciferase (IDOL) mice. The activity of these compounds was evaluated clinically using PBMCs from a patient with Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), a type of CAPS, with an R260W mutation in NLRP3. Screening identified KN3014, a piperidine-containing compound targeting the interaction between NLRP3 and ASC through the PYD. KN3014 reduced ASC-speck formation in human PBMCs, luminescence from IDOL mice, and auto-secretion of IL-1ß by PBMCs from the patient with MWS. These findings suggest that KN3014 may be an attractive candidate for treatment of MWS, as well as other NLRP3 inflammasomopathies.

11.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(11): 3553-3562, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Susceptibility genes that can account for characteristic features of SSc such as fibrosis, vasculopathy and autoimmunity remain to be determined. In mice, deficiency of Friend leukaemia integration 1 transcription factor (Fli1) causes SSc-like disease with these features. The human FLI1 gene contains (GA)n microsatellite, which has been shown to be associated with expression level. Because microsatellite polymorphisms are difficult to capture by genome-wide association studies, we directly genotyped FLI1 (GA)n microsatellite and examined its association with SSc. METHODS: Genomic DNA from 639 Japanese SSc patients and 851 healthy controls was genotyped for (GA)n microsatellite using the fragment assay. The cut-off repeat number for susceptibility to SSc was determined by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Association with susceptibility and clinical characteristics was examined using logistic regression analysis. FLI1 mRNA levels were determined using quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: Based on the ROC analysis, (GA)n alleles with ≥22 repeats were collectively defined as L alleles and alleles with ≤21 repeats as S alleles. (GA)n L alleles were significantly associated with susceptibility to SSc (P = 5.0e-04, odds ratio 1.34, additive model). Significant association was observed both in diffuse cutaneous and limited cutaneous SSc. Among the SSc, (GA)n L alleles were significantly enriched in the patients with a modified Rodnan total skin thickness score ≥10 compared with those with a score <10. FLI1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in healthy controls carrying (GA)n L alleles as compared with non-carriers. CONCLUSION: Extended repeat alleles of FLI1 (GA)n microsatellite may be associated with lower FLI1 mRNA levels and susceptibility to human SSc.

12.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 251(3): 161-168, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641642

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is distinguished by the infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in a variety of tissues and organs including the pancreas, salivary glands, retroperitoneal lesions, kidney, and lymph nodes with elevated serum IgG4 levels. Even so, central nervous system (CNS) lesions such as brain parenchymal lesions associated with IgG4-RD are scarce. So far, only six cases of IgG4-RD in relation with brain parenchymal lesions have been described, with its characteristics still being not clear. Here we have detailed a case of IgG4-RD with brain parenchymal lesions and reviewed previously-reported cases of IgG4-RD with brain parenchymal lesions. A 62-year-old Japanese male suffering from lung silicosis was admitted to our hospital for abdominal discomfort and altered consciousness. He has shown no major neurologic abnormalities except for drowsiness, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. Brain magnetic resonance imaging has shown scattered hyperintense signals in the brain parenchyma. The serum IgG4 levels were elevated and systemic lymph nodes were enlarged. Biopsy from inguinal lymph nodes has shown massive infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells: the ratio of IgG4-positive/IgG-positive plasma cells was nearly 100%. Based on clinical courses, images, laboratory data, and pathological findings, a diagnosis of IgG4-RD that was complicated by brain parenchymal lesions and sacral nerve disturbance was confirmed. The patient was then given methylprednisolone pulse therapy (1g for 3 days) succeeding oral prednisolone (1 mg per body weight). The clinical and radiological improvements together with steroid therapy proposed IgG4-RD to be the cause of the lesions.

13.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 174, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interaction between galectin-9 (Gal-9) and its ligand, T cell immunoglobulin, and mucin-containing-molecule-3 (TIM-3), one of the coinhibitory receptors, transduce the inhibitory signaling to regulate immune responses. The dysregulated expression of checkpoint molecules has been reported under various inflammatory or autoimmune conditions. The aim of this study is to investigate the levels of these checkpoint molecules and their associations between proinflammatory markers in patients with adult Still's disease (ASD). METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 47 patients with active ASD, 116 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 37 healthy controls (HCs). Serum levels of Gal-9, soluble TIM-3 (sTIM-3), and IL-18 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results were compared with the clinical features of ASD. RESULTS: Serum Gal-9 levels in patients with ASD (median: 21.57 ng/ml, interquartile range IQR [11.41-39.72]) were significantly higher compared to those in patients with RA (7.58 ng/ml, IQR [5.57-10.20] p < 0.001) as well as those in HCs (4.51 ng/ml, [IQR; 3.58-5.45], p < 0.001). Similarly, serum sTIM-3 levels in patients with ASD were significantly higher than those in patients with RA and HCs. Serum levels of Gal-9 or sTIM-3 showed positive correlations with IL-18 levels (Gal-9; r = 0.90, p < 0.001, sTIM-3; r = 0.78, p < 0.001) in patients with ASD. Serum levels of Gal-9 or sTIM-3 correlated with serum ferritin (Gal-9; r = 0.77, p < 0.001, sTIM-3; r = 0.71, p < 0.001) and ASD disease activity score (Pouchot's score, Gal-9; r = 0.66, p < 0.001, sTIM-3; r = 0.59, p < 0.001), whereas there was no significant correlation between serum Gal-9 or sTIM-3 and CRP. ASD patients with chronic arthritis phenotype had a significantly higher Gal-9/ferritin and sTIM-3/ferritin ratio than those without this phenotype. After immunosuppressive treatment, Gal-9 and sTIM-3 levels showed a significant decline in parallel to the disease activity scores. CONCLUSIONS: Serum levels of the coinhibitory checkpoint molecules were elevated and correlated with disease activity in patients with ASD. These coinhibitory checkpoint molecules may be implicated in the autoinflammatory process seen in ASD.

