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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4827, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179835

RESUMO

Owing to the involvement of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in carcinogenesis, COX-2-selective inhibitors are increasingly studied for their potential cytotoxic properties. Moreover, the incorporation of carboranes in structures of established anti-inflammatory drugs can improve the potency and metabolic stability of the inhibitors. Herein, we report the synthesis of carborane-containing derivatives of rofecoxib that display remarkable cytotoxic or cytostatic activity in the micromolar range with excellent selectivity for melanoma and colon cancer cell lines over normal cells. Furthermore, it was shown that the carborane-modified derivatives of rofecoxib showed different modes of action that were dependent on the cell type.

2.
ChemMedChem ; 14(24): 2061-2074, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675152

RESUMO

The role of autophagy in cancer is often complex, ranging from tumor-promoting to -suppressing effects. In this study, two novel hybrid molecules were designed, containing a ruthenacarborane fragment conjugated with a known modulator of autophagy, namely a quinoline derivative. The complex closo-[3-(η6 -p-cymene)-1-(quinolin-8-yl-acetate)-3,1,2-RuC2 B9 H10 ] (4) showed a dual mode of action against the LN229 (human glioblastoma) cell line, where it inhibited tumor-promoting autophagy, and strongly inhibited cell proliferation, de facto blocking cellular division. These results, together with the tendency to spontaneously form nanoparticles in aqueous solution, make complex 4 a very promising drug candidate for further studies in vivo, for the treatment of autophagy-prone glioblastomas.

3.
ChemMedChem ; 14(24): 2075-2083, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677361

RESUMO

Investigations on the antitumor activity of metallacarboranes are sparse in the literature and limited to a handful of ruthena- and molybdacarboranes. In this study, the molybdacarborane fragment [3-(CO)2 -closo-3,1,2-MoC2 B9 H11 ] was combined with a vector molecule, inspired by the well-known drug tamoxifen or 4,4'-dihydroxytamoxifen (TAM-diOH). The molybdacarborane derivative [3,3-{4-[1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)but-1-en-2-yl]-2,2'-bipyridine-κ2 N,N'}-3-(CO)2 -closo-3,1,2-MoC2 B9 H11 ] (10), as well as the ligand itself 4-[1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)but-1-en-2-yl]-2,2'-bipyridine (6) showed cytotoxic activities in the low micromolar range against breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361 and MCF-7), human glioblastoma (LN-229) and human glioma (U-251) cell lines. In addition, compounds 6 and 10 were found to induce senescence and cytodestructive autophagy, lower ROS/RNS levels, but only the molybdacarborane 10 induced a strong increase of nitric oxide (NO) concentration in the MCF-7 cells.

4.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5403-5415, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Tubugi-1 is a more stable and accessible synthetic counterpart of natural tubulysins. This study aimed to evaluate its cytotoxic potential against anaplastic human melanoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The viability of A-375 cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and crystal violet assay. The type of cell death and proliferative rate were investigated using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy, while the molecular background was evaluated by western blot. RESULTS: Tubugi-1 reduced the viability of A-375 cells, inducing massive micronucleation, followed by augmented expression of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB and caspase-2, typical of a mitotic catastrophe. Disturbed proliferation and G2M block with prominent caspase activity, weakened the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X transient up-regulation, coexisted with intensive autophagy. Specific inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine resulted in conversion from mitotic catastrophe to rapid apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Multilevel anticancer action of tubugi-1 is extended by co-application of an autophagy inhibitor, giving a new dimension in further preclinical advancement of this potential agent.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Caspase 2/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
5.
ACS Omega ; 4(5): 8824-8833, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31459970

RESUMO

Ketoprofen is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that also exhibits cytotoxic activity against various cancers. This makes ketoprofen an attractive structural lead for the development of new NSAIDs and cytotoxic agents. Recently, the incorporation of carboranes as phenyl mimetics in structures of established drugs has emerged as an attractive strategy in drug design. Herein, we report the synthesis and evaluation of four novel carborane-containing derivatives of ketoprofen, two of which are prodrug esters with an nitric oxide-releasing moiety. One of these prodrug esters exhibited high cytostatic activity against melanoma and colon cancer cell lines. The most pronounced activity was found in cell lines that are sensitive to oxidative stress, which was apparently induced by the ketoprofen analogue.

