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1.
J Sleep Res ; : e12925, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588999

RESUMO

Melatonin is a circadian regulatory hormone with neuroprotective properties. We have previously demonstrated the association of the genetic variant rs12506228 near the melatonin receptor 1A gene (MTNR1A) with intolerance to shift-work. Furthermore, this variant has been connected to Alzheimer's disease. Because of the previously suggested role of melatonin signalling in foetal neurocognitive and sleep development, we studied here the association of rs12506228 with early development. The study sample comprised 8-month-old infants from the Finnish CHILD-SLEEP birth cohort (n = 1,301). Parental questionnaires assessed socioemotional, communication and motor development, as well as sleep length and night awakenings. The A allele of rs12506228 showed an association with slower socioemotional (p = .025) and communication (p = .0098) development, but no direct association with sleep. However, the association of the Finnish seasons with infant sleep length interacted with rs12506228. Taken together, rs12506228 near MTNR1A, which has been previously linked to adult and elderly traits, is shown here to associate with slower early cognitive development. In addition, these results suggest that the darker seasons associate with longer infant sleep time, but only in the absence of the rs12506228 AA genotype. Because the risk allele has been connected to fewer brain MT1 melatonin receptors, these associations may reflect the influence of decreased melatonin signalling in early development.

2.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 39, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455423

RESUMO

The field of pharmacogenomics (PGx) is gradually shifting from the reactive testing of single genes toward the proactive testing of multiple genes to improve treatment outcomes, reduce adverse events, and decrease the burden of unnecessary costs for healthcare systems. Despite the progress in the field of pharmacogenomics, its implementation into routine care has been slow due to several barriers. However, in recent years, the number of studies on the implementation of PGx has increased, all providing a wealth of knowledge on different solutions for overcoming the obstacles that have been emphasized over the past years. This review focuses on some of the challenges faced by these initiatives, the solutions and different approaches for testing that they suggest, and the evidence that they provide regarding the benefits of preemptive PGx testing.

3.
Nat Genet ; 51(7): 1082-1091, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253980

RESUMO

Most candidate drugs currently fail later-stage clinical trials, largely due to poor prediction of efficacy on early target selection1. Drug targets with genetic support are more likely to be therapeutically valid2,3, but the translational use of genome-scale data such as from genome-wide association studies for drug target discovery in complex diseases remains challenging4-6. Here, we show that integration of functional genomic and immune-related annotations, together with knowledge of network connectivity, maximizes the informativeness of genetics for target validation, defining the target prioritization landscape for 30 immune traits at the gene and pathway level. We demonstrate how our genetics-led drug target prioritization approach (the priority index) successfully identifies current therapeutics, predicts activity in high-throughput cellular screens (including L1000, CRISPR, mutagenesis and patient-derived cell assays), enables prioritization of under-explored targets and allows for determination of target-level trait relationships. The priority index is an open-access, scalable system accelerating early-stage drug target selection for immune-mediated disease.

4.
Eur J Immunol ; 49(5): 790-800, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801692

RESUMO

STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) variants lead to defective Th17 cell development and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), but frequently also to autoimmunity. Stimulation of cells with STAT1 inducing cytokines like interferons (IFN) result in hyperphosphorylation and delayed dephosphorylation of GOF STAT1. However, the mechanism how the delayed dephosphorylation exactly causes the increased expression of STAT1-dependent genes, and how the intracellular signal transduction from cytokine receptors is affected, remains unknown. In this study we show that the circulating levels of IFN-α were not persistently elevated in STAT1 GOF patients. Nevertheless, the expression of interferon signature genes was evident even in the patient with low or undetectable serum IFN-α levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments revealed that the active chromatin mark trimethylation of lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3), was significantly enriched in areas associated with interferon-stimulated genes in STAT1 GOF cells in comparison to cells from healthy donors. This suggests that the chromatin binding of GOF STAT1 variant promotes epigenetic changes compatible with higher gene expression and elevated reactivity to type I interferons, and possibly predisposes for interferon-related autoimmunity. The results also suggest that epigenetic rewiring may be responsible for treatment failure of Janus kinase 1/2 (JAK1/2) inhibitors in certain patients.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1193, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718923

