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1.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 306, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported on the trends in the etiologies of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed in patients between 1995 and 2009. The aims of our updated study were to evaluate the incidence, nonhepatitis B and nonhepatitis C viral (NBNC) etiologies, and clinical characteristics of HCCs occurring in patients between 1992 and 2018. METHODS: The study enrolled 2171 consecutive patients with HCC between 1992 and 2018. Their medical records were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups, patients with early diagnoses from 1992 to 2009 and those with late diagnoses from 2010 to 2018. RESULTS: NBNC-HCC occurred in 514 patients (23.6%). The percentage of patients with HCC who had NBNC-HCC increased from 26.5% in 2009 to 46.3% in 2018. Patients with NBNC-HCC were older (median ages from 67 to 73 years). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (48.5-60.3%: P = 0.008), hypertension (48.5-57.4%: P = 0.047), and hyperlipidemia (39.2-53.8%: P = 0.001) increased significantly in recent years. The median FIB-4 index decreased (4.37-3.61: P = 0.026) and the median platelet count increased (15.1-17.9 × 104/µL: P = 0.013). Among the 514 patients with NBNC-HCC, 194 underwent hepatic resection for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (15%), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (29%), and cryptogenic hepatitis (56%). Cirrhosis was detected in 72%, 39%, and 16% of patients with NASH, ALD, and cryptogenic hepatitis, respectively. The prevalence of cirrhosis in patients with NASH was significantly higher than the prevalence of cirrhosis in the other groups (P < 0.001). Overall, 70% of the non-malignant liver tissue of patients with NBNC-HCC was not involved with cirrhosis. On the other hand, the median FIB-4 index in patients with cryptogenic HCC was 2.56, which was a significantly lower value than those values in the other groups of patients. The FIB-4 index considered as one of useful screening of HCC. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of NBNC-HCC has increased rapidly even in a regional university hospital. Metabolic syndrome may be an important risk factor for HCC. HCC was also found in patients with non-cirrhotic livers. The FIB-4 index may be a useful screening method for HCC in patients with NBNC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia
2.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 215, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a recent surge in interest in predicting biological effects associated with genomic alterations in order to implement personalized cancer treatment strategies. However, no reports have yet evaluated the utility of profiling blood-based circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with lenvatinib (LEN). METHOD: We retrospectively performed ctDNA next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis in 24 patients with advanced HCC at baseline and 4 weeks after initiation of LEN. Association of the changes in variant allele frequencies (VAFs) during treatment and clinical outcome were evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 131 single nucleotide variants, 17 indels, and 23 copy number variations were detected as somatic alterations in 28, 6, and 12 genes, respectively in 23 of 24 patients. The most frequently altered genes were TP53 (54%), CTNNB1 (42%), TERT (42%), ATM (25%), and ARID1A (13%). The reduction in the mean frequency of variants (VAFmean) following 4 weeks of LEN treatment was associated with longer progression-free survival. The specificity and sensitivity of the reduction of VAFmean for predicting partial response were 0.67 and 1.0, respectively, which were higher than those of serum α-fetoprotein level (0.10 and 0.93, respectively). No association between the mutation status at baseline and the effectiveness of LEN was observed. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that somatic alterations could be detected in the majority of advanced HCC patients by ctDNA profiling and that ctDNA-kinetics during LEN treatment was a useful marker of disease progression. These results suggest that ctDNA profiling is a promising method that provides valuable information in clinical practice.

3.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(9): 1304-1311, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105859