6.
Exp Cell Res ; 380(2): 159-170, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042500

RESUMO

Synthetic tubugis are equally potent but more stable than their natural forms. Their anticancer potential was estimated on a solid melanoma in vitro and in vivo. Tubugi-1 induced the apoptosis in B16 cells accompanied with strong intracellular production of reactive species, subsequently imposing glutathione and thiol group depletion. Paradoxically, membrane lipids were excluded from the cascade of intracellular oxidation, according to malondialdehyde decrease. Although morphologically apoptosis was typical, externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) as an early apoptotic event was not detected. Even their exposition is pivotal for apoptotic cell eradication, primary macrophages successfully eliminated PS-deficient tubugi-1 induced apoptotic cells. The tumor volume in animals exposed to the drug in therapeutic mode was reduced in comparison to control as well as to paclitaxel-treated animals. Importantly, macrophages isolated from tubugi-1 treated animals possessed conserved phagocytic activity and were functionally and phenotypically recognized as M1. The cytotoxic effect of tubugi-1 is accomplished through its ability to polarize the macrophages toward M1, probably by PS independent apoptotic cell engulfment. The unique potential of tubugi-1 to prime the innate immune response through the induction of a specific pattern of tumor cell apoptosis can be of extraordinary importance from fundamental and applicable aspects.

7.
EXCLI J ; 18: 106-126, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956643

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a complex, progressive, bone-tropic disease, which is usually associated with skeletal issues, poor mobility and a fatal outcome when it reaches the metastatic phase. Soy isoflavones, steroid-like compounds from soy-based food/dietary supplements, have been found to decrease the risk of prostate cancer in frequent consumers. Herein, we present a systematization of the data on soy isoflavone effects at different stages of metastatic prostate cancer progression, with a particular interest in the context of bone-related molecular events. Specifically, soy isoflavones have been determined to downregulate the prostate cancer cell androgen receptors, reverse the epithelial to mesenchymal transition of these cells, decrease the expressions of prostate-specific antigen, matrix metalloproteinase and serine proteinase, and reduce the superficial membrane fluidity in prostate cancer cells. In addition, soy isoflavones suppress the angiogenesis that follows prostate cancer growth, obstruct prostate cancer cells adhesion to the vascular endothelium and their extravasation in the area of future bone lesions, improve the general bone morphofunctional status, have a beneficial effect on prostate cancer metastasis-caused osteolytic/osteoblastic lesions and possibly affect the pre-metastatic niche formation. The observed, multilevel antimetastatic properties of soy isoflavones imply that they should be considered as promising components of combined therapeutic approaches to advanced prostate cancer.

8.
Mol Carcinog ; 58(8): 1362-1375, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997718

RESUMO

The main focus of this study is exploring the effect and mechanism of two HIV-protease inhibitors: Ritonavir and Ritonavir-nitric oxide (Ritonavir-NO) on in vitro growth of melanoma cell lines. NO modification significantly improved the antitumor potential of Ritonavir, as the IC50 values of Ritonavir-NO were approximately two times lower than IC50 values of the parental compound. Our results showed for the first time, that both compounds induced senescence in primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines. This transformation was manifested as a change in cell morphology, enlargement of nuclei, increased cellular granulation, upregulation of ß-galactosidase activity, lipofuscin granules appearance, higher production of reactive oxygen species and persistent inhibition of proliferation. The expression of p53, as one of the key regulators of senescence, was upregulated after 48 hours of Ritonavir-NO treatment only in metastatic B16F10 cells, ranking it as a late-response event. The development of senescent phenotype was consistent with the alteration of the cytoskeleton-as we observed diminished expression of vinculin, α-actin, and ß-tubulin. Permanent inhibition of S6 protein by Ritonavir-NO, but not Ritonavir, could be responsible for a stronger antiproliferative potential of the NO-modified compound. Taken together, induction of senescent phenotype may provide an excellent platform for developing therapeutic approaches based on selective killing of senescent cells.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Ritonavir/farmacologia , Actinas/biossíntese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Lipofuscina/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Tubulina (Proteína)/biossíntese , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/biossíntese , Vinculina/biossíntese , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 129: 257-268, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034931