RESUMO

Short sleep duration or insomnia may lead to an increased risk of various psychiatric and cardio-metabolic conditions. Since DNA methylation plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression, studies of differentially methylated positions (DMPs) might be valuable for understanding the mechanisms underlying insomnia. We performed a cross-sectional genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in relation to self-reported insufficient sleep in individuals from a community-based sample (79 men, aged 39.3 ± 7.3), and in relation to shift work disorder in an occupational cohort (26 men, aged 44.9 ± 9.0). The analysis of DNA methylation data revealed that genes corresponding to selected DMPs form a distinctive pathway: "Nervous System Development" (FDR P value < 0.05). We found that 78% of the DMPs were hypomethylated in cases in both cohorts, suggesting that insufficient sleep may be associated with loss of DNA methylation. A karyoplot revealed clusters of DMPs at various chromosomal regions, including 12 DMPs on chromosome 17, previously associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome, a rare condition comprising disturbed sleep and inverse circadian rhythm. Our findings give novel insights into the DNA methylation patterns associated with sleep loss, possibly modifying processes related to neuroplasticity and neurodegeneration. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the observed associations.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus has been repeatedly associated with exposure to smoking from the foetal period onwards. We explored whether DNA methylation may be a mechanism that links exposure to maternal prenatal smoking with offspring's adult cardio-metabolic health. METHODS: We meta-analysed the association between DNA methylation at GFI1-locus with maternal prenatal smoking, adult own smoking, and cardio-metabolic phenotypes in 22 population-based studies from Europe, Australia, and USA (n = 18,212). DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus was measured in whole-blood. Multivariable regression models were fitted to examine its association with exposure to prenatal and own adult smoking. DNA methylation levels were analysed in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose (FG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), diastolic, and systolic blood pressure (BP). FINDINGS: Lower DNA methylation at three out of eight GFI1-CpGs was associated with exposure to maternal prenatal smoking, whereas, all eight CpGs were associated with adult own smoking. Lower DNA methylation at cg14179389, the strongest maternal prenatal smoking locus, was associated with increased WC and BP when adjusted for sex, age, and adult smoking with Bonferroni-corrected P < 0·012. In contrast, lower DNA methylation at cg09935388, the strongest adult own smoking locus, was associated with decreased BMI, WC, and BP (adjusted 1 × 10-7 < P < 0.01). Similarly, lower DNA methylation at cg12876356, cg18316974, cg09662411, and cg18146737 was associated with decreased BMI and WC (5 × 10-8 < P < 0.001). Lower DNA methylation at all the CpGs was consistently associated with higher TG levels. INTERPRETATION: Epigenetic changes at the GFI1 were linked to smoking exposure in-utero/in-adulthood and robustly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. FUND: European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 633595 DynaHEALTH.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420678

RESUMO

Pharmacogenomics aims to tailor pharmacological treatment to each individual by considering associations between genetic polymorphisms and adverse drug effects (ADEs). With technological advances, pharmacogenomic research has evolved from candidate gene analyses to genome-wide association studies. Here, we integrate deep whole-genome sequencing (WGS) information with drug prescription and ADE data from Estonian electronic health record (EHR) databases to evaluate genome- and pharmacome-wide associations on an unprecedented scale. We leveraged WGS data of 2240 Estonian Biobank participants and imputed all single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) with allele counts over 2 for 13,986 genotyped participants. Overall, we identified 41 (10 novel) loss-of-function and 567 (134 novel) missense variants in 64 very important pharmacogenes. The majority of the detected variants were very rare with frequencies below 0.05%, and 6 of the novel loss-of-function and 99 of the missense variants were only detected as single alleles (allele count = 1). We also validated documented pharmacogenetic associations and detected new independent variants in known gene-drug pairs. Specifically, we found that CTNNA3 was associated with myositis and myopathies among individuals taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory oxicams and replicated this finding in an extended cohort of 706 individuals. These findings illustrate that population-based WGS-coupled EHRs are a useful tool for biomarker discovery.

