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1.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375071

RESUMO

Bats are often claimed to be a major source for future viral epidemics, as they are associated with several viruses with zoonotic potential. Here we describe the presence and biodiversity of bats associated with intensive pig farms devoted to the production of heavy pigs in northern Italy. Since chiropters or signs of their presence were not found within animal shelters in our study area, we suggest that fecal viruses with high environmental resistance have the highest likelihood for spillover through indirect transmission. In turn, we investigated the circulation of mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs), coronaviruses (CoVs) and astroviruses (AstVs) in pigs and bats sharing the same environment. Results of our preliminary study did not show any bat virus in pigs suggesting that spillover from these animals is rare. However, several AstVs, CoVs and MRVs circulated undetected in pigs. Among those, one MRV was a reassortant strain carrying viral genes likely acquired from bats. On the other hand, we found a swine AstV and a MRV strain carrying swine genes in bat guano, indicating that viral exchange at the bat-pig interface might occur more frequently from pigs to bats rather than the other way around. Considering the indoor farming system as the most common system in the European Union (EU), preventive measures should focus on biosecurity rather than displacement of bats, which are protected throughout the EU and provide critical ecosystem services for rural settings.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Suínos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Quirópteros/virologia , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/genética , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Viroses/veterinária
2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(6): 2775-2788, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438523

RESUMO

Avian coronaviruses, including infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronavirus (TCoV), are economically important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. IBV is responsible for causing severe losses to the commercial poultry sector globally. The objectives of this study were to identify the viruses that were causing outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in chickens in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) and to characterize the strains. Swab samples were collected from birds showing severe respiratory signs in five farms on the island of Trinidad. Samples were tested for the presence of IBV, as well as avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). All samples from the five farms tested negative for AIV, NDV and aMPV; however, samples from clinically affected birds in all five of the farms tested positive for IBV. Genetic data revealed the presence of TCoV in chickens on two of the farms. Interestingly, these two farms had never reared turkeys. Phylogenetic analysis showed that IBV S1 sequences formed two distinct clusters. Two sequences grouped with vaccine strains within the GI-1 lineage, whereas three sequences grouped together, but separately from other defined lineages, forming a likely new lineage of IBV. Pairwise comparison revealed that the three unique variant strains within the distinct lineage of IBV were significantly different in their S1 nucleotide coding regions from viruses in the closest lineage (16% difference) and locally used vaccine strains (>20% difference). Results also suggested that one of the samples was a recombinant virus, generated from a recombination event between a Trinidad virus of the GI-1 lineage and a Trinidad virus of the newly defined lineage. Many amino acid differences were also observed between the S1 coding regions of the circulating field and vaccine strains, indicating that the IBV vaccines may not be protective. Vaccine-challenge studies are however needed to prove this.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Patos , Gansos , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/classificação , Filogenia , Codorniz , RNA Viral , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Trinidad e Tobago , Perus , Vacinação/veterinária
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322405

RESUMO

Norovirus (NoV) has emerged as one of the major causative agents of non-bacterial, food- and water-borne gastroenteritis in humans, with the main genogroup involved in human outbreaks (GII), which has been detected worldwide in different animal species including swine. A four-month investigation at the slaughterhouse aiming to examine the presence of NoV in the swine in North-Eastern Italy, enabled the detection of two divergent Noroviruses (NoVs) (GII.P11) in two swine farms. This represents the first study in the swine population of North-Eastern Italy, which has paved the way for future integrated virological and epidemiological investigations on swine NoVs.

4.
Infect Genet Evol ; 83: 104342, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348876

RESUMO

Since 2005, H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the Goose/Guangdong (Gs/GD) lineage have spread worldwide, affecting poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe, Africa and North America. So far, the role of Western Asia and the Middle East in the diffusion dynamics of this virus has been poorly explored. In order to investigate the genetic diversity and the role of Iran in the transmission dynamics of the Gs/GD lineage, we sequenced the complete genome of twenty-eight H5Nx viruses which were circulating in the country between 2016 and 2018. We reported the first characterization of the HPAI H5N6 subtype of clade 2.3.4.4B in Iran and gave evidence of the high propensity of the Gs/GD H5 AIVs to reassort, describing six novel H5N8 genotypes of clade 2.3.4.4B, some of them likely generated in this area, and one H5N1 reassortant virus of clade 2.3.2.1c. Our spatial analyses demonstrated that the viruses resulted from different viral introductions from Asia and Europe and provided evidence of virus spread from Iran to the Middle East. Therefore, Iran may represent a hot-spot for virus introduction, dissemination and for the generation of new genetic variability. Increasing surveillance efforts in this high-risk area is of utmost importance for the early detection of novel emerging strains with zoonotic potential.