RESUMO

Isoxanthohumol (IXN), a prenylflavonoid from hops and beer, gained increasing attention as a potential chemopreventive agent. In the present study, IXN antimetastatic potential in vitro against the highly invasive melanoma cell line B16-F10 and in vivo in a murine metastatic model was investigated. Melanoma cell viability was diminished in a dose-dependent manner following the treatment with IXN. This decrease was a consequence of autophagy and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Additionally, the dividing potential of highly proliferative melanoma cells was dramatically affected by this isoflavanone, which was in correlation with an abrogated cell colony forming potential, indicating changes in their metastatic features. Concordantly, IXN promoted strong suppression of the processes that define metastasis- cell adhesion, invasion, and migration. Further investigation at the molecular level revealed that the abolished metastatic potential of a melanoma subclone was due to disrupted integrin signaling. Importantly, these results were reaffirmed in vivo where IXN inhibited the development of lung metastatic foci in tumor-challenged animals. The results of the present study may highlight the beneficial effects of IXN on melanoma as the most aggressive type of skin cancer and will hopefully shed a light on the possible use of this prenylflavonoid in the treatment of metastatic malignancies.


Assuntos
Humulus/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Xantonas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 100: 315-322, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948067

RESUMO

Herein appropriateness of nonfunctionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles SBA-15 and functionalized with (3-chloropropyl)triethoxysilane (→ SBA-15~Cl) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (→ SBA-15~NH2) on delivery of physically adsorbed Ph3Sn(CH2)6OH (Sn6) is evaluated. Fluorescent nanomaterial, bearing isatoic moiety, loaded with Sn6 (→ SBA-15~NF|Sn6) was used for cellular uptake study. The fluorescent nanomaterial is efficiently acquired and distributed into the cytoplasm of the cells even after 2 h of cultivation. According to the attained data, all SBA-15 materials loaded with Sn6 diminished cellular viability in dose dependent manner while carriers alone (SBA-15, SBA-15~Cl, SBA-15~NH2) did not show cytotoxicity against B16 cells. According to the MC50 values structural modification of SBA-15 did not improve the efficacy of tested drug. While progressive apoptosis was detected upon the treatment with SBA-15|Sn6, exposure of cells to SBA-15~NH2|Sn6 revealed extinguished apoptosis in time, accompanied with lower caspase activity. This effect is probably due to triggered autophagic process under the treatment with the SBA-15~NH2|Sn6, thus opposed to apoptosis. Presented results suggested that functionalization of SBA-15 was not beneficial for the efficacy of loaded drug, thus, all of them are almost equally efficient considering loaded Sn6 content. Importantly, functionalization of SBA-15 does have an influence on the mode of action and differentiation inducing properties.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Anidridos/química , Animais , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Porosidade , Propilaminas/química , Silanos/química , ortoaminobenzoatos/química
11.
Invest New Drugs ; 37(5): 1014-1028, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706336