RESUMO

While the preS1 region of the large hepatitis B surface protein plays an essential role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the effect of preS1 on liver fibrosis and hepatocarcinogenesis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is not well known. In this study, we measured serum preS1 levels by chemiluminescent immunoassay technology in 690 CHB patients and evaluated the correlation between serum preS1 levels and HBV, liver function markers and liver inflammation, fibrosis assessed by histological findings. Predictive factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in patients who had no previous history of HCC at the time of preS1 level measurement were also analysed. Median hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and preS1 levels were 3.08 log IU/mL and 98 ng/mL, respectively. PreS1 values were significantly correlated with serum HBsAg (p <0.001), hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) (p <0.001) and HBV DNA levels (p <0.01). PreS1 values were also significantly correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase levels (p <0.001) and were significantly higher in patients who had higher grading of liver inflammatory activity (p <0.05). HBsAg level was correlated, but preS1/HBsAg ratio reflected liver fibrosis staging more directly than HBsAg alone. Multivariate analysis identified age ≥53 years (hazard ratio [HR], 18.360 for <53 years; p = 0.021) and preS1/HBsAg ratio ≥0.12 (HR, 6.205 for <0.12; p = 0.040) as significant and independent factors for HCC development in CHB patients. The preS1/HBsAg ratio directly reflects liver fibrosis, and the ratio might be a predictive marker for HCC development in CHB patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite B Crônica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , DNA Viral , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 559: 78-83, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932902

RESUMO

Combination therapy with glecaprevir and pibrentasvir (PIB) has high efficacy for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection except among those who experienced NS5A-P32 deletion (del) mutation during prior DAA treatment failure. However, some patients fail to achieve SVR through combination treatment even in the absence of NS5A-P32del. We analyzed emergence of NS5A resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) against PIB using HCV-infected mice. Male human hepatocyte transplanted mice were infected with genotype 1b wild-type HCV. Mice were treated with PIB, resulting in a transient decrease in serum HCV RNA levels but followed by relapse during the treatment. Direct sequence analysis showed emergences of various mutations in the NS5A region, including L31V/P32del, L31F/P32del/Y93H, NS5A-P29del/Y85C, and NS5A-F37Y. PIB was less effective in mice with NS5A-F37Y mutations compared to mice with wild-type HCV. NS5A-F37Y showed 5.4-fold resistance to PIB relative to wild-type based on analysis using HCV subgenomic replicon systems. The present in vivo and in vitro studies identified NS5A-F37Y as a novel RAS against PIB and showed the possibility of emergence of various NS5A RASs including P29del, P32del and F37Y following PIB treatment. These mutations might emerge and lead to failure to respond to DAA therapies including PIB-based regimens in chronic hepatitis C patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/virologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico
5.
J Gastroenterol ; 56(1): 67-77, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world data on the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir plus velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) treatment for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related decompensated cirrhosis are limited in Japan. METHODS: A total of 190 patients with compensated (108) or decompensated (82) cirrhosis who initiated direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment between February 2019 and August 2019 were enrolled. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was defined as undetectable serum HCV-RNA at 12 weeks after the end of treatment (EOT). RESULTS: The SVR12 rates were 92.6% in patients with compensated cirrhosis and 90.2% in patients with decompensated cirrhosis (p = 0.564), and the treatment completion rates were 98.1% and 96.3%, respectively (p = 0.372). In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, 3 patients discontinued treatment and 2 patients died because of liver-related events. In patients with decompensated cirrhosis with SVR12, 50% of patients with Child-Pugh class B at baseline showed improvement to class A at SVR12, and 27% and 9% of patients with Child-Pugh class C at baseline showed improvement to class B and class A at SVR12, respectively. Patients who achieved SVR12 showed elevated serum albumin levels at the EOT, which were further elevated at SVR12, but no elevated serum albumin levels after the EOT were observed in patients with baseline serum albumin levels less than 2.8 g/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Real-world efficacy of SOF/VEL treatment for patients with decompensated cirrhosis was similar to Japanese phase 3 study, although treatment discontinuation and death related to liver disease occurred. In patients with poor hepatic reserve, whether it improves continuously after viral clearance requires further evaluation.

6.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(4): 1268-1275, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum IgG4 level is a useful diagnostic marker for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), but it is difficult to use to predict relapse. AIMS: We investigated whether serum autotaxin (ATX) level is predictive of AIP relapse after steroid therapy. METHODS: Fifty-six patients with type 1 AIP were investigated. We measured serum ATX at the time of diagnosis. We selected 24 males for whom serum samples during steroid therapy had been obtained and measured serum ATX at steroid therapy for induction of remission and at maintenance therapy. In the relapse group, we also measured ATX at the time of relapse. RESULTS: ATX was significantly higher in female patients than in male patients. In order to clarify changes in ATX during steroid therapy, we focused on 24 male patients. We found that ATX decreased significantly during steroid therapy for induction of remission and at the time of maintenance therapy. In half of all patients who relapsed during maintenance therapy, ATX was significantly elevated at the time of relapse compared with that of induction therapy (P = 0.039). When we compared ATX at the time of maintenance therapy between patients with relapse and without, we observed significantly higher ATX in the former (P = 0.024). We found that the combination of ATX and elastase-1 could predict relapse with high accuracy (95%). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary evidence suggests that serum ATX might serve as a candidate biomarker to predict relapse of AIP as well as to monitor the effect of steroid therapy.