9.
Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biomedical databases combining electronic medical records and phenotypic and genomic data constitute a powerful resource for the personalization of treatment. To leverage the wealth of information provided, algorithms are required that systematically translate the contained information into treatment recommendations based on existing genotype-phenotype associations. METHODS: We developed and tested algorithms for translation of preexisting genotype data of over 44,000 participants of the Estonian biobank into pharmacogenetic recommendations. We compared the results obtained by genome sequencing, exome sequencing, and genotyping using microarrays, and evaluated the impact of pharmacogenetic reporting based on drug prescription statistics in the Nordic countries and Estonia. RESULTS: Our most striking result was that the performance of genotyping arrays is similar to that of genome sequencing, whereas exome sequencing is not suitable for pharmacogenetic predictions. Interestingly, 99.8% of all assessed individuals had a genotype associated with increased risks to at least one medication, and thereby the implementation of pharmacogenetic recommendations based on genotyping affects at least 50 daily drug doses per 1000 inhabitants. CONCLUSION: We find that microarrays are a cost-effective solution for creating preemptive pharmacogenetic reports, and with slight modifications, existing databases can be applied for automated pharmacogenetic decision support for clinicians.

10.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1412-1425, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224653

RESUMO

High blood pressure is a highly heritable and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We report the largest genetic association study of blood pressure traits (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) to date in over 1 million people of European ancestry. We identify 535 novel blood pressure loci that not only offer new biological insights into blood pressure regulation but also highlight shared genetic architecture between blood pressure and lifestyle exposures. Our findings identify new biological pathways for blood pressure regulation with potential for improved cardiovascular disease prevention in the future.

11.
J Lipid Res ; 59(10): 1987-2000, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076208

RESUMO

Abnormal plasma apolipoprotein levels are consistently implicated in CVD risk. Although 30% to 60% of their interindividual variability is genetic, common genetic variants explain only 10% to 20% of these differences. Rare genetic variants may be major sources of the missing heritability, yet quantitative evaluations of their contribution to phenotypic variability are lacking. Here, we analyzed whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing data from 138,632 individuals across seven major human populations to present a systematic overview of genetic apolipoprotein variability. We provide population-specific frequencies of 38 clinically important apolipoprotein alleles and identify further 6,875 genetic variants, 33% of which are novel and 98.7% of which are rare with minor allele frequencies <1%. We predicted the functional impact of rare variants and found that their relative importance differed drastically between genes and among ethnicities. Importantly, we validated the clinical relevance of multiple variants with predicted effects by leveraging association data from the CARDIoGRAM (Coronary Artery Disease Genomewide Replication and Meta-analysis) and Global Lipids Genetics consortia. Overall, we provide a consolidated overview of population-specific apolipoprotein genetics as a valuable data resource for scientists and clinicians, estimate the importance of rare genetic variants for the missing heritability of apolipoprotein-associated disease traits, and pinpoint multiple novel apolipoprotein variants with putative population-specific impacts on serum lipid levels.