5.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(2)2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919171

RESUMO

The comber alphavirus was isolated from a fish cell line from the brain of an apparently healthy Serranus cabrilla specimen collected during wild fish surveillance in southern Italy. The comber alphavirus is a new member of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae.

6.
Euro Surveill ; 24(47)2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771697

RESUMO

BackgroundUsutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, which shares its transmission cycle with the phylogenetically related West Nile virus (WNV). USUV circulates in several European countries and its activity has increased over the last 5 years.AimTo describe human cases of USUV infection identified by surveillance for WNV and USUV infection in the Veneto Region of northern Italy in 2018.MethodsFrom 1 June to 30 November 2018, all cases of suspected autochthonous arbovirus infection and blood donors who had a reactive WNV nucleic acid test were investigated for both WNV and USUV infection by in-house molecular methods. Anti-WNV and anti-USUV IgM and IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA and in-house immunofluorescence assay, respectively; positive serum samples were further tested by WNV and USUV neutralisation assays run in parallel.ResultsEight cases of USUV infection (one with neuroinvasive disease, six with fever and one viraemic blood donor who developed arthralgia and myalgia) and 427 cases of WNV infection were identified. A remarkable finding of this study was the persistence of USUV RNA in the blood and urine of three patients during follow-up. USUV genome sequences from two patients shared over 99% nt identity with USUV sequences detected in mosquito pools from the same area and clustered within lineage Europe 2.ConclusionsClinical presentation and laboratory findings in patients with USUV infection were similar to those found in patients with WNV infection. Cross-reactivity of serology and molecular tests challenged the differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Culicidae/virologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/diagnóstico , Flavivirus/isolamento & purificação , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Flavivirus/genética , Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5310, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757953

RESUMO

The role of Africa in the dynamics of the global spread of a zoonotic and economically-important virus, such as the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5Nx of the Gs/GD lineage, remains unexplored. Here we characterise the spatiotemporal patterns of virus diffusion during three HPAI H5Nx intercontinental epidemic waves and demonstrate that Africa mainly acted as an ecological sink of the HPAI H5Nx viruses. A joint analysis of host dynamics and continuous spatial diffusion indicates that poultry trade as well as wild bird migrations have contributed to the virus spreading into Africa, with West Africa acting as a crucial hotspot for virus introduction and dissemination into the continent. We demonstrate varying paths of avian influenza incursions into Africa as well as virus spread within Africa over time, which reveal that virus expansion is a complex phenomenon, shaped by an intricate interplay between avian host ecology, virus characteristics and environmental variables.


Assuntos
Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , África , África Ocidental , Animais , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/economia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/economia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/economia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
8.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(41)2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601657

RESUMO

Rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K (RELIK) was discovered in the genome of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In our study, we present three complete genome sequences of RELIK viruses generated using a target amplification approach performed on the RNA of commercial rabbits from Italy.

