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2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(1): 135-181, July 2019. tabela, gráfico
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1022874

RESUMO

In accordance with the "Standards for the Elaboration of Guidelines, Positions and Normations" sanctioned by the Brazilian Society of Cardiology, this document was written to update the "Echocardiography Indication Guidelines" of 2009. The new document is not intended to be a comprehensive review of echocardiography, but rather an indispensable basic guide to support the rational clinical decision-making of the physician requesting the exam for adult patients. Although it considers the recent technological advances of echocardiography, its purpose is not to describe in detail echocardiography methods, but to summarize in a clear and concise way the main situations in which echocardiography brings benefit to the diagnosis and/or therapeutic orientation of the individual. This manuscript chose to highlight the class of recommendation, as described below: Class I: conditions for which there is conclusive evidence or, in the absence thereof, general agreement that the examination procedure is useful and safe. Class II: conditions for which there is conflicting evidence and/or divergence of opinion on the utility and/or safety of the examination. Class-IIa: evidence or opinions favorable to the examination. Most experts approve. Class IIb: utility and/or safety less well established, with divergent opinions. Class III: conditions for which there is evidence or consensus that the examination is not useful and, in some cases, may even be harmful. In addition, the level of evidence was also described, as follows: A: several concordant randomized clinical trials or robust meta-analyses; B: less robust meta-analysis data or single randomized clinical study or observational studies; C: expert opinion.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ecocardiografia , Guia de Prática Clínica
3.
J Electrocardiol ; 52: 11-16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential for thromboembolism in atrial flutter (AFL) is different from atrial fibrillation. AFL cycle length (AFL-CL) may be related to reduced left atrial appendage (LAA) function. Very rapid AFL-CL can lead to mechanical and electrophysiological disorders that contribute to lower LAA emptying velocity (LAEV). The aim of this study is to relate atrial flutter cycle length with LAEV and its role in thrombogenesis. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of patients with atrial flutter AFL who underwent transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) before catheter ablation or electric cardioversion. AFL-CL in milliseconds was measured with a 12-lead EKG or in intracardiac records. RESULTS: We included 123 patients. There was correlation between AFL-CL and LAEV (r = 0.34; p = 0.003) in typical AFL. Cycle length, LA size and atypical flutter were predictors of low LAEV on multivariate analysis. An index multiplying atrial rate (bpm) during the arrhythmia versus left atrial size(mm) >11,728 was associated with spontaneous echogenic contrast and/or left atrial thrombus on TEE (C-statistic = 0.71; CI95%0.60-0.81). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant relationship between the AFL-CL and LAEV. The LAEV was affected by the LA size, the type of atrial flutter and the AFL-CL. A new index, relating the atrial rate with the left atrial size, was able to identify a higher occurrence of spontaneous echogenic contrast and/or left atrial thrombus.