12.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031151

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of Hirschsprung disease is complex. Although the RET proto-oncogene is the most frequently affected gene in Hirschsprung disease, rare coding sequence variants explain only a small part of Hirschsprung disease cases. We aimed to assess the genetic background of Hirschsprung disease using a genome-wide association analysis combined with sequencing all RET exons in samples from 105 Hirschsprung disease cases (30 familial and 75 sporadic) and 386 controls. As expected, variants in or near RET showed the strongest overall association with Hirschsprung disease and the most statistically significant association was observed when using a recessive genetic model (rs2435357, NC_000010.10:g.43582056T > C; genotype TT, OR = 17.31, P = 1.462 × 10-21). Previously published associations in variants in SEMA (rs11766001, NC_000007.13:g.84145202A > C; allele C, OR = 2.268, P = 0.009533) and NRG1 (rs4541858, NC_000008.10:g.32410309A > G; allele G, OR = 1.567, P = 0.015; rs7835688, NC_000008.10:g.32411499G > C; allele C, OR = 1.567, P = 0.015) were also replicated in the genome-wide association analysis. Sequencing revealed a total of 12 exonic RET rare variants. Of these, eight amino acid changing rare variants and two frameshift variants caused or possibly caused Hirschsprung disease. Only a minority of the Hirschsprung disease cases (9/30 familial; 7/75 sporadic) carried one of the rare variants. Excluding the rare variant carriers from the genome-wide association analysis did not appreciably change the association of rs2435357 with Hirschsprung disease. We estimate that approximately two thirds of the sporadic cases may be statistically attributed to the recessive action of the common non-coding RET variants. Thus, even though most cases do not carry rare RET variants, combinations of rare variants and the common non-coding RET variant cause the majority of the cases in our population.

13.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1112-1121, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038396

RESUMO

Here we conducted a large-scale genetic association analysis of educational attainment in a sample of approximately 1.1 million individuals and identify 1,271 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs. For the SNPs taken together, we found evidence of heterogeneous effects across environments. The SNPs implicate genes involved in brain-development processes and neuron-to-neuron communication. In a separate analysis of the X chromosome, we identify 10 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs and estimate a SNP heritability of around 0.3% in both men and women, consistent with partial dosage compensation. A joint (multi-phenotype) analysis of educational attainment and three related cognitive phenotypes generates polygenic scores that explain 11-13% of the variance in educational attainment and 7-10% of the variance in cognitive performance. This prediction accuracy substantially increases the utility of polygenic scores as tools in research.

14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1862(3): 637-648, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycosylation is one of the most common post-translation modifications with large influences on protein structure and function. The effector function of immunoglobulin G (IgG) alters between pro- and anti-inflammatory, based on its glycosylation. IgG glycan synthesis is highly complex and dynamic. METHODS: With the use of two different analytical methods for assessing IgG glycosylation, we aim to elucidate the link between DNA methylation and glycosylation of IgG by means of epigenome-wide association studies. In total, 3000 individuals from 4 cohorts were analyzed. RESULTS: The overlap of the results from the two glycan measurement panels yielded DNA methylation of 7 CpG-sites on 5 genomic locations to be associated with IgG glycosylation: cg25189904 (chr.1, GNG12); cg05951221, cg21566642 and cg01940273 (chr.2, ALPPL2); cg05575921 (chr.5, AHRR); cg06126421 (6p21.33); and cg03636183 (chr.19, F2RL3). Mediation analyses with respect to smoking revealed that the effect of smoking on IgG glycosylation may be at least partially mediated via DNA methylation levels at these 7 CpG-sites. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest the presence of an indirect link between DNA methylation and IgG glycosylation that may in part capture environmental exposures. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: An epigenome-wide analysis conducted in four population-based cohorts revealed an association between DNA methylation and IgG glycosylation patterns. Presumably, DNA methylation mediates the effect of smoking on IgG glycosylation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Imunoglobulina G/química , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Epigenômica/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Glicosilação , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Polissacarídeos/análise , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto
15.
AAPS J ; 20(1): 4, 2017 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181807