Assuntos
Pancreatite Autoimune/sangue , Pancreatite Autoimune/diagnóstico , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pancreatite Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(3): 538-547, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215790

RESUMO

To investigate the long-term prognosis of liver disease in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication after antiviral therapy versus those with persistent HCV infection. Four hundred and eighty patients (5259 person-years [PYs]) who received interferon-based therapy and achieved sustained virologic response and 848 patients (3853 PYs) with persistent HCV infection were included. In the analysis of 1-year liver disease state transition probability matrices using Markov chain models, progression to cirrhosis from the chronic hepatitis state was observed (0.00%-0.63%) in patients with HCV eradication. Among patients with chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis and HCV eradication, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development was observed in males aged ≥ 50 years (0.97%-1.96%) and females aged ≥ 60 years (0.26%-5.00%). Additionally, in patients with cirrhosis and HCV eradication, improvement to chronic hepatitis was also observed (4.94%-10.64%). Conversely, in patients with chronic hepatitis and persistent HCV infection, progression to cirrhosis was observed in males aged ≥ 30 years and female aged ≥ 40 years (0.44%-1.99%). In males aged ≥ 40 years and female aged ≥ 50 years with cirrhosis, the transition probability for HCC was relatively high (4.17%-14.02%). Under the assumption of either chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis at age 40 or 60 years as the starting condition for simulation over the next 30 or 40 years, respectively, the probability of HCC was higher in patients with persistent HCV infection than those with HCV eradication. In conclusion, HCV eradication can reduce the risk of developing cirrhosis or HCC in patients with chronic HCV infection.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov
8.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(2): 400-409, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197288

RESUMO

Although glucocorticoids have been used for immunosuppression of patients with primary hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection-induced severe hepatitis, the treatment is associated with a high frequency of adverse events. We conducted a pilot study for evaluating the efficacy and safety of abatacept, a cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 immunoglobulin (CTLA4), for acute hepatitis B. Five patients with severe acute hepatitis B (prothrombin activity ≤ 60%) were treated for immunosuppression by abatacept. Four patients received abatacept concurrently with methylprednisolone, and another patient was treated with abatacept alone. Rapid decrease in serum alanine aminotransferase levels, increase in prothrombin activity and improvement of general condition were obtained in four out of five patients. The patient with the most severe hepatitis underwent liver transplantation due to exacerbation of hepatitis in spite of treatment with both abatacept and methylprednisolone. None of the patients developed significant adverse events associated with the use of abatacept. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) became negative in all five patients. The effect of abatacept and methylprednisolone for severe hepatitis B was compared using a mouse model. Rapid reduction in mouse serum HBV DNA and human albumin levels and elevation of serum interferon-gamma and granzyme A levels were observed in HBV-infected human hepatocyte-transplanted immunodeficient mice that were administered human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These hepatocyte injuries were inhibited to a greater extent by abatacept compared to methylprednisolone. Abatacept might be an effective therapy alternative to methylprednisolone to reduce acute massive liver damage for patients with severe acute hepatitis caused by HBV infection.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , Abatacepte , Animais , DNA Viral , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Camundongos , Projetos Piloto
9.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179077