RESUMO

We generated a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivative of the anti-HIV protease inhibitor lopinavir by linking the NO moiety to the parental drug. We investigated the effects of lopinavir and its derivative lopinavir-NO on melanoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Lopinavir-NO exhibited a twofold stronger anticancer action than lopinavir in vitro. These results were successfully translated into syngeneic models of melanoma in vivo, where a significant reduction in tumour volume was observed only in animals treated with lopinavir-NO. Both lopinavir and lopinavir-NO inhibited cell proliferation and induced the trans-differentiation of melanoma cells to Schwann-like cells. In melanoma cancer cell lines, both lopinavir and lopinavir-NO induced morphological changes, minor apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, caspase activation and autophagy were detected only in B16 cells, indicating a cell line-specific treatment response. Lopinavir-NO released NO intracellularly, and NO neutralization restored cell viability. Treatment with lopinavir-NO induced only a transient activation of Akt and inhibition of P70S6 kinase. The results of this study identify lopinavir-NO as a promising candidate for further clinical trials in melanoma and possibly other solid tumours.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , Lopinavir/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
J Biol Inorg Chem ; 24(2): 223-234, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759278

RESUMO

Extraordinary progress in medicinal inorganic chemistry in the past few years led to the rational design of novel platinum compounds, as well as nonplatinum metal-based antitumor agents, including organotin compounds, whose activity is not based on unrepairable interaction with DNA. To overcome poor solubility and toxicity problems that limited the application of these compounds numerous delivering systems were used (Lila et al. in Biol Pharm Bull 37:206-211, 2014; Yue and Cao in Curr Cancer Drug Targets 16:480-488, 2016; Duan et al. in WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 8:776-791, 2016). Regarding high drug loading capacity, mesoporous silica nanoparticles like SBA-15 became more important for targeted drug delivery. In this study, cellular uptake and biological activities responsible for organotin(IV) compound Ph3Sn(CH2)6OH (Sn6) grafted into (3-chloropropyl)triethoxysilane functionalized SBA-15 (SBA-15p → SBA-15p|Sn6) were evaluated in human melanoma A375 cell line. Moreover, the influence of SBA-15p grafted with organotin(IV) compound on the stemness of A375 cell was tested. Given the fact that SBA-15p|Sn6 nanoparticles are nonspherical and relatively large, their internalization efficiently started even after 15 min with stable adhesion to the cell membrane. After only 2 h of incubation of A375 cells with SBA-15p|Sn6 passive fluid-phase uptake and macropinocytosis were observed. Inside of the cell, treatment with SBA-15p loaded with Sn6 promoted caspase-dependent apoptosis in parallel with senescence development. The subpopulation of cells expressing Schwann-like phenotype arose upon the treatment, while the signaling pathway responsible for maintenance of pluripotency and invasiveness, Wnt, Notch1, and Oct3/4 were modulated towards less aggressive signature. In summary, SBA-15p enhances the efficacy of free Sn6 compound through efficient uptake and well profiled intracellular response followed with decreased stem characteristics of highly invasive A375 melanoma cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/farmacologia , Dióxido de Silício/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Melanoma/patologia , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenótipo , Dióxido de Silício/química , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
ChemMedChem ; 14(3): 315-321, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602073

RESUMO

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most common way of treating inflammatory disorders. Their widespread use helped reveal their other modes of action as pharmaceuticals, such as a profound effect on various cancers. Celecoxib has proven to be a very prominent member of this group with cytostatic activities. On the other hand, the highly dynamic field of drug design is constantly searching for new ways of modifying known structures to obtain more powerful and less harmful drugs. A very interesting development is the implementation of carboranes in pharmacologically active structures, mostly as phenyl mimetics. Herein we report the synthesis of three carborane-containing derivatives of the COX-2-selective NSAID celecoxib. The new compounds proved to have promising cytostatic potential against various melanoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Inhibited proliferation accompanied by caspase-independent apoptotic cell death was found to be the main cause of decreased cell viability upon treatment with the most efficient celecoxib analogue, 3 b (4-[5-(1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboranyl)-3-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-1-methylsulfonylbenzene).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Celecoxib/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Citostáticos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Celecoxib/síntese química , Celecoxib/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/síntese química , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Citostáticos/síntese química , Citostáticos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
ChemMedChem ; 14(2): 255-261, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471171

RESUMO

5-Lipoxygenase converts arachidonic acid into leukotrienes, which are involved in inflammation and angiogenesis. The introduction of carboranes can improve the pharmacokinetic behavior of metabolically less stable pharmaceutics. Herein we report the syntheses of several carborane-based inhibitors of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. The isosteric replacement of phenyl rings by carboranes leads to improved cytotoxicity toward several melanoma and colon cancer cell lines. For the colon cancer cell line HCT116, the co-inhibition of heat shock protein 90 was observed.


