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1.
J Plant Physiol ; 232: 107-114, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537597

RESUMO

Although structurally simple, viroids can trigger numerous changes in host plants and cause loss of yield in agronomically important crops. This study investigated changes in the endogenous status of phytohormones and antioxidant enzyme activity in Solanum tuberosum cv. Désirée in response to Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) infection. Phytohormone analysis showed that the content of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor cis-OPDA significantly increased in leaves, while the content of castasterone (CS) increased in both leaves and tubers of systemically infected plants compared to mock-inoculated control plants at 8 weeks post-inoculation. The indole-3-acetic acid content moderately increased only in tubers, while no differences in salicylic acid and abscisic acid content were observed between infected and control plants. Changes in endogenous phytohormone content were associated with upregulated expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of JA and brassinosteroids, and the metabolism of auxins. Additionally, PSTVd infection provoked overproduction of hydrogen peroxide, which coincided with increased activity of guaiacol peroxidase in leaves and ascorbate peroxidase in potato tubers. The activity of catalase decreased in leaves, while superoxide dismutase activity remained steady regardless of the treatment and organ type. Total ascorbate and glutathione did not change significantly, although a shift towards oxidized forms was observed. Results suggest the existence of organ-specific differences in phytohormone and antioxidative responses in potato upon PSTVd infection. Possible effects of the observed changes on symptom development are discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/fisiologia , Viroides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Colestanóis/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/virologia
2.
Plant Cell Rep ; 35(1): 77-89, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26403461

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Habituated embryogenic line of pumpkin contained more CKs and IAA, but less ABA than the non-habituated line. Pronounced hypomethylation correlated with the absence of 2,4-D, addition of 5-azaC, and the process of habituation. A comparative analysis between habituated and non-habituated embryogenic cultures of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) in relation to endogenous phytohormones, global DNA methylation, and developmental and regeneration capacities of the cultures was conducted. The analysis revealed more cytokinins (CKs) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), but less abscisic acid (ABA) in the habituated HEC line than in the non-habituated DEC line. Ribosides and ribotides were the most abundant CK forms in both HEC and DEC lines (75.9 and 57.6 %, respectively). HEC contained more free-base CKs (5.8 vs. 3.2 %), whereas DEC contained considerably more O-glycosides (39.1 vs. 18.3 %). Although prevalence of IAA was common for both lines, relative ratio of CKs and ABA differed between DEC and HEC lines. ABA was prevailing over CKs in DEC, while CKs prevailed over ABA in HEC line. Taking into account the importance of ABA for embryo maturation, the reduced endogenous ABA content in HEC line might be the reason for a 5-fold reduction in regeneration capacity compared to DEC. Both habituated and non-habituated embryogenic lines were highly methylated in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Pronounced hypomethylation correlated with the absence of 2,4-D, addition of 5-azacytidine (5-azaC), but also with the process of habituation. The habituated line was resistant to the effect of hypomethylation drug 5-azaC and remained highly methylated even after the addition of 5-azaC. Also, 5-azaC did not change the developmental pattern in the habituated line, indicating the existence of separate mechanisms by which 2,4-D influences global DNA methylation in comparison to habituation-related global DNA methylation.


Assuntos
Cucurbita/genética , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Cucurbita/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucurbita/embriologia , Citocininas/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas
3.
Plant Cell Rep ; 32(7): 1031-42, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23508255