9.
Avian Pathol ; 48(5): 470-476, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142135

RESUMO

Between November 2017 and February 2018, Ghanaian poultry producers reported to animal health authorities a dramatic increase in mortality rate and a relevant drop in egg production in several layer hen farms. Laboratory investigations revealed that the farms had been infected by the H9N2 influenza subtype. Virological and molecular characterization of the viruses identified in Ghana is described here for the first time. Whole genome analysis showed that the viruses belong to the G1-lineage and cluster with viruses identified in North and West Africa. The low pathogenicity of the virus was confirmed by the intravenous pathogenicity index assay. Further investigations revealed co-infection with infectious bronchitis virus of the GI-19 lineage, which very likely explained the severity of the disease observed during the outbreaks. The H9N2 outbreaks in Ghana highlight the importance of performing a differential diagnosis and an in-depth characterization of emerging viruses. In addition, the detection of a potentially zoonotic subtype, such as the H9N2, in a region where highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx is currently circulating highlights the urgency of implementing enhanced monitoring strategies and supporting improved investments in regional diagnostic technologies. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Influenza A H9N2 subtype was detected in layer hens in Ghana in 2017-2018 Whole genome characterization of seven H9N2 viruses was performed Phylogenetic trees revealed that the H9N2 viruses belong to the G1 lineage The HA protein possesses the amino acid mutations 226L and 155T Co-infection with infectious bronchitis virus of the GI-19 lineage was identified.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Animais , Galinhas , Coinfecção/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Filogenia
10.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213515, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861028

RESUMO

Information on the population dynamics of a reservoir species have been increasingly adopted to understand and eventually predict the dispersal patterns of infectious diseases throughout an area. Although potentially relevant, to date there are no studies which have investigated the genetic structure of the red fox population in relation to infectious disease dynamics. Therefore, we genetically and spatially characterised the red fox population in the area stretching between the Eastern and Dinaric Alps, which has been affected by both distemper and rabies at different time intervals. Red foxes collected from north-eastern Italy, Austria, Slovenia and Croatia between 2006-2012, were studied using a set of 21 microsatellite markers. We confirmed a weak genetic differentiation within the fox population using Bayesian clustering analyses, and we were able to differentiate the fox population into geographically segregated groups. Our finding might be due to the presence of geographical barriers that have likely influenced the distribution of the fox population, limiting in turn gene flow and spread of infectious diseases. Focusing on the Italian red fox population, we observed interesting variations in the prevalence of both diseases among distinct fox clusters, with the previously identified Italy 1 and Italy 2 rabies as well as distemper viruses preferentially affecting different sub-groups identified in the study. Knowledge of the regional-scale population structure can improve understanding of the epidemiology and spread of diseases. Our study paves the way for an integrated approach for disease control coupling pathogen, host and environmental data to inform targeted control programs in the future.


Assuntos
Cinomose , Raposas/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Raiva , Animais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Croácia/epidemiologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/genética , Cinomose/transmissão , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/genética , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/veterinária , Eslovênia/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30533635

RESUMO

Using a metagenomics approach, we were able to determine for the first time the full-genome sequence of a psittacine adenovirus 1 isolate that was recovered from the liver of a dead Senegal parrot (Poicephalus senegalus) in Italy. The results of the phylogenetic investigations revealed the existence of high genetic diversity among adenoviruses circulating in psittacine birds.

12.
Virus Evol ; 4(2): vey019, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046454

RESUMO

Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a naked double-stranded RNA virus with a bi-segmented genome that is classified within the family Birnaviridae, genus Aquabirnavirus. IPNV was first detected in Italian trout farms in the late 1970s and ultimately became endemic. To characterize the evolution of IPNV circulating in Italy, particularly whether there is a link between evolutionary rate and virulence, we obtained and analyzed the VP1 (polymerase) and the pVP2 (major capsid protein precursor) sequences from 75 IPNV strains sampled between 1978 and 2017. These data revealed that the Italian IPNV exhibit relatively little genetic variation over the sampling period, falling into four genetic clusters within a single genogroup (group 2 for VP1 and genogroup V for pVP2) and contained one example of inter-segment reassortment. The mean evolutionary rates for VP1 and pVP2 were estimated to be 1.70 and 1.45 × 10-4 nucleotide substitutions per site, per year, respectively, and hence significantly lower than those seen in other Birnaviruses. Similarly, the relatively low ratios of non-synonymous (dN) to synonymous (dS) nucleotide substitutions per site in both genes indicated that IPNV was subject to strong selective constraints, again in contrast to other RNA viruses infecting salmonids that co-circulate in the same area during the same time period. Notably, all the Italian IPNV harbored a proline at position 217 (P217) and a threonine at position 221 (T221) in pVP2, both of which are associated with a low virulence phenotype. We therefore suggest the lower virulence of IPNV may have resulted in reduced rates of virus replication and hence lower rates of evolutionary change. The data generated here will be of importance in understanding the factors that shape the evolution of Aquabirnaviruses in nature.

