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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

2.
Depress Anxiety ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety may unfavorably impact on cardiac autonomic dysregulation. However, it is unclear whether this relationship results from a causal effect or may be attributable to confounding factors. We tested the relationship between depression and anxiety with heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) across a 9-year follow-up (FU) period and investigated possible confounding by antidepressant use and genetic pleiotropy. METHODS: Data (no. of observations = 6,994, 65% female) were obtained from the longitudinal Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, with repeated waves of data collection of HR, HRV, depression, anxiety, and antidepressant use. Summary statistics from meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies were used to derive polygenic risk scores of depression, HR, and HRV. RESULTS: Across the 9-year FU, generalized estimating equations analyses showed that the relationship between cardiac autonomic dysregulation and depression/anxiety rendered nonsignificant after adjusting for antidepressant use. A robust association was found between antidepressant use (especially tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin, and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) and unfavorable cardiac autonomic activity across all waves. However, no evidence was found for a genetic correlation of depression with HR and HRV, indicating that confounding by genetic pleiotropy is minimal. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the association between depression/anxiety and cardiac autonomic dysregulation does not result from a causal pathway or genetic pleiotropy, and these traits might therefore not be inevitably linked. Previously reported associations were likely confounded by the use of certain classes of antidepressants.

3.
Nat Genet ; 51(11): 1624-1636, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636452

RESUMO

Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.

4.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with metabolic alterations, which adversely impact cardiometabolic health. Here, a comprehensive set of metabolic markers, predominantly lipids, was compared between depressed and nondepressed persons. METHODS: Nine Dutch cohorts were included, comprising 10,145 control subjects and 5283 persons with depression, established with diagnostic interviews or questionnaires. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics platform provided 230 metabolite measures: 51 lipids, fatty acids, and low-molecular-weight metabolites; 98 lipid composition and particle concentration measures of lipoprotein subclasses; and 81 lipid and fatty acids ratios. For each metabolite measure, logistic regression analyses adjusted for gender, age, smoking, fasting status, and lipid-modifying medication were performed within cohort, followed by random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of the 51 lipids, fatty acids, and low-molecular-weight metabolites, 21 were significantly related to depression (false discovery rate q < .05). Higher levels of apolipoprotein B, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, diglycerides, total and monounsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid chain length, glycoprotein acetyls, tyrosine, and isoleucine and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, acetate, and apolipoprotein A1 were associated with increased odds of depression. Analyses of lipid composition indicators confirmed a shift toward less high-density lipoprotein and more very-low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride particles in depression. Associations appeared generally consistent across gender, age, and body mass index strata and across cohorts with depressive diagnoses versus symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This large-scale meta-analysis indicates a clear distinctive profile of circulating lipid metabolites associated with depression, potentially opening new prevention or treatment avenues for depression and its associated cardiometabolic comorbidity.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 219, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488809

RESUMO

Trials testing the effect of vitamin D or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n3-PUFA) supplementation on major depressive disorder (MDD) reported conflicting findings. These trials were inspired by epidemiological evidence suggesting an inverse association of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) and n3-PUFA levels with MDD. Observational associations may emerge from unresolved confounding, shared genetic risk, or direct causal relationships. We explored the nature of these associations exploiting data and statistical tools from genomics. Results from genome-wide association studies on 25-OH-D (N = 79 366), n3-PUFA (N = 24 925), and MDD (135 458 cases, 344 901 controls) were applied to individual-level data (>2000 subjects with measures of genotype, DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition) lifetime MDD diagnoses and circulating 25-OH-D and n3-PUFA) and summary-level data analyses. Shared genetic risk between traits was tested by polygenic risk scores (PRS). Two-sample Mendelian Randomization (2SMR) analyses tested the potential bidirectional causality between traits. In individual-level data analyses, PRS were associated with the phenotype of the same trait (PRS 25-OH-D p = 1.4e - 20, PRS n3-PUFA p = 9.3e - 6, PRS MDD p = 1.4e - 4), but not with the other phenotypes, suggesting a lack of shared genetic effects. In summary-level data analyses, 2SMR analyses provided no evidence of a causal role on MDD of 25-OH-D (p = 0.50) or n3-PUFA (p = 0.16), or for a causal role of MDD on 25-OH-D (p = 0.25) or n3-PUFA (p = 0.66). Applying genomics tools indicated that shared genetic risk or direct causality between 25-OH-D, n3-PUFA, and MDD is unlikely: unresolved confounding may explain the associations reported in observational studies. These findings represent a cautionary tale for testing supplementation of these compounds in preventing or treating MDD.

