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1.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 68: 101410, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874356

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging and widespread zoonosis, worldwide distributed, due to a wide variety of wild and domestic animal species able to act as natural or accidental hosts. During last years, in Europe, as in Italy, wild boar (Sus scrofa) population is increased. This animal represents a reservoir for different etiological agents, such as Leptospira. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the prevalence of Leptospira spp. in wild boar hunted in Liguria region (Italy) during two-year hunting seasons. From 611 hunted wild boar, kidneys were collected. DNA was extracted from each organ and different targets were used to detect pathogenic (lipL32 gene), intermediate (16S rRNA gene) and saprophytic (23S rRNA gene) Leptospira by Taqman-based RealTime-PCR assays. Overall, kidneys were sampled from 282 adults, 155 sub-adults and 174 young wild boar (in total 314 males and 298 females). By RealTime PCR 77 kidneys were positive and, among these, 74 resulted positive for pathogenic (96.10%) and 3 (3.90%) for intermediate Leptospira. No significant differences in pathogenic Leptospira infection ratio were detected between male (11.50%) and female (12.75%). Only 13 sub-adult animals (8.39%) resulted infected by pathogenic Leptospira; 23 young animals (13.22%) and 38 adult animals (13.47%) were positive. The results of this study confirmed the importance of wild boar in the epidemiology of leptospirosis, which is able to infect other animal species (domestic and wild) including humans. Rarely, intermediate Leptospira could be able to infect wild boar with a renal localization that can contribute to their shedding and circulation.

2.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 334, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive mosquito species (IMS) of the genus Aedes are a cause of increasing concern in Europe owing to their ability to vector important human viral diseases. Entomological surveillance to early detect alien mosquito and flavivirus circulation in Liguria, northwest Italy, has been carried out since 2011. RESULTS: The invasive species Aedes koreicus was first detected in Genoa in September 2015, when a male specimen was caught near the international airport; species identity was confirmed by genetic analysis. Over the next three years, 86 more adult specimens were trapped at sites throughout the city, accounting for 0.50% of all mosquitoes and 1.04% of Aedes sp. mosquitoes trapped in Genova in the four-year period 2015-2018. So far, no other monitored sites in Liguria have revealed the presence of this species. Ovitraps at two sites became positive for the species in July-August 2017. All female Ae. koreicus pools analysed were negative in biomolecular assays for Flavivirus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings of Ae. koreicus in Genoa constitute, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the species in northwest Italy and in a Mediterranean port city. The species appears to be established; trapping and climatic data support survival of Ae. koreicus in the area through three consecutive winters. Monitoring of adult mosquitoes detected the species two years before its discovery with ovitraps; trapping for adult specimens appears to be a more effective tool for the early detection of IMS. The airport (located near the commercial port area) and the flower market are the most probable sites of introduction; however, the exact time and place of arrival of this IMS in Liguria remain unknown. Based on morphological and genetic data, a common origin for most of the Ae. koreicus populations established in Europe is suspected. So far, no control measures have been adopted in Genoa and the species will probably colonize an even wider area in the next few years.


Assuntos
Aedes/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Aedes/genética , Aeroportos , Animais , Entomologia , Feminino , Espécies Introduzidas , Itália , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Estações do Ano
3.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 132(3): 215-220, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188137

RESUMO

An unusual mortality event (UME) of striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba occurred in the period July to December 2016 along the Italian Ionian coastline. We conducted a complete postmortem examination on 28 specimens and detected dolphin morbillivirus (DMV), by means of biomolecular analyses, in the target tissues of 17 animals. Unlike previous outbreaks occurring in the Mediterranean Sea in 2011 and 2013, we observed typical pathological changes suggestive of morbilliviral infection in an acute/subacute phase and immunohistochemical reactivity. The same findings were observed in 13 other specimens beached along the Italian coastline during 2016 with no temporal and geographical relationship with the ongoing epidemic outbreak. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis showed that DMV sequences detected in Italy in 2016 clustered with those identified in Portugal and Galicia (Spain), representing a novel DMV strain of Atlantic origin which entered the Mediterranean Sea and affected a naïve striped dolphin population. DMV sequences detected in the previous Mediterranean outbreaks exhibited a marked genetic relatedness and diverged from those detected in cetaceans stranded along the Galician and Portuguese coasts since 2007.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Infecções por Morbillivirus , Morbillivirus , Stenella , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Filogenia , Espanha
4.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(4): 844-856, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021687