4.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 16(1): 20, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness trial "Stress echo (SE) 2020" evaluates novel applications of SE in and beyond coronary artery disease. The core protocol also includes 4-site simplified scan of B-lines by lung ultrasound, useful to assess pulmonary congestion. PURPOSE: To provide web-based upstream quality control and harmonization of B-lines reading criteria. METHODS: 60 readers (all previously accredited for regional wall motion, 53 B-lines naive) from 52 centers of 16 countries of SE 2020 network read a set of 20 lung ultrasound video-clips selected by the Pisa lab serving as reference standard, after taking an obligatory web-based learning 2-h module ( http://se2020.altervista.org ). Each test clip was scored for B-lines from 0 (black lung, A-lines, no B-lines) to 10 (white lung, coalescing B-lines). The diagnostic gold standard was the concordant assessment of two experienced readers of the Pisa lab. The answer of the reader was considered correct if concordant with reference standard reading ±1 (for instance, reference standard reading of 5 B-lines; correct answer 4, 5, or 6). The a priori determined pass threshold was 18/20 (≥ 90%) with R value (intra-class correlation coefficient) between reference standard and recruiting center) > 0.90. Inter-observer agreement was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficient statistics. RESULTS: All 60 readers were successfully accredited: 26 (43%) on first, 24 (40%) on second, and 10 (17%) on third attempt. The average diagnostic accuracy of the 60 accredited readers was 95%, with R value of 0.95 compared to reference standard reading. The 53 B-lines naive scored similarly to the 7 B-lines expert on first attempt (90 versus 95%, p = NS). Compared to the step-1 of quality control for regional wall motion abnormalities, the mean reading time per attempt was shorter (17 ± 3 vs 29 ± 12 min, p < .01), the first attempt success rate was higher (43 vs 28%, p < 0.01), and the drop-out of readers smaller (0 vs 28%, p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Web-based learning is highly effective for teaching and harmonizing B-lines reading. Echocardiographers without previous experience with B-lines learn quickly.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Controle de Qualidade , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 31(2): 158-168.e1, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29229493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intervendor consistency of left ventricular (LV) volume measurements using three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3DTTE) has never been reported. Accordingly, we designed a prospective study to (1) compare head-to-head the accuracy of three three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) systems in measuring LV volumes and ejection fraction (EF) against cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR); (2) assess the intervendor variability of LV volumes and EF; and (3) compare the accuracy of fully automated versus semiautomated (i.e., manually corrected) methods of LV endocardial delineation against CMR. METHODS: We studied 92 patients (64% males, 52 years [95% CI, 20-83]) with a wide range of end-diastolic volumes (from 87 to 446 mL) and EFs (from 16% to 77%) using three different 3DE platforms (iE33; Vivid E9; Acuson SC2000) during the same echo study. CMR was performed within 3 ± 5 hours from the 3DE study in 35 patients. RESULTS: LV volumes provided by the three 3DE systems correlated with CMR volumes: end-diastolic volume (iE33: R2 = 0.93; E9: R2 = 0.94; SC2000: R2 = 0.94), end-systolic volume (iE33: R2 = 0.93; E9: R2 = 0.95; SC2000: R2 = 0.94), and EF (iE33: R2 = 0.79; E9: R2 = 0.80; SC2000: R2 = 0.77). In the 92 patients studied, LV volumes and EFs measured with the three systems were similar. Use of fully automated endocardial border detection algorithms significantly underestimated LV volumes, and the degree of underestimation was higher with larger LV volumes. CONCLUSIONS: LV volumes and EFs measured with the three 3DE systems are consistent. Fully automated algorithms underestimated LV volumes. Our findings may help in the clinical interpretation of LV parameters obtained using different 3DE systems and encourage the clinical use of 3DTTE.


Assuntos
Volume Cardíaco/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia Tridimensional/métodos , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
6.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 32(6): 492-497, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267612

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic stimulation of the right ventricle with pacemaker is associated with ventricular dyssynchrony and loss of contractility, even in subjects without previous dysfunction. In these patients, there is a debate of which pacing site is less associated with loss of ventricular function. OBJECTIVE: To compare pacemaker-induced dyssynchrony among different pacing sites in right ventricular stimulation. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of outpatients with right ventricle stimulation higher than 80% and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Pacing lead position (apical, medial septum or free wall) was assessed through chest X-rays. Every patient underwent echocardiogram to evaluate for dyssynchrony according to CARE-HF criteria: aortic pre-ejection time, interventricular delay and septum/posterior wall delay on M mode. RESULTS: Forty patients were included. Fifty-two percent had apical electrode position, 42% mid septum and 6% free wall. Mean QRS time 148.97±15.52 milliseconds. A weak correlation between the mean QRS width and pre-aortic ejection time (r=0.32; P=0.04) was found. No difference in QRS width among the positions could be noted. Intraventricular delay was lower in apical patients against mid septal (34.4±17.2 vs. 54.3±19.1 P<0.05) - no difference with those electrode on the free wall. No difference was noted in the pre-aortic ejection time (P=0.9). CONCLUSION: Apical pacing showed a lower interventricular conduction delay when compared to medial septum site. Our findings suggest that apical pacing dyssynchrony is not ubiquitous, as previously thought, and that it should remain an option for lead placement.