7.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 110: 104429, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the association between measures of adiposity with depressive mood and specific depressive symptoms. METHODS: This study was performed in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study, a population-based study that consists of 6671 middle-aged individuals. We examined the association between measures of overall adiposity (BMI and total body fat), and abdominal adiposity (waist circumference and visceral adipose tissue), with depressive mood severity subgroups and 30 depressive symptoms. Multinomial logistic regression was performed adjusting for potential confounding. RESULTS: Measures of adiposity were associated with depressive mood in a graded fashion. Total body fat showed the strongest association with mild (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.59 per standard deviation, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 1.41-1.80) and moderate to very severe (OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.59-2.44) depressive mood. Regarding individual symptoms of depressive mood, total body fat was associated with most depressive symptoms (strongest associations for hyperphagia and fatigability). CONCLUSIONS: In the general population, overall and abdominal adiposity measures were associated with depressive mood. This association encompasses most of the depressive symptoms and appeared to be the strongest with specific ''atypical'' neurovegetative symptoms, which may be an indication of an alteration in the energy homeostasis.

8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501512

RESUMO

Recurrent and chronic major depressive disorder (MDD) accounts for a substantial part of the disease burden because this course is most prevalent and typically requires long-term treatment. We associated blood DNA methylation profiles from 581 MDD patients at baseline with MDD status 6 years later. A resampling approach showed a highly significant association between methylation profiles in blood at baseline and future disease status (P = 2.0 × 10-16). Top MWAS results were enriched specific pathways, overlapped with genes found in GWAS of MDD disease status, autoimmune disease and inflammation, and co-localized with eQTLS and (genic enhancers of) of transcription sites in brain and blood. Many of these findings remained significant after correction for multiple testing. The major themes emerging were cellular responses to stress and signaling mechanisms linked to immune cell migration and inflammation. This suggests that an immune signature of treatment-resistant depression is already present at baseline. We also created a methylation risk score (MRS) to predict MDD status 6 years later. The AUC of our MRS was 0.724 and higher than risk scores created using a set of five putative MDD biomarkers, genome-wide SNP data, and 27 clinical, demographic and lifestyle variables. Although further studies are needed to examine the generalizability to different patient populations, these results suggest that methylation profiles in blood may present a promising avenue to support clinical decision making by providing empirical information about the likelihood MDD is chronic or will recur in the future.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 193, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431611

RESUMO

The pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly heterogeneous. Previous evidence at the DNA level as well as on the serum protein level suggests that the role of inflammation in MDD pathology is stronger in patients with hyperphagia during an active episode. Which inflammatory pathways differ in MDD patients with hyperphagia inflammatory pathways in terms of gene expression is unknown. We analyzed whole-blood gene expression profiles of 881 current MDD cases and 331 controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The MDD patients were stratified according to patients with hyperphagia (characterized by increased appetite and/or weight, N = 246) or hypophagia (characterized by decreased appetite and/or weight, N = 342). Using results of differential gene expression analysis between controls and the MDD subgroups, enrichment of curated inflammatory pathways was estimated. The majority of the pathways were significantly (FDR < 0.1) enriched in the expression profiles of MDD cases with hyperphagia, including top pathways related to factors responsible for the onset of inflammatory response ('caspase', 'GATA3', 'NFAT', and 'inflammasomes' pathways). Only two pathways ('adaptive immune system' and 'IL-8- and CXCR2-mediated signaling') were enriched in the MDD with hypophagia subgroup, these were also enriched in the total current MDD group and the group with hyperphagia. This confirms the importance of inflammation in MDD pathology of patients with hyperphagia, and suggests that distinguishing more uniform MDD phenotypes can help in finding their pathophysiological basis.

10.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(9): 950-961, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358974

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol consumption is a heritable complex trait. Here we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of alcohol consumption (g d-1) from the UK Biobank, the Alcohol Genome-Wide Consortium and the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Plus consortia, collecting data from 480,842 people of European descent to decipher the genetic architecture of alcohol intake. We identified 46 new common loci and investigated their potential functional importance using magnetic resonance imaging data and gene expression studies. We identify genetic pathways associated with alcohol consumption and suggest genetic mechanisms that are shared with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.