RESUMO

Canine distemper (CD) may pose a serious threat to Alpine wild carnivores and affect their population dynamics. Since 2006, the strain Europe Wildlife 2006-09, a distinct CD virus subgroup within viral lineage Europe 1 (EU1) characterized by increased virulence and host range expansion, has been linked to multiple CD outbreaks in Alpine wild carnivores. The aim of this study was to fill knowledge gaps about ongoing Alpine outbreaks of CD. To do this, we report on the circulation of canine distemper virus (CDV) and outbreaks of CD in Alpine wild carnivores in northwest Italy. A specific diagnostic protocol applied to a sample of 548 wild carnivores collected between January 2013 and December 2015 revealed the circulation of CDV belonging to the EU1 lineage. All isolates were carriers of amino-acid mutations defining the cluster Europe Wildlife 2006-09. A self-maintained multihost pathogen system may have developed in northwest Italy in which interspecies transmission from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to other noncanid species enhanced pathogen maintenance in the system.

5.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(2): 222-227, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636530

RESUMO

We compared results of a serum immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and lymph node quantitative PCR (qPCR) in dogs classified as exposed, infected, or sick because of leishmaniasis. We also determined how IFA or qPCR results changed in response to treatment and reflected different clinical and clinicopathologic improvement of dogs. We included 108 dogs in our retrospective study: 12 exposed, 25 infected, and 71 sick, as classified according to Canine Leishmaniasis Working Group standards. Between-group comparison showed higher IFA values ( p < 0.01) for sick dogs; qPCR values were higher for sick than infected dogs ( p < 0.01). A novel clinical and clinicopathologic score was created and applied to 50 sick dogs. Using this score, 41 were reclassified as partially recovered (PR) within 3 mo, and 37 as totally recovered (TR) 3-6 mo after presentation. Statistically significant differences in IFA values were found between the sick and TR dogs ( p < 0.01), but not between sick and PR dogs ( p = 0.98). During follow-up, qPCR revealed a progressive decrease in parasite load, with a statistically significant difference in sick versus PR ( p < 0.01), sick versus TR ( p < 0.01), and PR versus TR ( p < 0.01) dogs. A decrease of 1 point in the clinical score corresponded to 1.3 Leishmania/µL qPCR decrease ( p < 0.01) and decrease of 1:42 in IFA ( p < 0.01). Our findings confirm that the clinical status of dogs affected by leishmaniasis is closely related to parasite load and antibody level, both before and after treatment.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Forensic Sci Int ; 290: e19-e23, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025595

RESUMO

Fishing activities are considered one of the most relevant threats for cetaceans and sea turtles conservation since these animals are sometimes found dead entangled in fishing gears. Currently, postmortem diagnosis is based mainly on the presence of nets and lines on the body and the related marks and injuries evident at gross examination. A more detailed and objective evidence is needed to clarify doubts cases and the diatoms technique, used in forensic human medicine, could support drowning diagnosis also in this field. Diatoms' investigation was implemented to be applied in marine vertebrate on 8 striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and 1 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins and 5 sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded along the Italian coastlines with a likely cause of death hypothized on necropsies carried out by veterinary pathologists. Diatoms were microscopically searched in the bone marrow collected from long bones implementing protocols used in human medicine and their presence was observed in 4 cetaceans and 2 sea turtles. Despite a clear relation between diatoms' presence and amount and the likely cause of death was not proved due to the poor number of samples, the higher burden of diatoms was found in 3 animals deemed to be death for the interaction with human activity. Despite more studied are necessary to identify the possible relation between the cause of death and diatoms' findings, the present study implemented this technique to be adapted to marine animals, confirming its possible application also in veterinary forensic medicine.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Afogamento/diagnóstico , Stenella , Tartarugas , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Afogamento/veterinária , Ciências Forenses , Projetos Piloto
8.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 75(2): 209-225, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713917