RESUMO

Non­alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) may progress via liver fibrosis along with hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs58542926) located in transmembrane 6 superfamily 2 (TM6SF2) has been reported to be significantly associated with fibrosis in patients with NASH, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. The present study aimed to explore the role of TM6SF2 in HSC activation in vitro. Plasmids producing TM6SF2 wild-type (WT) and mutant type (MT) containing E167K amino acid substitution were constructed, and the activation of LX­2 cells was analyzed by overexpressing or knocking down TM6SF2 under transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß) treatment. Intracellular α­smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression in LX­2 cells was significantly repressed by TM6SF2­WT overexpression and increased by TM6SF2 knockdown. Following treatment with TGFß, αSMA expression was restored in TM6SF2­WT overexpressed LX­2 cells and was enhanced in TM6SF2 knocked­down LX­2 cells. Comparing αSMA expression under TM6SF2­WT or ­MT overexpression, expression of αSMA in TM6SF2­MT overexpressed cells was higher than that in TM6SF2­WT cells and was further enhanced by TGFß treatment. The present study demonstrated that intracellular αSMA expression in HCS was negatively regulated by TM6SF2 while the E167K substitution released this negative regulation and led to enhanced HSC activation by TGFß. These results suggest that the SNP in TM6SF2 may relate to sensitivity of HSC activation.


Assuntos
Actinas/genética , Células Estreladas do Fígado/citologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia
10.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(6): 1685-1693, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the factors that contribute to the maintenance of relative dose intensity (RDI) of lenvatinib in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with advanced HCC treated with lenvatinib were enrolled. We evaluated the relationship between maintenance of RDI and various clinical data, parameters obtained by body composition measurements with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and grip strength at the start of lenvatinib treatment. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that only the extracellular water to total body water ratio (ECW/TBW) ≤ 0.400 at initiation of treatment was associated with RDI ≥ 50% (odds ratio, 6.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-48.00; P = 0.049). When the RDI was compared between ECW/TBW ≤ 0.400 group and ECW/TBW > 0.400 group, the RDI was significantly higher in the ECW/TBW ≤ 0.400 group at each of 0-4W, 4-6W, and 6-8W points. The P value at each point was 0.003, 0.003, and 0.005, respectively. On the other hand, multivariate analysis showed that only the ECW/TBW ≤ 0.400 at initiation of treatment was associated with the extension of duration until reduction or withdrawal of lenvatinib (hazard ratio, 4.86; 95% CI, 1.52-15.50; P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: The extracellular water to total body water ratio, a parameter of body composition measurement by BIA, was significantly associated with the maintenance of RDI and the duration until reduction or withdrawal of lenvatinib in HCC patients. In addition to standard predictors such as Child-Pugh score and modified albumin-bilirubin grade that have been used to date, ECW/TBW might be a new predictor of RDI in HCC patients treated with lenvatinib.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Impedância Elétrica , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
11.
J Gastroenterol ; 55(12): 1162-1170, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though both interferon (IFN)-based and direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies against hepatitis C virus (HCV) reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), post-sustained virological response (SVR) patients remain at elevated risk of HCC. METHODS: A total of 4620 patients who achieved SVR were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. After excluding patients who had a history of HCC or developed HCC within 1 year and whose follow-up period was less than 1 year and who were positive for HBsAg, we investigated the association between clinical characteristics and HCC development after SVR in the remaining 3771 patients. RESULTS: Median observation period was 41 months. We confirmed known risk factors. In addition, we found that PNPLA3 and HLA-DQB1 polymorphisms were associated with HCC after SVR. Finally, we propose an estimation model for the incidence of HCC after SVR. Based on gender, FIB-4 index, AFP, and PNPLA3 polymorphism, about 18% of all patients were classified as having high risk, with a cumulative incidence rate (CIR) at 5 years of 16.5%. Another 17% were classified as having moderate risk with a CIR of 7.6%. The remaining 65% showed a CIR of 0.5%. The effect of PNPLA3 polymorphism might be more pronounced in patients with lower body mass index (BMI) and without diabetes mellitus compared to those with higher BMI and diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that PNPLA3 and HLA-DQB1 polymorphisms were associated with HCC after SVR. These findings might be useful to inform risk stratification for HCC surveillance after SVR.