11.
Neurology ; 92(16): e1899-e1911, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify a plasma metabolomic biomarker signature for migraine. METHODS: Plasma samples from 8 Dutch cohorts (n = 10,153: 2,800 migraine patients and 7,353 controls) were profiled on a 1H-NMR-based metabolomics platform, to quantify 146 individual metabolites (e.g., lipids, fatty acids, and lipoproteins) and 79 metabolite ratios. Metabolite measures associated with migraine were obtained after single-metabolite logistic regression combined with a random-effects meta-analysis performed in a nonstratified and sex-stratified manner. Next, a global test analysis was performed to identify sets of related metabolites associated with migraine. The Holm procedure was applied to control the family-wise error rate at 5% in single-metabolite and global test analyses. RESULTS: Decreases in the level of apolipoprotein A1 (ß -0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.16, -0.05; adjusted p = 0.029) and free cholesterol to total lipid ratio present in small high-density lipoprotein subspecies (HDL) (ß -0.10; 95% CI -0.15, -0.05; adjusted p = 0.029) were associated with migraine status. In addition, only in male participants, a decreased level of omega-3 fatty acids (ß -0.24; 95% CI -0.36, -0.12; adjusted p = 0.033) was associated with migraine. Global test analysis further supported that HDL traits (but not other lipoproteins) were associated with migraine status. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic profiling of plasma yielded alterations in HDL metabolism in migraine patients and decreased omega-3 fatty acids only in male migraineurs.

12.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(10): 829-837, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While cross-sectional associations of inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein with major depressive disorder are well established, evidence for longitudinal associations mostly comes from studies on depression symptoms, not diagnoses. This study examined cross-sectional and bidirectional longitudinal associations between depression diagnosis and symptoms in an adult sample over a 6-year period. METHODS: Data were obtained from the baseline (n = 2416) and 2- and 6-year follow-up assessments (n = 1925 and n = 1924, respectively) of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. C-reactive protein and IL-6 were assessed at each wave, as were the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equation models with a binomial distribution were used to study longitudinal associations between depression and inflammation and vice versa. RESULTS: There was a consistent cross-sectional association between current depressive disorder (vs. no current disorder) and symptoms with IL-6 across all follow-up measurements (Cohen's ddepression diagnosis = 0.06, p = .017; Bstandardized Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology = 0.029, SE = 0.011, p = .008). In longitudinal analyses, higher IL-6 levels predicted subsequent chronic course in those with a diagnosis at baseline in women but not in men (odds ratiowomen = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.23), and both depressive disorder and high severity predicted higher IL-6 levels at the subsequent follow-up (p values < .01). In contrast, C-reactive protein was not associated with current depression in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In this longitudinal study, cross-sectional and bidirectional longitudinal associations were found between depression and IL-6 levels. This underlines the importance of targeting inflammation pathways in the treatment of major depressive disorder. IL-6 could be a potential marker for patient profiling in personalized medicine approaches.

13.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 102: 121-127, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While there is robust evidence for a cross-sectional association between depression and shorter telomere length, suggestive of advanced biological aging, the nature of this association remains unclear. Here, we tested whether both traits share a common genetic liability with novel methods using genomics. METHODS: Data were from 2032 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) with genome-wide genetic information and multiple waves of data on DSM-IV lifetime depression diagnosis, depression severity, neuroticism and telomere length. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for both traits were built using summary results from the largest genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on depression (59,851 cases and 113,154 controls) and telomere length (37,684 samples). Additionally, a PRS for neuroticism was built (337,000 samples). Genetic overlap between the traits was tested using PRS for same- and cross-trait associations. Furthermore, GWAS summary statistics were used to estimate the genome-wide genetic correlation between traits. RESULTS: In NESDA data, the PRS for depression was associated with lifetime depression (odds ratio = 1.36; p = 6.49e-7) and depression severity level (ß = 0.13; p = 1.24e-8), but not with telomere length. Similar results were found for the PRS for neuroticism. Conversely, the PRS for telomere length was associated with telomere length (ß = 0.07; p = 8.42e-4) and 6-year telomere length attrition rate (ß = 0.04; p = 2.15e-2), but not with depression variables. In summary-level analyses, the genetic correlation between the traits was small and not significant (rg=-0.08; p = .300). CONCLUSION: The use of genetic methods in this paper indicated that the established phenotypic association between telomere length and depression is unlikely due to shared underlying genetic vulnerability. Our findings suggest that short telomeres in depressed patients may simply represent a generic marker of disease or may originate from non-genetic environmental factors.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 691-706, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388399

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.