RESUMO

Understanding and responding to the ecological, social and economic conditions that facilitate disease emergence and transmission represents a substantial challenge for epidemiologists and health professionals. In this article we integrate knowledge about the human and the vector population, to provide a context from which to examine the underlying causal factors of D. marginatus-borne diseases emergence in the study area. Within this framework we analyse the biotic and abiotic factors that drive D. marginatus population dynamics and the role of its typical host for dispersal. These investigations suggest that D. marginatus is a tick species prone to spatially overlap its presence with human population presence. Then we consider the public health implications for the residents, when simply carrying out trivial outdoor activities may increase the risk to contact an infected tick.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Dermacentor/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , França/epidemiologia , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Risco , Picadas de Carrapatos/parasitologia
9.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 410(17): 4123-4134, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687248

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic infectious disease with a severe impact on humans and animals. Infection is transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, and several domestic and wild mammals act as reservoirs for the infection, so the prompt detection of infected hosts is crucial to preventing and controlling the spread of the disease and its transmission to humans. A rapid and portable tool for VL diagnosis based on the lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) technology is described herein. The device exploits a highly specific chimeric recombinant antigen as the recognition element for capturing anti-leishmanial antibodies, and protein A labelled with gold nanoparticles as the signal reporter. The LFIA shows excellent diagnostic sensitivity (98.4%), specificity (98.9%), and agreement with serological reference methods for diagnosing canine VL. The long-term stability of the LFIA device was confirmed based on six months of storage at room temperature or 4 °C, and the qualitative response of the device was not affected by limited thermal stress. The use of the broadly specific protein A means that the LFIA can be readily adapted to diagnose VL in dogs (the main reservoir for human infection) and other mammals, thus further assisting efforts to control the spread of VL. Graphical abstract A rapid and portable diagnostic tool for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) based on lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) technology. The presence of anti-leishmanial antibodies is revealed through the binding of these antibodies to a highly specific chimeric antigen. Employing a broadly specific signal reporter (protein A labelled with gold nanoparticles) enables the LFIA to be easily adapted to diagnose VL in different animals.


Assuntos
Imunoensaio/métodos , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Animais , Anticorpos/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Leishmania donovani , Limite de Detecção , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 127(2): 137-144, 2018 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29384483

RESUMO

A juvenile female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba live stranded on 4 March 2016 at Alassio, western Ligurian Sea coast, Italy. The dolphin died shortly after stranding, and a complete postmortem examination was performed. Necropsy revealed severe tracheal occlusion and unilateral bronchial stenosis with luminal accumulation of abundant green-yellow mucous-gelatinous material. Histological features suggestive of tracheobronchial aspergillosis were observed. Cultures of lung tissue and tracheo-bronchial exudate isolated Aspergillus fumigatus, identified by a Microseq D2 LSUrDNA fungal sequencing kit. A pan-Herpesvirus nested-PCR assay on frozen samples obtained from multiple organs was positive. Phylogenetic analysis on the partial DNA polymerase gene revealed that the striped dolphin isolate was closely related to known cetacean Alphaherpesvirus sequences from the same host species. Attempted virus isolation was unsuccessful. The tissue levels of different persistent organic pollutants and the toxicological stress, evaluated using a theoretical model, showed a severely impaired immune response. This study reports the first case of occlusive mycotic tracheobronchitis in a free-living cetacean and the first molecular identification of an Alphaherpesvirus in a free-ranging striped dolphin stranded on the coast of Italy.