Assuntos
Boranos/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/química , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Desenho de Fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos
15.
Molecules ; 23(10)2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261624

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and deadly form of primary malignant brain tumor among adults. A promising emerging approach for GBM treatment may be offered from HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PIs). In fact, in addition to their primary pharmacological activity in the treatment of HIV infection, they possess important anti-neoplastic effects. According to previous studies, the addition of a nitric oxide (NO) donating group to parental compounds can reduce their toxicity and enhance the anticancer action of various compounds, including HIV-PIs. In this study we compared the effects of the HIV-PI Lopinavir (Lopi) and of its NO-derivative Lopinavir-NO (Lopi-NO) on the in vitro growth of LN-229 and U-251 human GBM cell lines. Lopi-NO reduced the viability of LN-229 and U-251 cells at significantly lower concentrations than the parental drug. In particular, Lopi-NO inhibited tumor cell proliferation and induced the differentiation of U-251 cells toward an astrocyte-like phenotype without triggering significant cell death in both cell types. The anticancer effect of Lopi-NO was persistent even upon drug removal. Furthermore, Lopi-NO induced strong autophagy that did not appear to be related to its chemotherapeutic action. Overall, our results suggest that Lopi-NO could be a potential effective anticancer drug for GBM treatment.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , Lopinavir/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/química , Humanos , Lopinavir/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
16.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 8(5)2018 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757198

RESUMO

In this study mesoporous silica SBA-15 was evaluated as a vehicle for the transport of cytotoxic natural product emodin (EO). SBA-15 was loaded with different quantities of EO (SBA-15|EO1⁻SBA-15|EO5: 8⁻36%) and characterized by traditional methods. Several parameters (stabilities) and the in vitro behavior on tumor cell lines (melanoma A375, B16 and B16F10) were investigated. SBA-15 suppresses EO release in extremely acidic milieu, pointing out that EO will not be discharged in the stomach. Furthermore, SBA-15 protects EO from photodecomposition. In vitro studies showed a dose dependent decrease of cellular viability which is directly correlated with an increasing amount of EO in SBA-15 for up to 27% of EO, while a constant activity for 32% and 36% of EO in SBA-15 was observed. Additionally, SBA-15 loaded with EO (SBA-15|EO3) does not disturb viability of peritoneal macrophages. SBA-15|EO3 causes inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and triggers apoptosis, connected with caspase activation, upregulation of Bax, as well as Bcl-2 and Bim downregulation along with amplification of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) cleavage fragment. Thus, the mesoporous SBA-15 is a promising carrier of the water-insoluble drug emodin.

17.
Biotechnol Adv ; 36(6): 1622-1632, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656090

RESUMO

Differentiation of cancer cells entails the reversion of phenotype from malignant to the original. The conversion to cell type characteristic for another tissue is named transdifferentiation. Differentiation/transdifferentiation of malignant cells in high grade tumor mass could serve as a nonaggressive approach that potentially limits tumor progression and augments chemosensitivity. While this therapeutic strategy is already being used for treatment of hematological cancers, its feasibility for solid malignancies is still debated. We will presently discuss the natural compounds that show these properties, with focus on anthraquinones from Aloe vera, Senna, Rheum sp. and hop derived prenylflavonoids.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antraquinonas , Humanos , Camundongos
18.
J Inorg Biochem ; 180: 155-162, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288894