14.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-6, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To make an accurate diagnosis of systemic autoinflammatory diseases (SAIDs), clinical and genetic analyses were performed in patients with unexplained fever. METHODS: The clinical phenotype and genomic variants of 11 genes responsible for SAIDs were analyzed in 179 Japanese patients with unexplained fever. Genetic analysis was performed by next generation sequencing (NGS) on exons including exon-intron boundaries. RESULTS: Three cases met the diagnostic criteria for SAIDs other than familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Considering 176 patients with unexplained fever, 43 cases (24.0%) were clinically diagnosed as FMF. Gene variants were found in 53 cases (30.1%) when searching for variants in the 10 disease genes other than the MEFV gene. Among them, the most frequently-identified genes were NLRP3, NOD2, NLRP12, NLRC4, and PLCG2, which accounted for 14, 7, 17, 7, and 6 cases, respectively. These variants were less than 1% of healthy individuals or novel variants, but not regarded as pathogenic since the patients did not meet the diagnostic criteria of SAIDs caused by their identified variants clinically. CONCLUSION: Twenty four percent of Japanese patients with unexplained fever were clinically diagnosed as FMF in this study. Low frequency but not pathogenic variants in genes other than MEFV were identified in 30.1% of the cases. It is not clear how much these gene variants contribute to the inflammatory phenotypes; therefore, further analysis would uncover their autoinflammatory phenotypes that cause fever.

15.
BMC Immunol ; 21(1): 35, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innate immune cells play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) via release of cytokines. Small-molecule inhibitors of Janus kinases (JAKi) are clinically efficacious in patients with RA. However, the isoform-specific action of each JAKi is difficult to assess, since JAKs form heterodimeric complexes with cytokine receptors. We assessed the effects of several JAKi on GM-CSF-primed human innate immune cells. RESULTS: Treatment with JAKi (tofacitinib, baricitinib, upadacitinib) prevented GM-CSF-induced JAK2/STAT5 phosphorylation at higher concentrations (400 nM) in THP-1 cells. Whereas compared with baricitinib or upadacitinib, the inhibitory effects of tofacitinib on the GM-CSF-induced JAK2/STAT5 phosphorylation were weak at lower concentrations (≤ 100 nM). All JAKi inhibited GM-CSF-induced IL-1ß production by human neutrophils. However, the inhibitory effects of baricitinib on IL-1ß production were larger compared to those of tofacitinib or upadacitinib at lower concentrations (≤ 100 nM). Similarly, all JAKi inhibited GM-CSF-induced caspase-1(p20) production by human neutrophils. CONCLUSION: We conclude that incubation with JAKi prevents GM-CSF-mediated JAK2/STAT5 activation in human innate immune cells. Although baricitinib and upadacitinib almost completely blocked GM-CSF-mediated JAK2/STAT5 signaling, the inhibitory effects of tofacitinib were weaker at lower concentrations suggesting that variation exists among these JAKi in the inhibition of JAK2 signaling pathways.

16.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(5): 724-738, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363322

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in European and East Asian populations have identified more than 40 disease-susceptibility genes in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). The aim of this study is to computationally identify disease pathways, upstream regulators, and therapeutic targets in PBC through integrated GWAS and messenger RNA (mRNA) microarray analysis. Disease pathways and upstream regulators were analyzed with ingenuity pathway analysis in data set 1 for GWASs (1,920 patients with PBC and 1,770 controls), which included 261 annotated genes derived from 6,760 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (P < 0.00001), and data set 2 for mRNA microarray analysis of liver biopsy specimens (36 patients with PBC and 5 normal controls), which included 1,574 genes with fold change >2 versus controls (P < 0.05). Hierarchical cluster analysis and categorization of cell type-specific genes were performed for data set 2. There were 27 genes, 10 pathways, and 149 upstream regulators that overlapped between data sets 1 and 2. All 10 pathways were immune-related. The most significant common upstream regulators associated with PBC disease susceptibility identified were interferon-gamma (IFNG) and CD40 ligand (CD40L). Hierarchical cluster analysis of data set 2 revealed two distinct groups of patients with PBC by disease activity. The most significant upstream regulators associated with disease activity were IFNG and CD40L. Several molecules expressed in B cells, T cells, Kupffer cells, and natural killer-like cells were identified as potential therapeutic targets in PBC with reference to a recently reported list of cell type-specific gene expression in the liver. Conclusion: Our integrated analysis using GWAS and mRNA microarray data sets predicted that IFNG and CD40L are the central upstream regulators in both disease susceptibility and activity of PBC and identified potential downstream therapeutic targets.