Assuntos
Alphaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Bronquite/veterinária , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Stenella/microbiologia , Traqueíte/veterinária , Animais , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Bronquite/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Traqueíte/epidemiologia , Traqueíte/microbiologia
11.
J Wildl Dis ; 54(2): 295-303, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369721

RESUMO

We summarized the neuropathologic findings in 60 cetaceans stranded along the Italian coastline from 2002 to 2014. The following neuropathologic changes were detected in 45% (27/60) of animals: nonsuppurative meningo-encephalitides (30%, 18/60), nonspecific lesions (12%, 7/60), suppurative encephalitis (2%, 1/60), and neoplasm (2%, 1/60). No histologic lesions were found in 47% (28/60) of the specimens. Five (8%, 5/60) samples were unsuitable for analysis. Analysis with PCR detected Brucella spp., morbillivirus, and Toxoplasma gondii infection in one, six, and seven individuals, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed positivity for morbillivirus and for T. gondii infection in three cases each. No evidence of the scrapie-associated prion protein PrPSc was detected. Our findings underscore the importance of an adequate surveillance system for monitoring aquatic mammal pathologies and for protecting both animal and human health.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/veterinária , Golfinhos , Baleias , Animais , Encefalopatias/patologia , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 860, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339753

RESUMO

The Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) genome from the first Mediterranean epidemic (1990-'92) is the only cetacean Morbillivirus that has been completely sequenced. Here, we report the first application of next generation sequencing (NGS) to morbillivirus infection of aquatic mammals. A viral isolate, representative of the 2006-'08 Mediterranean epidemic (DMV_IZSPLV_2008), efficiently grew on Vero.DogSLAMtag cells and was submitted to whole genome characterization by NGS. The final genome length was 15,673 nucleotides, covering 99.82% of the DMV reference genome. Comparison of DMV_IZSPLV_2008 and 1990-'92 DMV strain sequences revealed 157 nucleotide mutations and 47 amino acid changes. The sequence similarity was 98.7% at the full genome level. Whole-genome phylogeny suggested that the DMV strain circulating during the 2006-'08 epidemics emerged from the 1990-'92 DMV strain. Viral isolation is considered the "gold standard" for morbillivirus diagnostics but efficient propagation of infectious virus is difficult to achieve. The successful cell replication of this strain allowed performing NGS directly from the viral RNA, without prior PCR amplification. We therefore provide to the scientific community a second DMV genome, representative of another major outbreak. Interestingly, genome comparison revealed that the neglected L gene encompasses 74% of the genetic diversity and might serve as "hypervariable" target for strain characterization.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/virologia , Genoma Viral , Morbillivirus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Funções Verossimilhança , Morbillivirus/classificação , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Células Vero/virologia
13.
J Wildl Dis ; 53(4): 795-803, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28475451

RESUMO

Between 2007 and 2014, 83 cetaceans were found stranded along the Ligurian coast of Italy, in the Pelagos Sanctuary, the largest marine protected area in the Mediterranean basin. Forty-nine (59%) were submitted to complete or partial necropsy, depending on the conservation status of the carcass. Based on gross and histological pathology and ancillary testing, the cause of death was determined and categorized as anthropogenic or natural (i.e., nonanthropogenic) in origin for 33 animals (67%) and of undetermined origin in the remaining 16 (33%). Natural causes of death, accompanied by either poor or good nutritional status, were attributed to 29 animals (59%), whereas four (8%) were diagnosed with an anthropogenic cause of death, consisting of interaction with fishing activities. Infectious and noninfectious disease was the most common cause of death, involving 29 cetaceans (59%). These data are valuable for understanding health and mortality trends in cetacean populations and can provide information for establishing policies for cetacean conservation and management in such an important protected area of the Mediterranean basin.