12.
Hepatol Res ; 50(11): 1234-1243, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914512

RESUMO

AIM: Combination therapy with sofosbuvir (SOF) plus velpatasvir (VEL) is approved for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related decompensated cirrhosis. We analyzed the real-world efficacy of SOF/VEL therapy. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis (25 and eight patients with Child B and C, respectively) were treated with SOF/VEL for 12 weeks. The HCV non-structural protein (NS)5A and NS5B drug resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) were determined by direct sequencing. RESULT: Thirty-two of 33 patients completed the treatment, but the remaining patient discontinued the therapy during third week of the treatment due to aggravation of hepatic encephalopathy. Serum HCV-RNA became negative during the treatment in all patients but relapsed after the end of therapy in five patients. In total, 28 out of 33 patients (85%) achieved sustained virological response 12 weeks following completion of treatment (SVR12). The SVR12 rate was 96% in patients with Child B, but significantly lower, at 50%, in patients with Child C (P < 0.05). In genotype 1b HCV-infected patients, all eight patients without baseline NS5A RASs, but only three of seven patients with RASs, achieved SVR12. Multivariate analysis identified Child B (odds ratio, 35.8 for Child C; P = 0.045) as an independent predictor of SVR12. Median serum albumin levels significantly increased only in patients who achieved SVR12. Child-Pugh scores improved in 16 of 28 patients (57%) following achievement of SVR12. CONCLUSION: The effect of SOF/VEL therapy is lower for patients with Child C. Improvement of hepatic function is expected after viral eradication with SOF/VEL therapy in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

13.
Hepatol Res ; 50(11): 1222-1233, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767446

RESUMO

AIM: We analyzed the impact of hepatitis C virus eradication by direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy on the risk of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), prognosis, and portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: The rate of HCC development and overall survival after achievement of sustained virological response (SVR) in 173 DAA-treated compensated cirrhosis patients without HCC history were retrospectively compared with that of 125 cirrhosis patients who achieved SVR by interferon (IFN)-based therapy or that of 85 cirrhosis patients who failed to respond to anti-HCV therapy. Changes in esophagogastric varices (EGV) and incidence of portosystemic encephalopathy were analyzed in 87 consecutive cirrhosis patients. RESULTS: The cumulative HCC development rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 2%, 7%, and 7% for the DAA-SVR group, significantly lower than the 3%, 7%, and 18% for the non-SVR group (log-rank, P < 0.001). The cumulative overall survival rates were also significantly improved in the DAA-SVR group compared to the non-SVR group (log-rank, P < 0.001). These rates were similar between DAA-SVR and IFN-SVR groups (P = 0.121 and 0.261, respectively). Esophagogastric varices were aggravated, and portosystemic encephalopathy occurred in a subset of cirrhosis patients who achieved SVR by DAA therapy. These events were more frequent in patients with large feeding vessels for EGV and portosystemic shunts at the time of SVR. CONCLUSION: Achievement of SVR by DAA therapy reduces the risk of HCC development and prolongs survival, similar to theresults achieved with IFN-based therapy, but portal hypertension is not immediately improved in compensated liver cirrhosis patients.

14.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 11(5): e00179, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Biomarkers for optimizing the outcome of treatment with lenvatinib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma remain to be established despite intensive and comprehensive genomic research. Lenvatinib is characterized by its prominent inhibitory potency for fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4 compared with earlier tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Thus, in this study, we focused on simplified quantification of FGFR4 in tumors as a potential predictive indicator. METHODS: According to The Cancer Genome Atlas data set curation, FGFR4 messenger RNA is broadly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of gene alteration. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the aggressiveness of the tumor was closely related to the FGFR4 level. To confirm the relationship between the benefits of lenvatinib and tumor addiction to the FGFR4 pathway, we analyzed protein levels in tumors and peripheral blood obtained from 57 prospectively registered patients treated with lenvatinib. RESULTS: Positive immunohistochemistry (>10% of tumor cells) for FGFR4 in biopsy samples before treatment was associated with a longer progression-free survival (2.5 vs 5.5 months, P = 0.01) and a favorable objective response rate (31% vs 81%, P = 0.006). By contrast, the concentration of soluble FGFR4 in peripheral blood as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was not associated with survival outcomes, because its fluctuations reflect hepatic fibrosis. Additional RNA sequencing analysis using archival surgical specimens (n = 90) suggested that alternative RNA splicing of FGFR4 in cancer may also explain this discrepancy. DISCUSSION: The tumor FGFR4 level was an independent predictor of response to lenvatinib.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Processamento Alternativo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Biópsia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos
15.
Int J Surg ; 80: 84-90, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in programmed cell death protein (PD)-1 is related to the postoperative prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The immune checkpoint protein PD-1 is an important inhibitor of T cell responses. SNP in the promoter region of PD-1 -606 G/A has been reported to result in high activation and expression of PD-1 associated with cancer risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 321 patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy between 2010 and 2015. PD-1 SNP was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, and the prognosis after surgical treatment of patients with HCC was analyzed. RESULTS: The PD-1 SNP statuses were as follows: 90 AA (28.1%), 163 GA (50.8%), 68 GG (21.2%). The baseline parameters did not statistically differ between the three groups. The overall survival (OS) of patients with the GG genotype was significantly lower than that of those with the other genotypes (P = 0.031). The GG genotype was an independent risk factor for OS (P = 0.009; HR 2.201). There was no significant difference between the GG genotype and other genotypes in recurrent-free survival. The extrahepatic recurrence (EHR) rate of those with the GG genotype was significantly higher than that of those with the other genotypes (P = 0.036). The GG genotype was an independent risk factor for EHR (P = 0.008; HR 2.037). CONCLUSIONS: The PD-1 SNP GG genotype is associated with poor survival and increased EHR in HCC. Furthermore, the GG genotype is an independent predictive factor for OS and EHR.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Nat Genet ; 52(7): 669-679, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514122