13.
Avian Pathol ; 47(6): 559-575, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985640

RESUMO

In May 2016, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the subtype A/H5N1 was detected in Cameroon in an industrial poultry farm at Mvog-Betsi, Yaoundé (Centre region), with a recorded sudden increase of deaths among chickens, and an overall mortality rate of 75%. The virus spread further and caused new outbreaks in some parts of the country. In total, 21 outbreaks were confirmed from May 2016 to March 2017 (six in the Centre, six in the West, eight in the South and one in the Adamaoua regions). This resulted in an estimated total loss of 138,252 birds (44,451 deaths due to infection and 93,801 stamped out). Only domestic birds (chickens, ducks and geese) were affected in farms as well as in poultry markets. The outbreaks occurred in three waves, the first from May to June 2016, the second in September 2016 and the last wave in March 2017. The topology of the phylogeny based on the haemagglutinin gene segment indicated that the causative H5N1 viruses fall within the genetic clade 2.3.2.1c, within the same group as the A/H5N1 viruses collected in Niger in 2015 and 2016. More importantly, the gene constellation of four representative viruses showed evidence of H5N1/H9N2 intra-clade reassortment. Additional epidemiological and genetic data from affected countries in West Africa are needed to better trace the origin, spread and evolution of A/H5N1 in Cameroon. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS HPAI A/H5N1 was detected in May 2016 in domestic chickens in Yaoundé-Cameroon. Twenty-one outbreaks in total were confirmed from May 2016 to March 2017. The causative H5N1 viruses fall within the genetic clade 2.3.2.1c. The viral gene constellation showed evidence of H5N1/H9N2 intra-clade reassortment.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Galinhas/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Patos/virologia , Gansos/virologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 130, 2018 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Borrelia miyamotoi is a spirochete transmitted by several ixodid tick species. It causes a relapsing fever in humans and is currently considered as an emerging pathogen. In Europe, B. miyamotoi seems to occur at low prevalence in Ixodes ricinus ticks but has a wide distribution. Here we report the first detection of B. miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in two independent studies conducted in 2016 in the north-eastern and north-western Alps, Italy. RESULTS: Three out of 405 nymphs (0.74%) tested positive for Borrelia miyamotoi. In particular, B. miyamotoi was found in 2/365 nymphs in the western and in 1/40 nymphs in the eastern alpine area. These are the first findings of B. miyamotoi in Italy. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to B. miyamotoi and risk of human infection may occur through tick bites in northern Italy. Relapsing fever caused by Borrelia miyamotoi has not yet been reported in Italy, but misdiagnoses with tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis or other relapsing fever can occur. Our findings suggest that B. miyamotoi should be considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile patients originating from Lyme borreliosis endemic regions. The distribution of this pathogen and its relevance to public health need further investigation.


Assuntos
Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Ixodes/microbiologia , Febre Recorrente/epidemiologia , Animais , Borrelia/classificação , Borrelia/genética , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Ninfa/microbiologia , Filogenia , Febre Recorrente/diagnóstico , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
15.
J Gen Virol ; 99(5): 693-703, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580370

RESUMO

The surveillance activities for abnormal bivalve mortality events in Italy include the diagnosis of ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1) in symptomatic oysters. OsHV-1-positive oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were used as a source for in vivo virus propagation and a virus-rich sample was selected to perform shotgun sequencing based on Illumina technology. Starting from this unpurified supernatant sample from gills and mantle, we generated 3.5 million reads (2×300 bp) and de novo assembled the whole genome of an Italian OsHV-1 microvariant (OsHV-1-PT). The OsHV-1-PT genome encodes 125 putative ORFs, 7 of which had not previously been predicted in other sequenced Malacoherpesviridae. Overall, OsHV-1-PT displays typical microvariant OsHV-1 genome features, while few polymorphisms (0.08 %) determine its uniqueness. As little is known about the genetic determinants of OsHV-1 virulence, comparing complete OsHV-1 genomes supports a better understanding of the virus pathogenicity and provides new insights into virus-host interactions.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/virologia , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Genoma Viral , Animais , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de DNA/patogenicidade , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Itália , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético
16.
Infect Genet Evol ; 57: 98-105, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29104094

