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Methods Mol Biol ; 1238: 569-96, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25421681


DNA tumor viruses including members of the polyomavirus, adenovirus, papillomavirus, and herpes virus families are presently the subject of intense interest with respect to the role that epigenetics plays in control of the virus life cycle and the transformation of a normal cell to a cancer cell. To date, these studies have primarily focused on the role of histone modification, nucleosome location, and DNA methylation in regulating the biological consequences of infection. Using a wide variety of strategies and techniques ranging from simple ChIP to ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq to identify histone modifications, nuclease digestion to genome wide next generation sequencing to identify nucleosome location, and bisulfite treatment to MeDIP to identify DNA methylation sites, the epigenetic regulation of these viruses is slowly becoming better understood. While the viruses may differ in significant ways from each other and cellular chromatin, the role of epigenetics appears to be relatively similar. Within the viral genome nucleosomes are organized for the expression of appropriate genes with relevant histone modifications particularly histone acetylation. DNA methylation occurs as part of the typical gene silencing during latent infection by herpesviruses. In the simple tumor viruses like the polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, and papillomaviruses, transformation of the cell occurs via integration of the virus genome such that the virus's normal regulation is disrupted. This results in the unregulated expression of critical viral genes capable of redirecting cellular gene expression. The redirected cellular expression is a consequence of either indirect epigenetic regulation where cellular signaling or transcriptional dysregulation occurs or direct epigenetic regulation where epigenetic cofactors such as histone deacetylases are targeted. In the more complex herpersviruses transformation is a consequence of the expression of the viral latency proteins and RNAs which again can have either a direct or indirect effect on epigenetic regulation of cellular expression. Nevertheless, many questions still remain with respect to the specific mechanisms underlying epigenetic regulation of the viruses and transformation.

Epigenômica/métodos , Vírus/genética , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/virologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais
J Biol Chem ; 279(35): 36621-4, 2004 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15234968


For nearly 50 years, succinyl-CoA synthetase in animals was thought to be specific for guanine nucleotides. Recently, we purified and characterized both an ADP-forming succinyl-CoA synthetase from pigeon breast muscle and the GDP-forming enzyme from liver (Johnson, J. D., Muhonen, W. W., and Lambeth, D. O. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 27573-27579). Using the sequences of the pigeon enzymes as queries in BLAST searches, we obtained genetic evidence that both enzymes are expressed in a wide range of animal species (Johnson, J. D., Mehus, J. G., Tews, K., Milavetz, B. I., and Lambeth, D. O. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 27580-27586). Here we extend those observations by presenting data from Western and Northern blots and enzymatic assays showing that both proteins are widely expressed in mammals with the relative amounts varying from tissue to tissue. We suggest that both succinyl-CoA synthetases catalyze the reverse reaction in the citric acid cycle in which the ADP-forming enzyme augments ATP production, whereas the GDP-forming enzyme supports GTP-dependent anabolic processes. Widely accepted shuttle mechanisms are invoked to explain how transport of P-enolpyruvate across mitochondrial membranes can transfer high energy phosphate between the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix.

Succinato-CoA Ligases/biossíntese , Succinato-CoA Ligases/química , Difosfato de Adenosina/química , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Northern Blotting , Western Blotting , Mama/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Columbidae , Citosol/metabolismo , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Guanosina Difosfato/metabolismo , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ratos , Testículo/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
Virology ; 294(1): 170-9, 2002 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11886275


To identify the SV40 regulatory sequences responsible for the chromatin remodeling associated with early transcription, SV40 chromosomes containing potential remodeling sequences inserted adjacent to a reporter region were isolated at various times within the first 6 h of infection and analyzed by a combination of restriction endonuclease digestion and competitive PCR amplification. The sequences analyzed included the early domain, the enhancer, the late domain, the early phasing element, the AP-1 element, two tandem copies of the SP1 element, and the AP-4 element. From 30 min to 3 h postinfection only the enhancer, the AP-1 element, and the two tandem copies of the SP1 element caused a change in nuclease sensitivity consistent with chromatin remodeling. These results suggest that the changes in chromatin structure seen in the promoter during activation of early transcription are most likely a result of remodeling by the AP-1 and/or SP1.

Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromossomos/genética , Vírus 40 dos Símios/patogenicidade , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzimas de Restrição do DNA/metabolismo , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Rim , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Vírus 40 dos Símios/genética , Vírus 40 dos Símios/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/genética , Transcrição Genética , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia , Vírion/metabolismo