Assuntos
Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/efeitos adversos , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Miocárdica , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Direita
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(6): 492-497, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-897955

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Chronic stimulation of the right ventricle with pacemaker is associated with ventricular dyssynchrony and loss of contractility, even in subjects without previous dysfunction. In these patients, there is a debate of which pacing site is less associated with loss of ventricular function. Objective: To compare pacemaker-induced dyssynchrony among different pacing sites in right ventricular stimulation. Methods: Cross-sectional study of outpatients with right ventricle stimulation higher than 80% and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Pacing lead position (apical, medial septum or free wall) was assessed through chest X-rays. Every patient underwent echocardiogram to evaluate for dyssynchrony according to CARE-HF criteria: aortic pre-ejection time, interventricular delay and septum/posterior wall delay on M mode. Results: Forty patients were included. Fifty-two percent had apical electrode position, 42% mid septum and 6% free wall. Mean QRS time 148.97±15.52 milliseconds. A weak correlation between the mean QRS width and pre-aortic ejection time (r=0.32; P=0.04) was found. No difference in QRS width among the positions could be noted. Intraventricular delay was lower in apical patients against mid septal (34.4±17.2 vs. 54.3±19.1 P<0.05) - no difference with those electrode on the free wall. No difference was noted in the pre-aortic ejection time (P=0.9). Conclusion: Apical pacing showed a lower interventricular conduction delay when compared to medial septum site. Our findings suggest that apical pacing dyssynchrony is not ubiquitous, as previously thought, and that it should remain an option for lead placement.

9.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 29(11): 1023-1034.e3, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27638238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left atrial (LA) longitudinal strain (LS) using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography has emerged as an important diagnostic and prognostic parameter in various cardiovascular conditions. However, its reference values, their correlations with demographics characteristics, and its physiologic determinants remain to be established. METHODS: Accordingly, 171 healthy volunteers (mean age, 45 ± 12 years; 61% women) in whom LS was obtained from both apical four- and two-chamber dedicated views of the left atrium, considering the P-P interval on the electrocardiogram as the reference cardiac cycle, were prospectively studied. From the LA LS curve we measured the extent of the negative deflection (LSneg), representing LA active contraction, the positive deflection (LSpos) during LA filling, and total LS (LStot), as the sum of LSneg and LSpos values. RESULTS: Average values for biplane LA LSpos, LSneg, and LStot were 19.7%, -14.5%, and 33.3%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, age, left ventricular (LV) global LS and volume, and LV diastolic function were the main physiologic determinants of LA LSpos (R2 = 0.57) and LStot (R2 = 0.40), whereas systolic blood pressure, E/A ratio, global LS, and LV stroke volume were the main determinants of LA LSneg (R2 = 0.20). Women had higher LSpos and LStot than men, particularly before 50 years of age. LA LSpos and LStot decreased with aging, with different trends in men and women. CONCLUSIONS: LA LS values are different in men and women and should be interpreted taking into account patient age and LV function as well. These reference values may help identify subclinical LA dysfunction in several cardiovascular or systemic conditions.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Função Atrial/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia Tridimensional/métodos , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Adulto , Módulo de Elasticidade/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Romênia/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Mecânico , Resistência à Tração/fisiologia
10.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 17(8): 918-29, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26758410