RESUMO

Much of the inter-individual variability in drug efficacy and risk of adverse reactions is due to polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins involved in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics or immunological responses. Pharmacogenetic research has identified a multitude of gene-drug response associations, which have resulted in genetically guided treatment and dosing decisions to yield a higher success rate of pharmacological treatment. The rapid technological developments for genetic analyses reveal that the number of genetic variants with importance for drug action is much higher than previously thought and that a true personalized prediction of drug response requires attention to millions of rare mutations. Here, we review the evolutionary background of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes, provide some important examples of current use of pharmacogenomic biomarkers, and give an update of germline and somatic genome biomarkers that are in use in drug development and clinical practice. We also discuss the current technology development with emphasis on complex genetic loci, review current initiatives for validation of pharmacogenomic biomarkers, and present scenarios for the future taking rare genetic variants into account for a true personalized genetically guided drug prescription. We conclude that pharmacogenomic information for patient stratification is of value to tailor optimized treatment regimens particularly in oncology. However, the routine use of pharmacogenomic biomarkers in clinical practice in other therapeutic areas is currently sparse and the prospects of its future implementation are being scrutinized by different international consortia.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Farmacogenética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Oncogenes , Satisfação do Paciente , Polimorfismo Genético , Medicina de Precisão
16.
Epigenomics ; 9(11): 1403-1422, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28990796

RESUMO

AIM: Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sensitive marker of one-carbon metabolism. Higher Hcy levels have been associated with global DNA hypomethylation. We investigated the association between plasma Hcy and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: Methylation was measured using Illumina 450 k arrays in 2035 individuals from six cohorts. Hcy-associated differentially methylated positions and regions were identified using meta-analysis. RESULTS: Three differentially methylated positions cg21607669 (SLC27A1), cg26382848 (AJUBA) and cg10701000 (KCNMA1) at chromosome 19, 14 and 10, respectively, were significantly associated with Hcy. In addition, we identified 68 Hcy-associated differentially methylated regions, the most significant of which was a 1.8-kb spanning domain (TNXB/ATF6B) at chromosome 6. CONCLUSION: We identified novel epigenetic loci associated with Hcy levels, of which specific role needs to be further validated.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Homocisteína/sangue , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/genética , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/metabolismo , Masculino , Tenascina/genética , Tenascina/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0180652, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28792954

RESUMO

Genetic variants in CACNA1C (calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C) are associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia where sleep disturbances are common. In an experimental model, Cacna1c has been found to modulate the electrophysiological architecture of sleep. There are strong genetic influences for consolidation of sleep in infancy, but only a few studies have thus far researched the genetic factors underlying the process. We hypothesized that genetic variants in CACNA1C affect the regulation of sleep in early development. Seven variants that were earlier associated (genome-wide significantly) with psychiatric disorders at CACNA1C were selected for analyses. The study sample consists of 1086 infants (520 girls and 566 boys) from the Finnish CHILD-SLEEP birth cohort (genotyped by Illumina Infinium PsychArray BeadChip). Sleep length, latency, and nightly awakenings were reported by the parents of the infants with a home-delivered questionnaire at 8 months of age. The genetic influence of CACNA1C variants on sleep in infants was examined by using PLINK software. Three of the examined CACNA1C variants, rs4765913, rs4765914, and rs2239063, were associated with sleep latency (permuted P<0.05). There was no significant association between studied variants and night awakenings or sleep duration. CACNA1C variants for psychiatric disorders were found to be associated with long sleep latency among 8-month-old infants. It remains to be clarified whether the findings refer to defective regulation of sleep, or to distractibility of sleep under external influences.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/genética , Sono/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Finlândia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Polissonografia , Sono/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Genome Biol ; 18(1): 146, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunometabolism plays a central role in many cardiometabolic diseases. However, a robust map of immune-related gene networks in circulating human cells, their interactions with metabolites, and their genetic control is still lacking. Here, we integrate blood transcriptomic, metabolomic, and genomic profiles from two population-based cohorts (total N = 2168), including a subset of individuals with matched multi-omic data at 7-year follow-up. RESULTS: We identify topologically replicable gene networks enriched for diverse immune functions including cytotoxicity, viral response, B cell, platelet, neutrophil, and mast cell/basophil activity. These immune gene modules show complex patterns of association with 158 circulating metabolites, including lipoprotein subclasses, lipids, fatty acids, amino acids, small molecules, and CRP. Genome-wide scans for module expression quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) reveal five modules with mQTLs that have both cis and trans effects. The strongest mQTL is in ARHGEF3 (rs1354034) and affects a module enriched for platelet function, independent of platelet counts. Modules of mast cell/basophil and neutrophil function show temporally stable metabolite associations over 7-year follow-up, providing evidence that these modules and their constituent gene products may play central roles in metabolic inflammation. Furthermore, the strongest mQTL in ARHGEF3 also displays clear temporal stability, supporting widespread trans effects at this locus. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a detailed map of natural variation at the blood immunometabolic interface and its genetic basis, and may facilitate subsequent studies to explain inter-individual variation in cardiometabolic disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/imunologia , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/imunologia , Aminoácidos/imunologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Basófilos/imunologia , Basófilos/patologia , Plaquetas/imunologia , Plaquetas/patologia , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/imunologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Ontologia Genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Lipoproteínas/genética , Lipoproteínas/imunologia , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Metaboloma/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/genética , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/imunologia
19.
Nat Genet ; 49(8): 1174-1181, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692066

