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1.
Lung Cancer ; 162: 9-15, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are standard of care for EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, optimal sequence of treatment has yet to be defined. Overall survival (OS) is influenced by the availability/use of subsequent therapy after first-line treatment. Emergence of T790M is the main mechanism of resistance to afatinib and second-line osimertinib could be a treatment option in this instance. METHODS: In this non-interventional, global study (NCT04179890), existing medical/electronic records were identified for consecutive EGFR TKI-naïve patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC (Del19 or L858R) treated with first-line afatinib and second-line osimertinib in regular clinical practice (n = 191; all T790M-positive). The primary objective was time to treatment failure (TTF). Key secondary objectives were OS and objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS: At the start of afatinib treatment, median age (range) was 62 years (34-88). Fifty-five percent of patients were female and 67% were Asian. ECOG PS (0/1/≥2) was 31%/57%/12%. Fourteen percent of patients had brain metastases. At the start of osimertinib treatment, ECOG PS (0/1/≥2) was 25%/61%/14% and 14% had brain metastases (rising to 29% at the end of osimertinib treatment). The source of biopsy material (solid/liquid) was 86%/3% at the start of afatinib and 54%/33% at start of osimertinib. Mutations were mainly detected with PCR methods. Overall, median TTF was 27.7 months (95% CI: 24.0-30.2) and median OS was 36.5 months (95% CI: 32.9-41.8). ORR with afatinib and osimertinib was 74% and 45%. TTF, OS and ORR were generally consistent across subgroups. CONCLUSION: Sequential afatinib and osimertinib demonstrated encouraging activity in patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC and acquired T790M. Activity was observed across all subgroups, including patients with poor ECOG PS or brain metastases. ECOG PS and incidence of brain metastases remained stable prior to, and after, afatinib treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Acrilamidas , Afatinib/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Anilina , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, no robust data supported the efficacy, safety and recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: The prospective multicenter observational INfluenza Vaccine Indication During therapy with Immune checkpoint inhibitors (INVIDIa-2) study investigated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving ICIs, enrolled in 82 Italian centers from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the time-adjusted incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until April 30, 2020. Secondary endpoints regarded ILI severity and vaccine safety. RESULTS: The study enrolled 1279 patients; 1188 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. Of them, 48.9% (581) received influenza vaccination. The overall ILI incidence was 8.2% (98 patients). Vaccinated patients were significantly more frequently elderly (p<0.0001), males (p=0.004), with poor European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p=0.009), affected by lung cancer (p=0.01), and by other non-cancer comorbidities (p<0.0001) when compared with unvaccinated. ILI incidence was not different basing on influenza vaccination: the time-to-ILI was similar in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients (p=0.62). ILI complications were significantly less frequent for patients receiving the vaccination (11.8% vs 38.3% in unvaccinated, p=0.002). ILI-related intravenous therapies were significantly less frequent in vaccinated patients than in unvaccinated (11.8% vs 29.8%, p=0.027). ILI lethality was, respectively, 0% in vaccinated and 4.3% in unvaccinated patients. Vaccine-related adverse events were rare and mild (1.5%, grades 1-2). CONCLUSION: The INVIDIa-2 study results support a positive recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Eur J Cancer ; 150: 224-231, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated the cumulative poor prognostic role of concomitant medications on the clinical outcome of patients with advanced cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, creating and validating a drug-based prognostic score to be calculated before immunotherapy initiation in patients with advanced solid tumours. This 'drug score' was calculated assigning score 1 for each between proton-pump inhibitor and antibiotic administration until a month before cancer therapy initiation and score 2 in case of corticosteroid intake. The good risk group included patients with score 0, intermediate risk with score 1-2 and poor risk with score 3-4. METHODS: Aiming at validating the prognostic and putative predictive ability depending on the anticancer therapy, we performed the present comparative analysis in two cohorts of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), respectively, receiving first-line pembrolizumab or chemotherapy through a random case-control matching and through a pooled multivariable analysis including the interaction between the computed score and the therapeutic modality (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy). RESULTS: Nine hundred fifty and 595 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. After the case-control random matching, 589 patients from the pembrolizumab cohort and 589 from the chemotherapy cohort were paired, with no statistically significant differences between the characteristics of the matched subjects. Among the pembrolizumab-treated group, good, intermediate and poor risk evaluable patients achieved an objective response rate (ORR) of 50.0%, 37.7% and 23.4%, respectively, (p < 0.0001), whereas among the chemotherapy-treated group, patients achieved an ORR of 37.0%, 40.0% and 32.4%, respectively (p = 0.4346). The median progression-free survival (PFS) of good, intermediate and poor risk groups was 13.9 months, 6.3 