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the relationship between the mitral annular (MA) remodelling and dysfunction, mitral regurgitation (MR) severity, left ventricular (LV) and atrial (LA) size and function in patients with organic MR (OMR). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 52 patients (57 ± 15 years, 31 men) with mild to severe OMR and 52 controls underwent 3D transthoracic echocardiography acquisitions of the mitral valve (MV), LA, and LV. MA geometry and dynamics, LV and LA volumes, LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and emptying fractions (LAEF) were assessed using dedicated software packages. LA and LV myocardial deformations were assessed using 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography. OMR patients presented larger and more spherical MA than controls during the entire systole (P < 0.001). Although the MA non-planarity at early-systole was similar between OMR and controls (157 ± 13° vs. 153 ± 12°, P = NS), the MA became flatter from mid- to end-systole (153 ± 12 vs. 146 ± 10° and 157 ± 12 vs. 147 ± 8°, P < 0.01) in OMR. MA area fractional change was lower in patients with OMR (22 ± 5% vs. 28 ± 5%, P < 0.001), and correlated with the MR orifice and volume (r = -0.52 and r = -0.55). MA fractional area change correlated with LA minimum and maximum volumes (r = 0.77 and r = 0.70), total and active LAEF (r = 0.72 and r = 0.76), and LA negative strain and strain rate (r = 0.52 and r = 0.57), but not with the LVEF or LV global longitudinal strain. In a multivariate regression model using LAEF and LVEF, solely active LAEF correlated with the MA fractional area change (ß = 0.51, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: In patients with OMR, MA reduced function correlates with the MR severity and the LA size and function, but not with the LV function.


Assuntos
Remodelamento Atrial/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia Tridimensional/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Análise Multivariada , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Prognóstico , Valores de Referência , Análise de Regressão , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
13.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 28(2): 226-35, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25450013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tricuspid annular (TA) size and function play important roles in planning the need for associated TA annuloplasty in patients undergoing cardiac surgery for left-sided heart valve diseases. However, TA diameter normative values and the extent of TA dynamic changes during cardiac cycle remain to be established. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of 219 healthy volunteers (mean age, 43 ± 15 years; 57% women), using conventional two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiographic (2DE) imaging to assess the variability of TA diameter measurement in relation to 2DE view and timing during cardiac cycle. TA diameter was obtained from apical right ventricular (RV)-focused four-chamber, parasternal long-axis RV inflow, and parasternal short-axis at aortic plane 2DE views at five time points during the cardiac cycle. Right atrial and RV volumes were measured using three-dimensional echocardiography. RESULTS: TA diameters differed significantly among the three 2DE views and changed significantly during the cardiac cycle in all views. Moreover, mean fractional shortening of TA diameter was 24 ± 6% in the four-chamber view, 20 ± 7% in the parasternal long-axis RV inflow view, and 29 ± 11% in the parasternal short-axis at aortic plane view. One multivariate linear regression analysis, age, gender, and right atrial and RV volumes were independently correlated with TA diameters and accounted for 55% of the variance of midsystolic TA diameter in the four-chamber view. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides references values for TA diameters and dynamics using 2DE imaging. Age, gender, and right chamber sizes, as well as the 2DE view and time during the cardiac cycle, significantly influenced TA diameters in healthy individuals. These data may help better identify TA dilatation using 2DE imaging for surgical planning.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Valva Tricúspide/anatomia & histologia , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrões de Referência , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 31(2): 279-90, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25319092

RESUMO

Mitral annulus (MA) geometry and dynamics are crucial for preserving normal mitral valve (MV) function. Static reference values for MA parameters have been reported, but the normal MA dynamics during the entire cardiac cycle remains controversial. MV full-volume datasets were obtained by three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography from 50 healthy volunteers (18-74 years; 31 men) to assess MA changes in size and shape during entire cardiac cycle. Using simultaneous multiplanar review, projected MA area (MAA) and circumference (MAC), antero-posterior (AP) and anterolateral-posteromedial (ALPM) diameters, and sphericity index (SphI) were obtained at: mitral valve closure (MVC), mid- and end-systole (ES), early- (EDF) and late-diastolic filling, and end-diastole. MAA and AP diameter were the most "active" parameters, changing in all reference frames (p < 0.001). MAA and AP diameter started to contract before MVC (during the left atrial contraction), reaching their minimum at MVC. Maximum MAA occurred at ES, while maximum AP diameter and SphI occurred at EDF. MAA fractional shortening was 35 ± 10 %. AP diameter change was 25 ± 10 %. MAC, ALPM and SphI showed similar patterns during left ventricular (LV) systole, and remained unchanged during diastole. Fractional change was 35 ± 10 % for MAC, and 13 ± 8 % for ALPM diameter. Our study provides the normal dynamics of the MA during the entire cardiac cycle. It reveals "pre-systolic" contraction of the MA, related to left atrial (LA) contraction, and minimal MAA during early LV systole. Therefore, the normal MA dynamics relates to a "physiologic LA-LV coupling", and a complete MA contraction requires both and properly timed LA and LV systole.