RESUMO

Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, with major health and economic costs. Here we estimate heritability for body mass index (BMI) in 172,000 sibling pairs and 150,832 unrelated individuals and explore the contribution of genotype-covariate interaction effects at common SNP loci. We find evidence for genotype-age interaction (likelihood ratio test (LRT) = 73.58, degrees of freedom (df) = 1, P = 4.83 × 10-18), which contributed 8.1% (1.4% s.e.) to BMI variation. Across eight self-reported lifestyle factors, including diet and exercise, we find genotype-environment interaction only for smoking behavior (LRT = 19.70, P = 5.03 × 10-5 and LRT = 30.80, P = 1.42 × 10-8), which contributed 4.0% (0.8% s.e.) to BMI variation. Bayesian association analysis suggests that BMI is highly polygenic, with 75% of the SNP heritability attributable to loci that each explain <0.01% of the phenotypic variance. Our findings imply that substantially larger sample sizes across ages and lifestyles are required to understand the full genetic architecture of BMI.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genótipo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Caracteres Sexuais , Gêmeos/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Biol Chem ; 292(16): 6542-6554, 2017 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28242760

RESUMO

The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein is the key factor in thymic negative selection of autoreactive T cells by promoting the ectopic expression of tissue-specific genes in the thymic medullary epithelium. Mutations in AIRE cause a monogenic autoimmune disease called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy. AIRE has been shown to promote DNA breaks via its interaction with topoisomerase 2 (TOP2). In this study, we investigated topoisomerase-induced DNA breaks and chromatin structural alterations in conjunction with AIRE-dependent gene expression. Using RNA sequencing, we found that inhibition of TOP2 religation activity by etoposide in AIRE-expressing cells had a synergistic effect on genes with low expression levels. AIRE-mediated transcription was not only enhanced by TOP2 inhibition but also by the TOP1 inhibitor camptothecin. The transcriptional activation was associated with structural rearrangements in chromatin, notably the accumulation of γH2AX and the exchange of histone H1 with HMGB1 at AIRE target gene promoters. In addition, we found the transcriptional up-regulation to co-occur with the chromatin structural changes within the genomic cluster of carcinoembryonic antigen-like cellular adhesion molecule genes. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of AIRE can trigger molecular events leading to an altered chromatin landscape and the enhanced transcription of low-expressed genes.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Cromatina/química , Dano ao DNA , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética , Processamento Alternativo , Camptotecina/química , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/genética , Etoposídeo/química , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Família Multigênica , Mutação , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Domínios Proteicos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional
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