months and 2.8 months, respectively, within the pembrolizumab cohort (p < 0.0001), and 6.2 months, 6.2 months and 4.3 months, respectively, within the chemotherapy cohort (p = 0.0280). Among the pembrolizumab-treated patients, the median overall survival (OS) for good, intermediate and poor risk patients was 31.4 months, 14.5 months and 5.8 months, respectively, (p < 0.0001), whereas among the chemotherapy-treated patients, it was 18.3 months, 16.8 months and 10.6 months, respectively (p = 0.0003). A similar trend was reported considering the two entire populations. At the pooled analysis, the interaction term between the score and the therapeutic modality was statistically significant with respect to ORR (p = 0.0052), PFS (p = 0.0003) and OS (p < 0.0001), confirming the significantly different effect of the score within the two cohorts. CONCLUSION: Our 'drug score' showed a predictive ability with respect to ORR in the immunotherapy cohort only, suggesting it might be a useful tool for identifying patients unlikely to benefit from first-line single-agent pembrolizumab. In addition, the prognostic stratification in terms of PFS and OS was significantly more pronounced among the pembrolizumab-treated patients.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Polimedicação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some concomitant medications including antibiotics (ATB) have been reproducibly associated with worse survival following immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in unselected patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (according to programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and treatment line). Whether such relationship is causative or associative is matter of debate. METHODS: We present the outcomes analysis according to concomitant baseline medications (prior to ICI initiation) with putative immune-modulatory effects in a large cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC with a PD-L1 expression ≥50%, receiving first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy. We also evaluated a control cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC treated with first-line chemotherapy. The interaction between key medications and therapeutic modality (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy) was validated in pooled multivariable analyses. RESULTS: 950 and 595 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. Corticosteroid and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy but not ATB therapy was associated with poorer performance status at baseline in both the cohorts. No association with clinical outcomes was found according to baseline statin, aspirin, ß-blocker and metformin within the pembrolizumab cohort. On the multivariable analysis, ATB emerged as a strong predictor of worse overall survival (OS) (HR=1.42 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.79); p=0.0024), and progression free survival (PFS) (HR=1.29 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.59); p=0.0192) in the pembrolizumab but not in the chemotherapy cohort. Corticosteroids were associated with shorter PFS (HR=1.69 (95% CI 1.42 to 2.03); p<0.0001), and OS (HR=1.93 (95% CI 1.59 to 2.35); p<0.0001) following pembrolizumab, and shorter PFS (HR=1.30 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.56), p=0.0046) and OS (HR=1.58 (95% CI 1.29 to 1.94), p<0.0001), following chemotherapy. PPIs were associated with worse OS (HR=1.49 (95% CI 1.26 to 1.77); p<0.0001) with pembrolizumab and shorter OS (HR=1.12 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.24), p=0.0139), with chemotherapy. At the pooled analysis, there was a statistically significant interaction with treatment (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy) for corticosteroids (p=0.0020) and PPIs (p=0.0460) with respect to OS, for corticosteroids (p<0.0001), ATB (p=0.0290), and PPIs (p=0.0487) with respect to PFS, and only corticosteroids (p=0.0033) with respect to objective response rate. CONCLUSION: In this study, we validate the significant negative impact of ATB on pembrolizumab monotherapy but not chemotherapy outcomes in NSCLC, producing further evidence about their underlying immune-modulatory effect. Even though the magnitude of the impact of corticosteroids and PPIs is significantly different across the cohorts, their effects might be driven by adverse disease features.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Eur J Cancer ; 148: 24-35, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment sequencing with first-line immunotherapy, followed by second-line chemotherapy, is still a viable option for NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50%. METHODS: We evaluated post-progression treatment pathways in a large real-world cohort of metastatic NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥ 50% treated with first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy. RESULTS: Overall, 974 patients were included. With a median follow-up of 22.7 months (95%CI: 21.6-38.2), the median overall survival (OS) of the entire population was 15.8 months (95%CI: 13.5-17.5; 548 events). At the data cutoff, among the 678 patients who experienced disease progression, 379 (55.9%) had not received any further treatment, and 359 patients (52.9%) had died. Patients who did not receive post-progression therapies were older (p = 0.0011), with a worse ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001) and were on corticosteroids prior to pembrolizumab (p = 0.0024). At disease progression, 198 patients (29.2%) received a switched approach and 101 (14.9%) received pembrolizumab ByPD either alone (64 [9.4%]) or in combination with local ablative treatments (37 [5.5%]) (LATs). After a random-case control matching according to ECOG-PS, CNS metastases, bone metastases, and (previous) best response to pembrolizumab, patients receiving pembrolizumab ByPD plus LATs were confirmed to have a significantly longer post-progression OS compared to patients receiving pembrolizumab ByPD