15.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(12): 1656-1669, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482948

RESUMO

Liability to alcohol dependence (AD) is heritable, but little is known about its complex polygenic architecture or its genetic relationship with other disorders. To discover loci associated with AD and characterize the relationship between AD and other psychiatric and behavioral outcomes, we carried out the largest genome-wide association study to date of DSM-IV-diagnosed AD. Genome-wide data on 14,904 individuals with AD and 37,944 controls from 28 case-control and family-based studies were meta-analyzed, stratified by genetic ancestry (European, n = 46,568; African, n = 6,280). Independent, genome-wide significant effects of different ADH1B variants were identified in European (rs1229984; P = 9.8 × 10-13) and African ancestries (rs2066702; P = 2.2 × 10-9). Significant genetic correlations were observed with 17 phenotypes, including schizophrenia, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, depression, and use of cigarettes and cannabis. The genetic underpinnings of AD only partially overlap with those for alcohol consumption, underscoring the genetic distinction between pathological and nonpathological drinking behaviors.

16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242228

RESUMO

We present the first large-scale methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) to identify sites of potential importance for MDD etiology. Using a sequencing-based approach that provides near-complete coverage of all 28 million common CpGs in the human genome, we assay methylation in MDD cases and controls from both blood (N = 1132) and postmortem brain tissues (N = 61 samples from Brodmann Area 10, BA10). The MWAS for blood identified several loci with P ranging from 1.91 × 10-8 to 4.39 × 10-8 and a resampling approach showed that the cumulative association was significant (P = 4.03 × 10-10) with the signal coming from the top 25,000 MWAS markers. Furthermore, a permutation-based analysis showed significant overlap (P = 5.4 × 10-3) between the MWAS findings in blood and brain (BA10). This overlap was significantly enriched for a number of features including being in eQTLs in blood and the frontal cortex, CpG islands and shores, and exons. The overlapping sites were also enriched for active chromatin states in brain including genic enhancers and active transcription start sites. Furthermore, three loci located in GABBR2, RUFY3, and in an intergenic region on chromosome 2 replicated with the same direction of effect in the second brain tissue (BA25, N = 60) from the same individuals and in two independent brain collections (BA10, N = 81 and 64). GABBR2 inhibits neuronal activity through G protein-coupled second-messenger systems and RUFY3 is implicated in the establishment of neuronal polarity and axon elongation. In conclusion, we identified and replicated methylated loci associated with MDD that are involved in biological functions of likely importance to MDD etiology.

17.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 97: 206-215, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that omega-3 (n-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), might have beneficial effects on somatic and mental health, potentially partly due to their mitigating effects on three major biological stress systems: the immune-inflammatory system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between (cumulative measures of) markers of three biological stress systems and n-3 PUFA and DHA plasma levels. DESIGN: Plasma n-3 PUFA and DHA were measured using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in 2724 participants from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Linear regression analyses (adjusted for sociodemographic, sampling, lifestyle and somatic disease variables) associated inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha), HPA-axis (cortisol awakening response and evening cortisol) and ANS (heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pre-ejection period) markers and cumulative indices within and across stress systems as independent variables with n-3 PUFA and DHA levels as dependent variables. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 41.8 (SD = 13.1) and 65.7% were female. Higher levels of all three inflammation markers (Beta=-.146 to -.073, all p-values<.001), evening cortisol (Beta=-.045, p = .033) and heart rate (Beta=-.080, p < 0.001) were significantly negatively associated with n-3 PUFA. Suggesting an exposure-response relationship, a higher number of markers indicative of inflammation and hyperactive HPA-axis (p < .001 and p = .003, respectively), but not of ANS dysregulation, was found in persons with lower n-3 PUFA levels. An exposure-response relationship was also found for having a higher number of different stress system dysregulations with lower n-3 PUFA levels (p < .001). For DHA, results were in line with those for n-3 PUFA, although with slightly smaller effect sizes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed that having various (cumulative) indicators of dysregulation of three biological stress systems was significantly associated with lower n-3 PUFA and DHA plasma levels. If low n-3 PUFA levels are the cause of dysregulated stress systems, then n-3 PUFA supplementation might reduce biological stress and thereby improve somatic and mental health.