Assuntos
Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Valva Mitral/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Diástole , Ecocardiografia Tridimensional , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sístole , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 12: 30, 2014 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25090937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac involvement is a relevant clinical finding in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and is associated with poor prognosis. Left atrial (LA) remodeling and/or dysfunction can be an early sign of diastolic dysfunction. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a novel and promising tool for detecting very early changes in LA myocardial performance. AIM: To assess whether STE strain parameters may detect early alterations in LA function in SSc patients. METHODS: Forty-two SSc patients (Group 1, age 50 ± 14 years, 95% females) without clinical evidence for cardiac involvement and 42 age- and gender-matched control subjects (Group 2, age 49 ± 13 years, 95% females) were evaluated with comprehensive 2D and Doppler echocardiography, including tissue Doppler imaging analysis. Positive peak left atrial longitudinal strain (ϵ pos peak), second positive left atrial longitudinal strain (sec ϵ pos peak), and negative left atrial longitudinal strain (ϵ neg peak) were measured using a 12-segment model for the LA, by commercially available semi-automated 2D speckle-tracking software (EchoPac PC version 108.1.4, GE Healthcare, Horten, Norway). RESULTS: All SSc patients had a normal left ventricular ejection fraction (63.1 ± 4%). SSc patients did not differ from controls in E/A (Group 1 = 1.1 ± 0.4 vs Group 2 = 1.3 ± 0.4, p = .14) or pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (Group 1 = 24.1 ± 8 mmHg vs Group 2 = 21 ± 7 mmHg, p = .17). SSc patients did not show significantly different indexed LA volumes (Group 1 = 24.9 ± 5.3 ml/m2 vs Group 2 = 24.7 ± 4.4 ml/m2, p = .8), whereas E/e' ratio was significantly higher in SSc (Group 1 = 7.6 ± 2.4 vs Group 2 = 6.5 ± 1.7, p<0.05), although still within normal values. LA strain values were significantly different between the two groups (ϵ pos peak Group 1 = 31.3 ± 4.2% vs Group 2 = 35.0 ± 7.6%, p < .01, sec ϵ pos peak Group 1 = 18.4 ± 4 vs Group 2 = 21.4 ± 7.6, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography is a sensitive tool to assess impairment of LA mechanics, which is detectable in absence of changes in LA size and volume, and may represent an early sign of cardiac involvement in patients with SSc.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Módulo de Elasticidade , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estresse Mecânico
17.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 27(8): 858-871.e1, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24975996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite growing interest in applying three-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) to measure left ventricular (LV) myocardial deformation in various diseases, normative values for 3D speckle-tracking echocardiographic parameters and the effects of demographic, hemodynamic, and technical factors on these values are unknown. METHODS: In 265 healthy volunteers (age range, 18-76; 57% women), longitudinal strain (3DLε), circumferential strain (3DCε), radial strain (3DRε), and area strain (3DAε) were measured by using vendor-specific (Vsp) 3D speckle-tracking echocardiographic equipment. LV strain was also measured by using Vsp two-dimensional (2D) and vendor-independent 3D speckle-tracking echocardiographic software packages, for comparison. RESULTS: Reference values (lower limit of normality) for Vsp 3D STE were -17% to -21% (-15%) for 3DLε, -17% to -20% (-14%) for 3DCε, -31% to -36% (-26%) for 3DAε, and 47% to 59% (38%) for 3DRε. Three-dimensional longitudinal strain decreased, whereas 3DCε increased, with aging (P < .003), with different trends in men and women. Men had lower 3DLε, 3DRε, 3DAε, and 2D longitudinal strain than women (P < .02). LV 3D strain parameters were also influenced by LV volumes and mass, image quality, and temporal resolution (P < .02). Reference values obtained by Vsp 2D STE were -20% to -23% (-18%) for 2D longitudinal strain, -20% to -24% (-17%) for 2D circumferential strain, and 39% to 54% (28%) for 2D radial strain (P < .001 vs Vsp 3D STE). Significantly different 3DCε and 3DRε values were obtained with vendor-independent versus Vsp 3D STE (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In healthy subjects, reference values of LV 3D strain parameters were significantly influenced by demographic, cardiac, and technical factors. Limits of normality of LV strain by Vsp 3D STE should not be used interchangeably with Vsp 2D STE or with Vin 3D STE software.