RESUMO

The overwhelming majority of participants in current genetic studies are of European ancestry. To elucidate disease biology in the East Asian population, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 212,453 Japanese individuals across 42 diseases. We detected 320 independent signals in 276 loci for 27 diseases, with 25 novel loci (P < 9.58 × 10-9). East Asian-specific missense variants were identified as candidate causal variants for three novel loci, and we successfully replicated two of them by analyzing independent Japanese cohorts; p.R220W of ATG16L2 (associated with coronary artery disease) and p.V326A of POT1 (associated with lung cancer). We further investigated enrichment of heritability within 2,868 annotations of genome-wide transcription factor occupancy, and identified 378 significant enrichments across nine diseases (false discovery rate < 0.05) (for example, NKX3-1 for prostate cancer). This large-scale GWAS in a Japanese population provides insights into the etiology of complex diseases and highlights the importance of performing GWAS in non-European populations.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Japão , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
J Infect Dis ; 222(12): 2061-2070, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X (HBx) protein is associated with hepatocellular carcinogenesis via the induction of malignant transformation and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the association between HBx and histone methyltransferase in carcinogenesis has not been fully clarified. In the current study, we analyzed the association between HBx and the histone methyltransferase suppressor of variegation 3-9 homolog 1 (SUV39h1) using HBV replication models. METHODS: We constructed several HBx and SUV39h1 expression plasmids and analyzed the association between HBx and SUV39h1 with respect to HBV replication and hepatocarcinogenesis. RESULTS: SUV39h1 up-regulation was observed in HBV-infected humanized mouse livers and clinical HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, indicating that SUV39h1 expression might be regulated by HBV infection. Through in vitro analysis, we determined that the coactivator domain of HBx interacts with the PSET (PostSET) and SET (Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax) domains of SUV39h1. The expression levels of 4 genes, activating transcription factor 6, α-fetoprotein, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45a, and dual-specificity phosphatase 1, known to induce carcinogenesis via HBx expression, were up-regulated by HBx and further up-regulated in the presence of both HBx and SUV39h1. Furthermore, histone methyltransferase activity, the main function of SUV39h1, was enhanced in the presence of HBx. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that SUV39h1 and HBx enhance each other's activity, leading to HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. We propose that regulation of this interaction could help suppress development of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/metabolismo , Fator 6 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fosfatases de Especificidade Dupla/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Ativação Transcricional , Regulação para Cima , alfa-Fetoproteínas/metabolismo
18.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920922051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547646