alone 13.9 months versus 7.8 months (p = 0.0179) 241 patients (35.5%) among the 678 who had experienced PD, received a second-line systemic treatment (regardless of previous treatment beyond PD). As compared to first-line treatment commencement, patients' features at the moment of second-line initiation showed a significantly higher proportion of patients aged under 70 years (p = 0.0244), with a poorer ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001) and having CNS (p = 0.0001), bone (p = 0.0266) and liver metastases (p = 0.0148). CONCLUSIONS: In the real-world scenario NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50% treated with first-line single-agent pembrolizumab achieve worse outcomes as compared to the Keynote-024 trial. Poor post-progression outcomes are major determinants of the global results that should be considered when counselling patients for first-line treatment choices.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between obesity and outcomes in patients receiving programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors has already been confirmed in pre-treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, regardless of PD-L1 tumor expression. METHODS: We present the outcomes analysis according to baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI variation in a large cohort of metastatic NSCLC patients with a PD-L1 expression ≥50%, receiving first line pembrolizumab. We also evaluated a control cohort of metastatic NSCLC patients treated with first line platinum-based chemotherapy. Normal weight was set as control group. RESULTS: 962 patients and 426 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. Obese patients had a significantly higher objective response rate (ORR) (OR=1.61 (95% CI: 1.04-2.50)) in the pembrolizumab cohort, while overweight patients had a significantly lower ORR (OR=0.59 (95% CI: 0.37-0.92)) within the chemotherapy cohort. Obese patients had a significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (HR=0.61 (95% CI: 0.45-0.82)) in the pembrolizumab cohort. Conversely, they had a significantly shorter PFS in the chemotherapy cohort (HR=1.27 (95% CI: 1.01-1.60)). Obese patients had a significantly longer overall survival (OS) within the pembrolizumab cohort (HR=0.70 (95% CI: 0.49-0.99)), while no significant differences according to baseline BMI were found in the chemotherapy cohort. BMI variation significantly affected ORR, PFS and OS in both the pembrolizumab and the chemotherapy cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline obesity is associated to significantly improved ORR, PFS and OS in metastatic NSCLC patients with a PD-L1 expression of ≥50%, receiving first line pembrolizumab, but not among patients treated with chemotherapy. BMI variation is also significantly related to clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 21(6): 498-508.e2, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), as a surrogate predictor of the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors, has not yet been described in the setting of first-line, single-agent pembrolizumab for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung-cancer (NSCLC) with a programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression of ≥ 50%. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We previously conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis in patients with treatment-naive metastatic NSCLC and a PD-L1 expression of ≥ 50% receiving first-line pembrolizumab. Here, we report the results of the irAE analysis and the potential correlation between irAEs and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1010 patients were included in this analysis; after a 6-week landmark selection, 877 (86.8%) patients were included in the efficacy analysis. Any grade irAEs (P < .0001), grade 3/4 irAEs (P = .0025), leading to discontinuation irAEs (P = .0144), multiple-site and single-site irAEs (P < .0001), cutaneous irAEs (P = .0001), endocrine irAEs (P = .0227), pulmonary irAEs (P = .0479), and rheumatologic irAEs (P = .0018) were significantly related to a higher objective response rate. Any grade irAEs (P < .0001), single-site irAEs (P < .0001), multiple-site irAEs (P = .0005), cutaneous irAEs (P = .0042), endocrine irAEs (P < .0001), gastrointestinal irAEs (P = .0391), and rheumatologic irAEs (P = .0086) were significantly related to progression-free survival. Any grade irAEs (P < .0001), single-site irAEs (P < .0001), multiple-site irAEs (P = .0003), cutaneous irAEs (P = .0002), endocrine irAEs (P = .0001), and rheumatologic irAEs (P = .0214) were significantly related to overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the feasibility and the safety of first-line, single-agent pembrolizumab, in a large, real-world cohort of patients with NSCLC with PD-L1 expression ≥ 50%. The occurrence of irAEs may be a surrogate of clinical activity and improved outcomes in this setting.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(11): 2209-2221, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-agent pembrolizumab represents the standard first-line option for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with a PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1) expression of ≥ 50%. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study aimed at evaluating the clinicopathologic correlates of pembrolizumab effectiveness in patients with treatment-naïve NSCLC and a PD-L1 expression of ≥ 50%. RESULTS: One thousand and twenty-six consecutive patients were included. The objective response rate (ORR) was 44.5% (95% CI 40.2-49.1), while the median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 7.9 months (95% CI 6.9-9.5; 599 events) and 17.2 months (95% CI 15.3-22.3; 598 censored patients), respectively. ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (p < 0.0001) and bone metastases (p = 0.0003) were confirmed to be independent predictors of a worse ORR. Former smokers (p = 0.0002), but not current smokers (p = 0.0532) were confirmed to have a significantly prolonged PFS compared to never smokers at multivariate analysis. ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001), bone metastases (p < 0.0001) and liver metastases (p < 0.0001) were also confirmed to be independent predictors of a worse PFS. Previous palliative RT was significantly related to a shortened OS (p = 0.0104), while previous non-palliative RT was significantly related to a prolonged OS (p = 0.0033). Former smokers (p = 0.0131), but not current smokers (p = 0.3433) were confirmed to have a significantly prolonged OS compared to never smokers. ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001), bone metastases (p < 0.0001) and liver metastases (p < 0.0001) were also confirmed to be independent predictors of a shortened OS. A PD-L1 expression of ≥ 90%, as assessed by recursive partitioning, was associated with significantly higher ORR (p = 0.0204), and longer and OS (p = 0.0346) at multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab was effective in a large cohort of NSCLC patients treated outside of clinical trials. Questions regarding the effectiveness in clinical subgroups, such as patients with poorer PS and with liver/bone metastases, still remain to be addressed. We confirmed that the absence of tobacco exposure, and the presence of bone and liver metastasis are associated with worse clinical outcomes to pembrolizumab. Increasing levels of PD-L1 expression may help identifying a subset of patients who derive a greater benefit from pembrolizumab monotherapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 20(3): 319-326, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011207

RESUMO

Background: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors have radically changed the treatment landscape of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). It is still unclear whether specific clinical characteristics might identify those patients benefiting from immunotherapy more than others. The aim of this study was to identify clinical characteristics associated with disease-specific survival (DSS), time-to-treatment failure (TTF), objective responses (OR) and progressive disease (PD) in NSCLC patients treated with Nivolumab.Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective study conducted on 294 patients treated with Nivolumab for advanced NSCLC.Results: Of the more than 50 variables analyzed, five showed a significant correlation with DSS: ECOG PS, size of the biggest brain metastasis, number of metastatic sites, toxicity, and malignant pleural effusion. Three variables significantly correlated with TTF: malignant pleural effusion, number of metastatic sites, number of liver metastases. Malignant pleural effusion was the only variable showing a significant correlation with OR, as well as the only one correlating with all the endpoints of the study.Conclusions: This study identified clinical characteristics associated with survival and response during treatment with Nivolumab in NSCLC patients. The unfavorable association between malignant pleural effusion and objective response is a novel finding with important translational implications.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Derrame Pleural Maligno/complicações , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Adv Ther ; 37(3): 1145-1155, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002809

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have provided substantial benefit in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with unprecedented results in terms of survival. However, the identification of reliable predictive biomarkers to these agents is lacking and multiple clinicopathological factors have been evaluated. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with pretreated NSCLC receiving nivolumab. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter study involving 14 Italian centers, evaluating the role of some laboratory results in patients with NSCLC treated with nivolumab in the second or later lines of therapy for at least four doses and with a disease re-staging. RESULTS: A total of 187 patients with available pretreatment laboratory results were included. NLR levels below 5 were associated with an improvement in terms of both progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.028) and overall survival (OS) (p = 0.001), but not in terms of overall response rate (ORR) or disease control rate (DCR). Moreover, PLR levels below 200 were associated with longer PFS (p = 0.0267) and OS (p = 0.05), as well as higher ORR (p = 0.04) and DCR (p = 0.001). In contrast, LDH levels above the upper normal limit (UNL) were not associated with significant impact on patient outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with pretreated NSCLC and high pretreatment levels of NLR and PLR may experience inferior outcomes with nivolumab. Therefore, in this subgroup of patients with poor prognosis the use of alternative therapeutic strategies may be a valuable option, especially in programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-negative patients and/or in the presence of other additional poor prognostic factors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 42(11): 845-850, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The discovery of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has remarkably improved the clinical course of patients with non-small cell lung cancer driven by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutations. However, virtually in all cases, the disease resurfaces in a TKI-resistant form that is mainly linked to an acquired EGFR-T790M mutation, a MET amplification, or small cell lung cancer (SCLC) transformation. Third-generation TKIs are able to block tumor growth through an irreversible binding to the T790M-mutated receptor. Such new treatments require the diagnostic analysis of new pathologic tissue or a liquid biopsy to detect the presence of the T790M mutation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pre-TKI and post-TKI