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE : Stress hormones, particularly jasmonic acid, influenced root growth, auxin levels, and transcription of auxin amidohydrolase BrIAR3 in Brassica rapa seedlings, while auxin conjugate synthetases BrGH3.1 and BrGH3.9 were down-regulated by all treatments. The influence of stress hormones: jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA) on 1-day-old seedlings of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) was investigated with particular focus on auxin levels and the regulation of reversible auxin conjugation as a mechanism of auxin homeostasis. At the physiological level, stress hormones inhibited root growth, where JA was the most prominent inhibitor with an IC50 value 3.1 µM, which is one and two orders of magnitude lower than that found for ABA and SA, respectively. JA treatment significantly increased the total auxin content, by induction of free and conjugated forms. Also, the stress hormones affected the transcription of genes involved in the process of the reversible auxin conjugation: auxin amidohydrolases BrIAR3 and BrILL2, and auxin conjugate synthetases BrGH3.1 and BrGH3.9. JA treatment increased the transcript level of BrIAR3 two-fold, while it did not affect the transcription of BrILL2. SA and ABA down-regulated the transcription of both auxin amidohydrolase genes by 30 %. Transcription of both auxin conjugate synthetases was significantly down-regulated by all treatments by 30-70 %. Among the investigated biochemical stress markers, glutathione along with protein carbonylation appeared the most affected upon treatments. The redox status of the seedlings was shifted to the more oxidized state upon JA and ABA treatments, whereas SA caused more reduced redox state in comparison to the control. The principal component analysis visualized relationship among auxin and stress parameters upon treatments. Accordingly, the role of auxin in stress response of Brassica seedlings was discussed.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo
4.
J Plant Physiol ; 168(16): 1943-51, 2011 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21807439

RESUMO

Somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin can be induced on auxin-containing medium and also on hormone-free medium containing 1mM ammonium (NH(4)(+)) as the sole source of nitrogen. Growth of NH(4)(+)-induced embryogenic tissue was slow and caused considerable acidification of the culture medium. Small spherical cells with dense cytoplasma formed proembryogenic cell clusters that could not develop into late stage embryos. Buffering of NH(4)(+) medium with 25mM 2-(N-morpholino)-ethane-sulfonic acid enhanced tissue proliferation, but no further differentiation was observed. Later stage embryos developed only after re-supply of nitrogen in form of nitrate or l-glutamine. Effects of nitrogen status and pH of culture media on ammonium assimilation were analyzed by following the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in relation to phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Increased activity of GS and PAL in NH(4)(+) induced tissue coincided with significantly higher activity of stress-related enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and soluble peroxidase (POD), indicating oxidative stress response of embryogenic tissue to NH(4)(+) as the sole source of nitrogen. In addition, considerable increase was observed in callose accumulation and esterase activity, the early markers of somatic embryogenesis. Activity of stress-related enzymes decreased after the re-supply of nitrate (20mM) or Gln (10mM) in combination with NH(4)(+) (1mM), which subsequently triggered globular embryo development. Together, these results suggest that stress responses, as affected by nitrogen supply, contribute to the regulation of embryogenic competence in pumpkin.


Assuntos
Cucurbita/metabolismo , Nitratos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Cucurbita/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucurbita/embriologia , Cucurbita/enzimologia , Esterases/metabolismo , Glucanos/metabolismo , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Exp Bot ; 57(10): 2237-47, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16766598

RESUMO

Reproductive development in the Christmas rose (Helleborus niger L.) differs from that in commonly investigated model plants in two important aspects: (i) the perianth develops a photosynthetic system, after fertilization, and persists until seed ripening; and (ii) the ripe seed contains an immature embryo which continues to mature off the mother plant. The possible roles of cytokinins in these processes are investigated here by analysing extracts of the perianth and the carpels/maturing fruit prepared during anthesis and four stages of post-floral development. trans-Zeatin, dihydrozeatin, N6-(Delta2-isopentenyl)adenine, and their ribosides were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Single ion monitoring in the presence of deuterated internal standards demonstrated the additional presence of the corresponding riboside-5'-monophosphates, O-glucosides, and 9-glucosides, and afforded quantitative data on the whole set of endogenous cytokinins. Fruit cytokinins were mostly localized in the seeds. Their overall concentrations increased dramatically during early seed development and remained high for 6-8 weeks, until shortly before seed ripening (the last time point covered in this work). Overall cytokinin levels in the perianth did not change markedly in the period covered, but the level of N6-(Delta2-isopentenyl)adenine-type cytokinins appeared to increase slightly and transiently during the greening phase. The perianths of unpollinated or depistillated flowers, which survived, but did not pass through the complete greening process, contained significantly less cytokinins than observed in fruit-bearing flowers. This suggests that perianth greening requires defined cytokinin levels and supports the role of the developing fruit in their maintenance.