18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 162, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135428

RESUMO

DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that provides stability and diversity to the cellular phenotype. It is influenced by both genetic sequence variation and environmental factors, and can therefore potentially account for variation of heritable phenotypes and disorders. Therefore, methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) are promising complements to genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of genetic variants. Of particular interest are methylation sites (CpGs) that are created or destroyed by the alleles of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as these so-called CpG-SNPs may show variation in methylation levels on top of what can be explained by the sequence variation. Using sequencing-based data from 1132 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases and controls, we performed a MWAS of 970,414 common CpG-SNPs. The analysis identified 27 suggestively significant (P < 1.00 × 10-5) CpG-SNPs associations. Furthermore, the MWAS results were over-represented (odds ratios ranging 1.36-5.00; P ranging 4.9 × 10-3-8.1 × 10-2) among findings from three recent GWAS for MDD-related phenotypes. Overlapping loci included, e.g., ROBO2, ASIC2, and DCC. As the CpG-SNP analysis accounts for the number of alleles that creates CpGs, the methylation differences could not be explained by differences in allele frequencies. Thus, the results show that the MWAS and GWASs provide independent lines of evidence for the involvement of these loci in MDD. In conclusion, our methylation study of MDD contributes novel information about loci of relevance that complements previous findings and generates new hypothesis about MDD etiology, such as that the functional effects of genetic association may be partly mediated and/or enhanced by the methylation status in these loci.

19.
J Psychosom Res ; 108: 93-101, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Low omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels have been found in patients with various major psychiatric disorders. This study aims to identify whether psychological vulnerabilities (personality and cognitive reactivity) underlying these psychiatric conditions are also associated with n-3 PUFA blood levels. METHODS: Data was used from 2912 subjects (mean age 41.9 years, 66.4% female) from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Five personality dimensions (NEO Five Factor Inventory) and cognitive reactivity measures (Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity-Revised and Anxiety Sensitivity Index) were assessed. Plasma n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels (as ratios against total fatty acids; mmol%) were assessed using a nuclear magnetic resonance platform. RESULTS: Low n-3 PUFA and DHA levels were associated with high neuroticism (Standardized beta (Beta) = -0.045, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = -0.079 to -0.010, p = 0.011; Beta = -0.058, 95%CI = -0.093 to -0.022, p = 0.001), low extraversion (Beta = 0.065, 95%CI = 0.031 to 0.099, p < 0.001; Beta = 0.074, 95%CI = 0.039 to 0.109, p < 0.001) and low conscientiousness (Beta = 0.060, 95%CI = 0.027 to 0.093, p < 0.001; Beta = 0.074, 95%CI = 0.039 to 0.108, p < 0.001). Low n-3 PUFA and DHA levels were related to high hopelessness/suicidality (Beta = -0.059, 95%CI = -0.096 to -0.023, p = 0.001; Beta = -0.078, 95%CI = -0.116 to -0.041, p < 0.001), but not with other cognitive reactivity measures. Directions of associations were generally consistent in subjects with and without a current depressive disorder. CONCLUSION: Low n-3 PUFA and DHA levels are associated with personality (high neuroticism, low extraversion and low conscientiousness) and cognitive reactivity (high hopelessness/suicidality). Effect sizes were rather small, but in line with previous research on personality and chronic diseases. Future research should examine which lifestyle and/or biological pathways underlie these associations.

20.
Am J Psychiatry ; 175(8): 774-782, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder is associated with an increased risk of mortality and aging-related diseases. The authors examined whether major depression is associated with higher epigenetic aging in blood as measured by DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns, whether clinical characteristics of major depression have a further impact on these patterns, and whether the findings replicate in brain tissue. METHOD: DNAm age was estimated using all methylation sites in blood of 811 depressed patients and 319 control subjects with no lifetime psychiatric disorders and low depressive symptoms from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. The residuals of the DNAm age estimates regressed on chronological age were calculated to indicate epigenetic aging. Major depression diagnosis and clinical characteristics were assessed with questionnaires and psychiatric interviews. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, and health status. Postmortem brain samples of 74 depressed patients and 64 control subjects were used for replication. Pathway enrichment analysis was conducted using ConsensusPathDB to gain insight into the biological processes underlying epigenetic aging in blood and brain. RESULTS: Significantly higher epigenetic aging was observed in patients with major depression compared with control subjects (Cohen's d=0.18), with a significant dose effect with increasing symptom severity in the overall sample. In the depression group, epigenetic aging was positively and significantly associated with childhood trauma score. The case-control difference was replicated in an independent data set of postmortem brain samples. The top significantly enriched Gene Ontology terms included neuronal processes. CONCLUSIONS: As compared with control subjects, patients with major depression exhibited higher epigenetic aging in blood and brain tissue, suggesting that they are biologically older than their corresponding chronological age. This effect was even more profound in the presence of childhood trauma.

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