Assuntos
Autopsia/veterinária , Causas de Morte , Cetáceos , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/veterinária , Adenoma Adrenocortical/mortalidade , Adenoma Adrenocortical/veterinária , Distribuição por Idade , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Feminino , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/veterinária , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Hemorragia/veterinária , Atividades Humanas , Itália , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Doenças Urológicas/mortalidade , Doenças Urológicas/veterinária , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária
14.
J Virol Methods ; 247: 22-27, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28528278

RESUMO

Morbillivirus genus comprises several members related to specific hosts, such as canine distemper virus (CDV) and cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) in which the dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) is included. Both CDV and DMV are able to cause serious outbreak associated with high morbidity and mortality representing an important conservation threat for terrestrial and aquatic mammalian species. This paper describes a new RT-PCR RFLP technique based on a RT-PCR with degenerate primers targeting a 287 bp fragment located on the conserved N terminus of the morbillivirus NP gene, followed by MseI RFLP, in order both to confirm the detection of the virus and to distinguish DMV from CDV. Both carnivores and cetaceans tissues (brain, lung and lymph node) presenting evidence of morbillivirus infection (MI) were analyzed. RT-PCR positive samples were typed by RFLP analysis and then sequenced to confirm the RFLP results. This method was applied during the last morbillivirus cetacean die-off occurred in the Mediterranean basin in 2013, when there was the urgent need of a rapid and economic method to investigate among causes of death on stranded cetaceans. This new technique has proved to be a valuable, reliable, simple and relatively inexpensive diagnostic tool easily applicable also in limited-resource laboratories.


Assuntos
Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Animais , Carnívoros , Cetáceos , Morbillivirus/genética
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(1): 144-146, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27983493

RESUMO

In September 2014, seven sperm whales were stranded along Italy's Adriatic coastline. Postmortem investigations on 3 female adult whales and 1 male fetus carried by the largest female revealed molecular and immunohistochemical evidence of dolphin morbillivirus infection. A possible role of the virus in the stranding event was considered.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Hidronefrose/virologia , Rim/virologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/virologia , Morbillivirus/genética , Cachalote/virologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Feminino , Hemaglutininas Virais/genética , Hidronefrose/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Itália , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Morbillivirus/imunologia , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Morbillivirus/patologia , Baço/patologia , Baço/virologia
16.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 118(2): 169-74, 2016 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26912047

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. can infect a wide range of species, including humans. In cetaceans, meningoencephalitis has been associated with T. gondii and Brucella spp. infection, whereas to our knowledge, L. monocytogenes infection has not previously been reported. Meningoencephalitis and L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. were identified by means of both direct and indirect laboratory techniques in an adult female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba found stranded in January 2015 on the Ligurian Sea coast, northwestern Italy. The animal was emaciated, and histopathology disclosed severe meningoencephalitis. The nature of the inflammatory response and intra-lesional protozoa were consistent with a mixed infection by L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. We believe this is an unprecedented case of infection by 3 zoonotic pathogens and also the first bacteriologically confirmed case report of neurolisteriosis in cetaceans. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and neurobrucellosis may have led to the animal's disorientation and stranding, with L. monocytogenes having likely exacerbated the coinfection leading to the demise of this dolphin.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Listeriose/veterinária , Meningoencefalite/veterinária , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brucella , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/patologia , Coinfecção , Golfinhos , Feminino , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/microbiologia , Listeriose/patologia , Meningoencefalite/patologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/patologia
17.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 16(4): 292-4, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26862776

RESUMO

West Nile virus and Usutu virus have established in different parts of Italy over the past 10 years. Piemonte and Liguria Regions (Northwestern Italy) are known to be nonendemic areas, despite the presence of competent vectors and environmental conditions conducive to maintaining infection. This work evidences for the first time, through an entomological surveillance implemented on the basis of risk factor approach, the presence of West Nile and Usutu viruses in Piemonte and Liguria Regions (Northwestern Italy).