RESUMO

SBA-15 (Santa Barbara Amorphous 15) mesoporous silica and its functionalized form (with 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane) SBA-15~SH were used as carriers for [Ru(η6-p-cymene)Cl2{Ph2P(CH2)3SPh-κP}] complex, denoted as [Ru]. Prepared mesoporous silica nanomaterials were characterized by traditional methods. Materials without [Ru] complex did not show any cytotoxic activity against melanoma B16 and B16-F10 cell lines. On the contrary, materials containing [Ru] such as SBA-15|[Ru] and SBA-15~SH|[Ru], exhibited very high activity against tested tumor cell lines, moreover with similar inhibitory potential. According to the loaded amount of the [Ru] in SBA-15|[Ru] and SBA-15~SH|[Ru] the IC50 values are 1-2µM depending on the test used, thus in comparison to [Ru] alone the activity of nanomaterials containing [Ru] are elevated 3-6 times in vitro. However, the mechanism of apoptosis induction differs for these two mesoporous silica. Unlike reference [Ru] compound and SBA-15~SH|[Ru], SBA-15|[Ru] induces high caspase activation. Discrepancy in mechanism of drugs action at intracellular level points towards an influence of functionalization as well as availability of the drug. Moreover, both SBA-15|[Ru] and SBA-15~SH|[Ru] similarly to [Ru] are declining autophagy in B16 cell line.


Assuntos
Compostos de Rutênio/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Portadores de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanoestruturas , Porosidade , Compostos de Rutênio/farmacologia , Silanos/química , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Difração de Raios X
19.
Dalton Trans ; 46(36): 12067-12080, 2017 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28799598

RESUMO

Three [(η6-arene)RuC2B9H11] complexes (arene = p-cymene (2), biphenyl (3) and 1-Me-4-COOEt-C6H4 (4)) were synthesised according to modified literature procedures and fully characterised. 2-4 were found to be moderately active against two types of tumour cell lines (HCT116 and MCF7), with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. However, viability of normal, healthy cells (MRC-5 cell line, MLEC and mouse macrophages) was not affected by treatment with 2-4, indicating high selectivity of the metallacarborane complexes towards tumour cell lines, compared to the unselective antitumour agent cisplatin and other potential RuII drugs. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis suggested that 4 induces cell death via a caspase-dependent apoptotic mechanism. DFT calculations of the frontier molecular orbitals showed that the HOMO-LUMO gap in 2-4 is smaller than in the corresponding cyclopentadienyl complexes 2-Cp-4-Cp (e.g. 5.47 (2) vs. 6.31 eV (2-Cp)). In order to assess the stability of 2-4, particularly the ruthenium-dicarbollide bond, energy decomposition analysis (EDA) of 2-4, together with the respective cyclopentadienyl analogues 2-Cp-4-Cp, was performed. EDA suggests that the ruthenium(ii)-dicarbollide bond in the three complexes is mostly ionic and far stronger than the ruthenium(ii)-arene bond.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Rutênio/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Boranos/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Conformação Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Termodinâmica
20.
ChemMedChem ; 12(13): 1081-1086, 2017 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28569429

RESUMO

The progression of cancer is accelerated by increased proliferation, angiogenesis, and inflammation. These processes are mediated by leukotrienes. Several cancer cell lines overexpress 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme that converts arachidonic acid into leukotrienes. An early inhibitor of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway is Rev-5901, which, however, lacks in in vivo efficacy, as it is rapidly metabolized. We investigated the introduction of carboranes as highly hydrophobic and metabolically stable pharmacophores into lipoxygenase inhibitors. Carboranes are icosahedral boron clusters that are remarkably stable and used to increase the metabolic stability of unstable pharmaceutics without changing their biological activity. By introduction of meta-carborane into Rev-5901, the first carborane-based inhibitor of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway was obtained. We report the synthesis and inhibitory and cytotoxic behavior of these compounds toward several melanoma and colon cancer cell lines and their related anticancer mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Compostos de Boro/farmacologia , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Boro/síntese química , Compostos de Boro/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/síntese química , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/toxicidade , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Quinolinas/síntese química , Quinolinas/química , Quinolinas/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
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