Assuntos
Citocininas/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Helleborus/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Helleborus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Plant J ; 43(4): 553-67, 2005 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16098109

RESUMO

Summary EgMYB2, a member of a new subgroup of the R2R3 MYB family of transcription factors, was cloned from a library consisting of RNA from differentiating Eucalyptus xylem. EgMYB2 maps to a unique locus on the Eucalyptus grandis linkage map and co-localizes with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for lignin content. Recombinant EgMYB2 protein was able to bind specifically the cis-regulatory regions of the promoters of two lignin biosynthetic genes, cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), which contain MYB consensus binding sites. EgMYB2 was also able to regulate their transcription in both transient and stable expression assays. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing EgMYB2 displayed phenotypic changes relative to wild-type plants, among which were a dramatic increase in secondary cell wall thickness, and an alteration of the lignin profiles. Transcript abundance of genes encoding enzymes specific to lignin biosynthesis was increased to varying extents according to the position of individual genes in the pathway, whereas core phenylpropanoid genes were not significantly affected. Together these results suggest a role for EgMYB2 in the co-ordinated control of genes belonging to the monolignol-specific pathway, and therefore in the biosynthesis of lignin and the regulation of secondary cell wall formation.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lignina/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Transativadores/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência Consenso , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Eucalyptus/genética , Ligação Genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Tabaco/citologia , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
7.
Plant Cell Rep ; 23(3): 120-7, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15221278

RESUMO

Three pumpkin embryogenic lines were initiated on wounded zygotic embryos cultured on medium with or without 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Somatic embryo development was controlled by the availability of various compounds in the medium: presence/absence of 2,4-D, nitrogen sources. The highest rate of DNA methylation was in the early embryo stages, predominantly on MSC medium with 2,4-D and on auxin-free medium supplemented with 1.0 m M NH(4)Cl. DNA methylation was correlated with early embryo development in a manner that was not exclusively dependent on the presence/absence of exogenous auxin. DNA methylation decreased during embryo maturation on auxin-free MSC medium and on auxin-free MSC supplemented with 12.3 micro M 5-azacytidine (5-azaC). The embryogenic features of the pumpkin tissue were preserved, even after a 2-month treatment with 5-azaC.


Assuntos
Cucurbita/embriologia , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/embriologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/farmacologia , Cloreto de Amônio/farmacologia , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Cucurbita/genética , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , DNA de Plantas/genética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Fixação de Nitrogênio/fisiologia , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração/fisiologia , Sementes/genética
8.
J Plant Physiol ; 161(2): 229-36, 2004 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15022838

RESUMO

Embryogenic cultures of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) were initiated from mechanically wounded mature zygotic embryos on 2,4-D-containing MS medium, and on hormone-free, semisolid modified MS medium containing NH4Cl as the sole source of nitrogen. The habituated line was derived from the embryogenic tissue induced with 2,4-D and maintained on medium without growth regulators. Sustained subculturing of the three embryogenic lines on a medium with NH4Cl as the sole source of nitrogen enabled the establishment of highly uniform cultures in which no further development into mature embryo stages occurred. The tissue consisting of proembryogenic globules or globular stage embryos was maintained, without decline, for over six years. Globular embryos proceeded to maturity when a combination of reduced (NH4) and unreduced (NO3) forms of nitrogen was provided in the medium. Different nitrogen sources in the medium caused changes of medium pH during subculture in the pH range of 4.0-6.5. The tissue growth and embryo development were blocked on medium with pH adjusted and stabilized at 4.0 or at 3.2.


Assuntos
Cucurbita/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Cucurbita/citologia , Cucurbita/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucurbita/embriologia , Meios de Cultura , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Compostos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Zigoto
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