RESUMO

Phylogenetic analyses of the complete genomes of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) 2.3.2.1c H5N1 virus strains causing outbreaks in Nigeria's poultry population from 2014 to 2016 showed evidence of distinct co-circulating genotypes and the emergence of reassortant viruses. One of these reassortants became the predominant strain by 2016, and the NA protein of this strain possessed the V96A substitution known to confer reduced susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibiting antiviral drugs. Our findings also demonstrated evolutionary relationships between Nigerian isolates and European and Middle Eastern strains of H5N1 which provides further evidence for the proposed role of migratory birds in spreading the virus, although the involvement of the live poultry trade cannot be excluded. Efforts must be directed towards improving biosecurity and gaining the cooperation of poultry farmers for more effective control of HPAI, in order to mitigate the emergence of HPAI strains in Nigeria with biological properties that are potentially even more dangerous to animals and humans.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/classificação , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Genoma Viral , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
17.
Avian Dis ; 61(2): 271-273, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28665732

RESUMO

We report the phylogenetic analysis of the first outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus detected in Lebanon from poultry in April 2016. Our whole-genome sequencing analysis revealed that the Lebanese H5N1 virus belongs to genetic clade 2.3.2.1c and clusters with viruses from Europe and West Africa.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Galinhas , Surtos de Doenças , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/classificação , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Líbano/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(9): 1543-1547, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28661831

RESUMO

In winter 2016-17, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) and A(H5N5) viruses of clade 2.3.4.4 were identified in wild and domestic birds in Italy. We report the occurrence of multiple introductions and describe the identification in Europe of 2 novel genotypes, generated through multiple reassortment events.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Aves/virologia , Genótipo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Itália , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade , Perus
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 203: 88-94, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619173

RESUMO

Vaccines are useful tools to control influenza A virus infection in poultry, but they need to be periodically reformulated to guarantee appropriate protection from infection and to limit viral replication and circulation, which could favour the emergence of new variants. In this study, a deep sequencing approach was used to characterize and follow the evolution of the hemagglutinin of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viral population in infected animals vaccinated with two vaccines conferring different protection levels. Results from this preliminary investigation suggested that the evolution of the viral population, as well as the abundance and heterogeneity of minority variants could be influenced by the immune pressure conferred by vaccination.


Assuntos
Hemaglutininas/genética , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Aves Domésticas
20.
Med Mycol ; 55(8): 828-842, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339756

RESUMO

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening fungal disease that can occur in dogs. The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary genetic characterisation of Pneumocystis carinii f.sp.'canis' (P. canis) in dogs and thereby develop a reliable molecular protocol to definitively diagnose canine PCP. We investigated P. canis in a variety of lung specimens from dogs with confirmed or strongly suspected PCP (Group 1, n = 16), dogs with non-PCP lower respiratory tract problems (Group 2, n = 65) and dogs not suspected of having PCP or other lower respiratory diseases (Group 3, n = 11). Presence of Pneumocystis DNA was determined by nested PCR of the large and small mitochondrial subunit rRNA loci and by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay developed using a new set of primers. Molecular results were correlated with the presence of Pneumocystis morphotypes detected in cytological/histological preparations. Pneumocystis DNA was amplified from 13/16 PCP-suspected dogs (Group 1) and from 4/76 dogs of control Groups 2 and 3 (combined). The latter four dogs were thought to have been colonized by P. canis. Comparison of CT values in 'infected' versus 'colonized' dogs was consistent with this notion, with a distinct difference in molecular burden between groups (CT ≤ 26 versus CT range (26

Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Pneumocystis carinii/genética , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/veterinária , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Primers do DNA , DNA Fúngico/genética , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Pulmão/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica/veterinária , Filogenia , Pneumocystis carinii/classificação , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/patologia , RNA/genética , RNA Mitocondrial , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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