17.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 108, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify potential biomarkers to distinguish adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) from sepsis. METHOD: We recruited 70 patients diagnosed with AOSD according to the Yamaguchi criteria, 22 patients with sepsis, and 118 age-matched controls. Serum levels of 40 cytokines were analyzed using multi-suspension cytokine array. We performed a cluster analysis of each cytokine in the AOSD and sepsis groups in order to identify specific molecular networks. Further, multivariate classification (random forest analysis) and logistic regression analysis were used to rank the cytokines by their importance and determine specific biomarkers for distinguishing AOSD from sepsis. RESULTS: Seventeen of the 40 cytokines were found to be suitable for further analyses. The serum levels of eleven were significantly higher in patients with AOSD than healthy controls. Levels of serum fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and interleukin (IL)-18 were significantly elevated in patients with AOSD compared with those with sepsis, and cytokine clustering patterns differed between these two groups. Multivariate classification followed by logistic regression analysis revealed that measurement of both FGF-2 and IL-18 could distinguish AOSD from sepsis with high accuracy (cutoff value for FGF-2 = 36 pg/mL; IL-18 = 543 pg/mL, sensitivity 100%, specificity 72.2%, accuracy 93.8%). CONCLUSION: Determination of FGF-2 and IL-18 levels in combination may represent a biomarker for the differential diagnosis of AOSD from sepsis, based on the measurement of multiple cytokines.

18.
Intern Med ; 59(10): 1315-1321, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418955

RESUMO

We herein report a patient with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) who had been stable for years but suddenly developed thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). The patient showed a clinical pentad of signs of TTP, low activity of ADAMTS13, and positivity of anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies. She did not respond to plasma exchange or steroid therapy and died five days after admission. An autopsy revealed microthrombi in the brain, heart, kidney, adrenal glands, esophageal submucosa, and bone marrow as well as diffuse alveolar hemorrhaging. Physicians should bear in mind that TTP can occur in MCTD patients regardless of disease activity.


Assuntos
Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo/complicações , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/complicações , Proteína ADAMTS13/imunologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autopsia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Troca Plasmática , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/diagnóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/imunologia
19.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 80, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is involved in the regulatory process of immune responses or inflammation. The aim of the present study is to characterize circulating Gal-9 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its relationship with RA disease activity and phenotype. METHODS: A total of 116 RA patients and 31 age-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Disease activity of RA patients was determined by Disease Activity Score of 28 joint scoring system (DAS28-ESR). Levels of Gal-9 in serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Serum levels of Gal-9 were significantly higher in patients with RA compared to those in controls (median 7577 pg/ml [interquartile range (IQR) 5570-10,201] versus 4738 pg/ml [IQR 4267-5630], p = 0.001). There were significant differences in serum Gal-9 between RA patients with and without RA-ILD (9606 pg/ml [IQR 8522-12,167] versus 7078 pg/ml [IQR 5225-9447], p < 0.001) or those with and without advanced joint damage (stage II-IV, 9606 pg/ml [IQR 8522-12,167] versus 7078 pg/ml [IQR 5225-9447], p < 0.001). Although serum levels of Gal-9 correlated with the titers of ACPA (r = 0.275, p = 0.002), levels of ACPA titers conferred the different relationship, between serum Gal-9 and inflammatory mediators or RA disease activity. Although Gal-9 was correlated with ACPA titers (r = 0.508, p = 0.002), there was no correlation between Gal-9 levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), or DAS28-ESR in RA patients with high titers of ACPA (> 200 U/ml). Conversely, Gal-9 was correlated with MMP-3 (r = 0.300, p = 0.007) or DAS28-ESR (r = 0.331, p = 0.004) but not with ACPA titer in RA patients with low titers of ACPA titers (< 200 U/ml). CONCLUSIONS: Serum levels of Gal-9 were increased in RA patients and associated with RA disease activity in RA patients without high titers of ACPA. The levels of ACPA titers may influence the values of circulating Gal-9 in RA patients with various clinical phenotypes. These data suggest that Gal-9 possessed the properties of pro-inflammatory or arthropathic biomarker under the status of ACPA titers.

20.
Fukushima J Med Sci ; 66(1): 1-9, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173681

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects multiple organs, including the central nervous system. Neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) is a severe and potentially fatal condition. Several factors including autoantibodies have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NPSLE. However, definitive biomarkers of NPSLE are yet to be identified owing to the complexity of this disease. This is a major barrier to accurate and timely diagnosis of NPSLE. Studies have identified several autoantibodies associated with NPSLE;some of these autoantibodies are well investigated and regarded as symptom-specific. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the manifestations and pathogenesis of NPSLE. In addition, we describe representative symptom-specific autoantibodies that are considered to be closely associated with the pathogenesis of NPSLE.

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