biopsies from 27 patients with an activating EGFR mutation were collected and analyzed for EGFR-T790M mutation, MET amplification, and SCLC transformation. RESULTS: The T790M mutation was found in 16 patients (59%) whereas MET gene amplification was found in 2 (10.5%) of 19 evaluated cases. The histologic transformation from adenocarcinoma (ADC) to SCLC was identified in 3 patients (11%). In one of them reversal from SCLC back to adenocarcinoma was observed. One patient had the T790M mutation concordantly detected in 2 synchronous lesions whereas another patient showed T790M positivity only in one of 2 specimens. In 4 patients longitudinal biopsies revealed T790M gains and losses not always according to biological expectations. CONCLUSIONS: Intrapatient molecular or histologic heterogeneity may be frequently found during routine treatment of non-small cell lung cancer patients. This biological aspect may have profound repercussions on subsequent therapeutic decisions, and therefore requires in-depth investigation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Anticancer Drugs ; 30(7): e0764, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950836

RESUMO

In the last few years, immunotherapy has become part of everyday clinical practice for the treatment of many solid tumors including metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. These drugs, however, can yield a specific toxicity profile that consists of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Hepatotoxicity is one of irAEs and occurs in about 1-3% of cases and may be manifested by the presence of increate levels of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase) and/or biliary stasis evidence; in these cases, a differential diagnosis with other hepatic diseases must be considered. We present the case of a 73-year-old man who presented with an alteration in liver function during treatment with pembrolizumab (anti-programmed death 1 monoclonal antibody) for a stage IV nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer, which was initially mistaken for drug-induced irAEs hepatic toxicity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Humanos , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Prognóstico
13.
Immunotherapy ; 10(8): 643-655, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29562816

RESUMO

AIM: Tumors related to hereditary susceptibility seem to have an immunosensitive phenotype. MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study, to investigate if family history of cancer, multiple neoplasms and early onset of cancer could be related to clinical outcomes of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Activity and efficacy data of 211 advanced cancer patients (kidney, non-small-cell lung cancer, melanoma, urothelium, colorectal and HeN), treated at seven Italian centers with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents, were analyzed. RESULTS: In this preliminary report at multivariate analyses, positive family history of cancer showed a statistically significant relationship with a better objective response rate (p = 0.0024), disease control rate (p = 0.0161), median time to treatment failure (p = 0.0203) and median overall survival (p = 0.0221). Diagnosis of multiple neoplasms significantly correlates only to a better disease control rate, while interestingly non-early onset of cancer and sex (in favor of female patients) showed significant correlation with a better median overall survival (p = 0.0268 and p = 0.0272, respectively). CONCLUSION: This pilot study seems to individuate easily available patient's features as possible predictive surrogates of clinical benefit for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatments. These preliminary results need to be confirmed with a greater sample size, in prospective trials with immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Imunoterapia , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Cancer ; 98(2): 337-43, 2003 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12872354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that a fixed infusion rate of 10 mg/m2 per minute may be more effective than the standard 30-minute infusion of gemcitabine. To investigate the activity and toxicity of the cisplatin plus gemcitabine combination with gemcitabine at a fixed infusion rate in patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), the authors conducted a randomized Phase II trial of cisplatin plus gemcitabine at the 30-minute standard infusion (calibration arm) or cisplatin plus gemcitabine at a fixed infusion rate (experimental arm). METHODS: A total of 112 chemonaive patients with advanced NSCLC entered the study: 57 patients in Arm A and 55 patients in Arm B. The patients were randomly assigned to receive gemcitabine at a dose of 1000 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8, and 15 over 30 minutes (Arm A) or at a rate of 10 mg/m2 per minute (Arm B). In both treatment arms, cisplatin at a dose of 80 mg/m2 was administered on Day 15 every 28 days. RESULTS: The overall response rates in Arms A and B were 26% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 10-42%) and 34% (95% CI, 17-52%) (intent-to-treat-analysis), respectively. The median time to disease progression was 6 months (range, 1-26 months) and 8 months (range, 2-21 months), respectively, for Arms A and B and the median overall survival was 13 months (range, 2-26 months) for each arm. It is interesting to note that a high response rate (67%) of brain metastases was noted in the experimental arm. Toxicity was tolerable and comparable in the two arms. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this randomized Phase II trial demonstrated that cisplatin plus gemcitabine with gemcitabine at fixed infusion rate (10 mg/m2 per minute) is active and well tolerated in patients with advanced NSCLC.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Ribonucleotídeo Redutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
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