RESUMO

Background: Although lenvatinib was recently approved for treatment of advanced unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on the phase III REFLECT trial, no biomarkers for management of lenvatinib treatment have been established. The aim of this study is to identify predictive biomarkers for the management of lenvatinib treatment in advanced HCC patients. Methods: A total of 41 patients with advanced HCC were enrolled in this retrospective study. Serum levels of 22 circulating cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAFs) were measured by multiplex Luminex assay. Profiles of CAFs, clinical chemistry/hematology parameters, and clinical background were evaluated to explore biomarkers associated with clinical outcomes. Results: Relative dose intensity (RDI) decreased significantly between weeks 1-2 and 3-4 (p < 0.001), and RDI during weeks 3-4 was a prominent indicator of progression-free survival (PFS). A signature based on baseline serum levels of nine CAFs associated with low RDI was identified. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, patients with a favorable 9-CAFs signature [hazard ratio (HR) 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18-0.96, p = 0.040] had lower risk, and Child-Pugh grade B (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-8.3, p = 0.026) and presence of macrovascular invasion (MVI; HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.0-8.3, p = 0.045) had higher risk of shorter PFS. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that RDI is an important predictive factor for longer PFS during lenvatinib treatment. In this hypothesis-generating exploratory analysis, we report that a CAF-signature associated with adverse events and RDI could predict PFS, which might contribute to improved management of lenvatinib treatment in HCC patients.

19.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(8): 1412-1419, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The most important prognostic factor for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is liver fibrosis. The aim of this study is to examine clinical parameters involved in pathological progression in NASH patients who underwent repeated liver biopsy and to analyze the response to treatment with respect to NASH-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We performed longitudinal analysis of genetic and clinical factors associated with progression of NASH. METHODS: Eighty NASH patients who had undergone serial liver biopsies were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. Histological exacerbation was determined based on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (NAS) and liver fibrosis. RESULTS: About 22.5% had progression of fibrosis, 22.5% had improvement of fibrosis, and 55.0% had no change. NAS increased in 12.5%, decreased in 61.3%, and remained stable in the remaining 26.3%. We examined factors associated with histological progression versus non-progression. Poor response of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, increase in HbA1c levels, and presence of the tumor necrosis factor risk allele in the rs1799964 SNP were identified as independent risk factors contributing to histological progression in NASH patients. In addition, we found that the histological progression rate varies with ALT response, HbA1c levels, and rs1799964 genotype. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we clarified the serum ALT level and the clinical significance of HbA1c to evaluate the progression of fibrosis in Japanese NASH patients. Furthermore, the tumor necrosis factor SNP was more likely to be involved in the response than PNPLA3 SNP. By simultaneously evaluating three factors, it is possible to estimate the risk of histological progression more accurately.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Biópsia , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fibrose , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Med Virol ; 92(2): 210-218, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584207

RESUMO

Ribavirin (RBV) induces nucleotide (nt) substitutions in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome nonstructural (NS) regions. Although emergence of drug resistance-associated variants is associated with direct-acting antiviral treatment failure, the effect of RBV on genome substitutions in such patients is unknown. Genotype 1b HCV subgenomic replicon cells were treated with RBV for 120 hours. Six patients with chronic genotype 1b with HCV-infected patients who failed to respond to prior daclatasvir plus asunaprevir (DCV/ASV) therapy were treated with 12 weeks of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir plus RBV after 4 weeks of RBV monotherapy. RBV-induced genome mutations in the HCV NS region (nt3493-9301) in replicon cells and in patients during 4 weeks of RBV monotherapy were analyzed by deep sequencing. RBV-associated G-to-A and C-to-U transitions increased in a dose-dependent manner in HCV replicon cells after the RBV treatment. In patients with prior DCV/ASV treatment failures, the median serum HCV RNA level was 6.25 ± 0.31 log IU/mL at the start of RBV therapy and decreased significantly to 5.95 ± 0.4 log IU/mL (P = .03) after 4 weeks of RBV monotherapy. Although predominant HCV genome substitutions rates were similar between nontreatment and RBV-treatment periods (0.042 and 0.031 per base pair, respectively; P = .248), the frequencies of G-to-A and C-to-U transitions significantly increased after RBV monotherapy. These transitions were enriched, particularly within the HCV NS3 region in all patients. RBV treatment induces G-to-A and C-to-U transitions in the HCV genome even in chronic patients with hepatitis C with prior DCV/ASV treatment failures.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Farmacorresistência Viral , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Valina/análogos & derivados , Valina/uso terapêutico
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