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Flavivirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Flavivirus/genética , Cavalos/imunologia , Cavalos/virologia , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Itália , RNA Viral/análise , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética
18.
Res Vet Sci ; 101: 89-92, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26267096

RESUMO

This study reports the results of seroepidemiological investigations carried out against Morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. on blood serum samples collected from 70 cetacean specimens found stranded along the Italian coastline between 1998 and 2014. A total number of 23 serum samples (32.8%) obtained from Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus, Balaenoptera physalus and Globicephala melas harboured anti-Morbillivirus neutralizing antibodies. Ten sera (16%) collected from S. coeruleoalba and T. truncatus were found positive against T. gondii, while no antibodies against Brucella spp. were found. These data reveal that stranded cetaceans provide a unique opportunity for monitoring the health status of free-ranging animals living in the Mediterranean Sea, in order to investigate the level of exposure of cetacean populations to selected infectious agents representing a serious threat for aquatic mammals.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Cadáver , Cetáceos/microbiologia , Cetáceos/parasitologia , Cetáceos/virologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Baleia Comum , Itália/epidemiologia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Infecções por Morbillivirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Stenella
19.
Food Environ Virol ; 7(3): 206-12, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26006251

RESUMO

Meat products from HEV-infected reservoir animal species are capable of transmitting HEV to humans and represent a public health concern. Human HEV cases have been linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked pig liver sausages, pork, and game meats, such as wild boars and deer worldwide. Direct exposure to swine or wild game species might also represent a source of HEV transmission especially for veterinarians, hunters, or butchers. A limited amount of data is available on HEV prevalence in wild boars in Italy and no data are available for other wild game species intended for human consumption. In this study, the circulation of HEV in four different animal species hunted in north-western Italy was evaluated to gain insight into the infection levels and the genetic diversity of the virus in such animal populations. Liver samples of 372 wild boars, 30 roe deer, 47 European hares and 38 coypus were analyzed for HEV RNA by real-time RT-PCR; positive samples were then sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. HEV RNA was detected in the livers of 7/372 (1.9%) wild boars tested, while no sample was positive for roe deer, European hare, and coypu. Phylogenetic analysis showed that wild boar HEV sequences belonged to HEV subtypes 3e, 3c, and 3f. Our results indicate that HEV is circulating only in wild boar among the considered game species in north-western Italy and suggest a potential zoonotic risk related to handling and/or consumption of raw or undercooked meat and products made of the liver from this species.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/veterinária , Suínos/virologia , Animais , Cervos/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Lebres/virologia , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/fisiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Roedores/virologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Zoonoses/virologia
20.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 64(1): 121-35, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24682615

RESUMO

Questing ticks were collected during monthly dragging sessions (March-August 2011) in three provinces of the Liguria region, north-western Italy, to evaluate the species occurrence, spatial distribution and relative abundance. A total of 1,464 specimens were collected in 94 dragging sites. Ixodes ricinus was the most abundant species (81.3 % of collected ticks), followed by Haemaphysalis punctata (10.9 %), Dermacentor marginatus (5.5 %), Ixodes frontalis (1.3 %), and Rhipicephalus spp. (0.9 %). Ixodes frontalis is reported for the first time in Liguria. An aggregation of I. ricinus positive sites was observed in inland areas characterized by dense forests dominated by deciduous trees (Castanetum and Fagetum phytoclimatic zones), especially in the west of the region where the differences in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were higher between inland and coastal sites. Random-effect logistic regression was used to model the associations of NDVI and season with the probability of finding host-seeking I. ricinus nymphs [corrected]. The NDVI was a good predictor of I. ricinus nymphs abundance, and confirmed its utility in discriminating habitat suitability for this vector in north-western coastal Italy, where dry habitat conditions may limit the distribution of this species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Ixodidae/classificação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Itália , Densidade Demográfica
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