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Tridimensional/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Módulo de Elasticidade , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 27(8): 846-57, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24891260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative assessment of the mitral annulus provides information regarding the pathophysiology of mitral regurgitation and aids in the planning of reparative surgery. Three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiographic data sets acquired with current scanners have enough spatial and temporal resolution to allow the quantitative analysis of the mitral annulus. Accordingly, the authors performed (1) a validation study to assess the agreement of quantitative analysis of the mitral annulus performed on 3D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and (2) a normative study to obtain the reference values of 3D transthoracic echocardiographic parameters for mitral annular (MA) geometry and dynamics. METHODS: Mitral valve data sets were obtained by 3D TEE and 3D TTE in 30 consecutive patients with clinically indicated TEE (validation study) and 3D TTE in 224 healthy volunteers (aged 18-76 years) (normative study). RESULTS: In the validation study, MA measurements obtained by 3D TTE were similar to those obtained by 3D TEE (P = NS). In the normative study, MA analysis by 3D TTE was feasible (94.5%) and reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.78-0.97). MA diameters, area, and circumference were correlated with body surface area (r > 0.50 for all) but not with age. Men had larger MA areas than women (4.9 ± 1.0 vs 4.5 ± 0.7 cm(2)/m(2), P = .004). During systole, MA area decreased by 29 ± 5%. This decrease was related mainly to anteroposterior diameter shortening (20 ± 7%). CONCLUSIONS: MA quantitative analysis by 3D TTE was accurate compared with 3D TEE in unselected patients with mitral valve disease. In healthy subjects, it was highly feasible and reproducible. The availability of reference values for MA geometry and dynamics may foster the implementation of MA quantitative analysis by 3D TTE in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Tridimensional/métodos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 6(11): 1141-51, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24094830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to define the performance of lung ultrasound (LUS) compared with clinical assessment, natriuretic peptides, and echocardiography, to evaluate decompensation in patients with systolic heart failure (HF) in an outpatient clinic. BACKGROUND: Evaluation of pulmonary congestion in chronic HF is challenging. LUS has been recently proposed as a reliable tool for the semiquantification of extravascular lung water through assessment of B-lines. METHODS: This was a cohort study of patients with moderate to severe systolic HF. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to compare LUS with a previously validated clinical congestion score (CCS), amino-terminal portion of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), E/e' ratio, chest x-ray, and 6-min walk test. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients were enrolled. Decompensation was present in 57.7% of patients when estimated by CCS, 68% by LUS, 53.6% by NT-proBNP, and 65.3% by E/e' ≥15. The number of B-lines was correlated to NT-proBNP (r = 0.72; p < 0.0001), E/e' (r = 0.68; p < 0.0001), and CCS (r = 0.43; p < 0.0001). In ROC analyses, considering as reference for decompensation a combined method (E/e' ≥ 15 and/or NT-proBNP >1,000 pg/ml), LUS yielded a C-statistic of 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.82 to 0.96), providing the best accuracy with a cutoff ≥ 15 B-lines (sensitivity 85%, specificity 83%). A systematic approach using CCS, E/e', NT-proBNP, chest x-ray, and 6-min walk test in different combinations as reference for decompensation also corroborated this cutoff and found a similar accuracy for LUS. CONCLUSIONS: In an HF outpatient clinic, B-lines were significantly correlated with more established parameters of decompensation. A B-line ≥15 cutoff could be considered for a quick and reliable assessment of decompensation in outpatients with HF.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/diagnóstico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Edema Pulmonar/sangue , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Curva ROC
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