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2.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 55: 102061, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763207

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to qualitatively examine the perspectives of nurses about physical activity in cancer patients. METHOD: A purposive sample of nurses was recruited by email. Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, focus group interviews were conducted. The discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Fourteen nurses working in different wards of Verona Hospital participated in the study. Transcripts were categorized according to the Theory of the Planned Behavior in the following themes: attitude, subjective norms, perceived control, and intention. Nurses identified a series of psycho-physical benefits deriving from physical activity for cancer patients. In contrast, the main risk of promoting an active lifestyle was the boomerang effect of making the patients aware of their physical deconditioning. Nurses' colleagues seemed not supportive in the physical activity promotion in cancer, whereas cancer patients and their caregivers could gladly accept the nurse counseling about performing physical activity. Different barriers, such as lack of time, lack of exercise specialists to consult, and the idea that it is a topic out of a nurse's competence, may hamper the physical activity promotion. A teamwork approach, availability of specific tools, and targeted interventions were found important features facilitating the nurse counseling. The nurses' intention to promote physical activity was not so strong and appeared to be influenced by lack of knowledge about physical activity. CONCLUSION: Educational sessions about physical activity guidelines for cancer patients are required to enhance nurses' confidence and intention towards physical activity promotion.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Exercício Físico , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
3.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784852

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anemia is one of the most common hematological manifestations occurring in cancer patients, related to a poorer prognosis. Among supportive care in cancer, exercise is emerging as a crucial tool demonstrating to reduce mortality risk, as well as to counteract several diseases and treatment-related adverse events. Nevertheless, the effect of exercise on anemia in cancer is still a relatively unexplored area. AREA COVERED: Six studies investigated the impact of exercise on anemia trajectory in cancer patients, with intriguing results. The potential mechanisms by which exercise may modulate the blood system are heterogenous, including bone marrow stimulation, improvements in the hematopoietic microenvironment, and control of both inflammation and hormones levels. Although training and/or living at high altitudes is a recognized method to increase erythropoiesis, the effect of a hypoxic external environment on tumor progression should be clarified before considering this strategy in cancer patients. EXPERT OPINION: Although the available investigations about exercise in anemic patients with cancer are few, exercise emerges as an important supportive oncological care capable of assisting patients maintain their autonomy. Our special report offers several suggestions to address future research in this field and determine the real contribution of an active lifestyle on this condition.

4.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685665

RESUMO

Background: The current treatment landscape of early stage lung cancer is rapidly evolving, particularly in EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), where target therapy is moving to early stages. In the current review, we collected the available data exploring the impact of EGFR targeting in both neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings, underlying lights and shadows and discussing the existing open issues. Methods: We performed a comprehensive search using PubMed and the proceedings of major international meetings to identify neoadjuvant/adjuvant trials with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in NSCLC. Results: Limited data are available so far about the activity/efficacy of neoadjuvant TKIs in EGFR mutant NSCLC, with only modest downstaging and pathological complete response rates reported. Differently, the ADAURA trial already proposed osimertinib as a potential new standard of care in resected NSCLC harboring an activating EGFR mutation. Conclusion: Anticipating targeted therapy to early stage EGFR mutant NSCLC presents great opportunities but also meaningful challenges in the current therapeutic/diagnostic pathway of lung cancer care. Appropriate endpoint(s) selection for clinical trials, disease progression management, patients' and treatment selection, as well as need to address the feasibility of molecular profiling anticipation, represent crucial issues to face before innovation can move to early stages.

5.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 131: 847-864, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597716

RESUMO

It was suggested in 1986 that cue-induced cocaine craving increases progressively during early abstinence and remains high during extended periods of time. Clinical evidence now supports this hypothesis and that this increase is not specific to cocaine but rather generalize across several drugs of abuse. Investigators have identified an analogous incubation phenomenon in rodents, in which time-dependent increases in cue-induced drug seeking are observed after abstinence from intravenous drug or palatable food self-administration. Incubation of craving is susceptible to variation in magnitude as a function of biological and/or the environmental circumstances surrounding the individual. During the last decade, the neurobiological correlates of the modulatory role of biological (sex, age, genetic factors) and environmental factors (environmental enrichment and physical exercise, sleep architecture, acute and chronic stress, abstinence reinforcement procedures) on incubation of drug craving has been investigated. In this review, we summarized the behavioral procedures adopted, the key underlying neurobiological correlates and clinical implications of these studies.

6.
World J Gastrointest Surg ; 13(9): 885-903, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621468

RESUMO

Patients affected by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) frequently present with advanced disease at the time of diagnosis, limiting an upfront surgical approach. Neoadjuvant treatment (NAT) has become the standard of care to downstage non-metastatic locally advanced PDAC. However, this treatment increases the risk of a nutritional status decline, which in turn, may impact therapeutic tolerance, postoperative outcomes, or even prevent the possibility of surgery. Literature on prehabilitation programs on surgical PDAC patients show a reduction of postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and readmission rate, while data on prehabilitation in NAT patients are scarce and randomized controlled trials are still missing. Particularly, appropriate nutritional management represents an important therapeutic strategy to promote tissue healing and to enhance patient recovery after surgical trauma. In this regard, NAT may represent a new interesting window of opportunity to implement a nutritional prehabilitation program, aiming to increase the PDAC patient's capacity to complete the planned therapy and potentially improve clinical and survival outcomes. Given these perspectives, this review attempts to provide an in-depth view of the nutritional derangements during NAT and nutritional prehabilitation program as well as their impact on PDAC patient outcomes.

7.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613461

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with microsatellite instability (MSI)/defective mismatch repair (dMMR) is the only subtype of pancreatic cancer with potential response to immunotherapy. Here, we report the histo-molecular characterization of MSI/dMMR PDAC with immunohistochemistry, MSI-based PCR, and next-generation sequencing. Five paradigmatic cases have been identified. The main results include the first report in pancreatic cancer of MSI/dMMR intra-tumor heterogeneity, the presence of microsatellite-stable metastases from MSI/dMMR primary and recurrent B2M gene inactivation, which may confer resistance to immunotherapy. In addition to the classic PDAC drivers, ARID1A was the most common mutated gene in the cohort. Intra-tumor heterogeneity, B2M inactivation, and metastatic sites should be carefully considered in MSI/dMMR PDAC, which should also be investigated in routine diagnostic practice with specific molecular analysis. The chromatin remodeler ARID1A represents another potential driver gene in this context.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705330

RESUMO

The transfer of a chemical product from its original container to an unlabelled secondary container by consumers is a potential health hazard that may result in unintentional exposures and intoxications. The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of prevalence of exposures to transferred products in Italy from year 2017, when the new European labelling regulation for chemicals became fully operative, to 2020, year of the coronavirus 19 disease first outbreak. Calls to the Poison Control Centre (PCC) of Policlinico Umberto I Hospital - Sapienza University of Rome were analysed retrospectively for characteristics, clinical presentation and circumstances related to the event. We registered 198 cases of interest. There was a reduction in cases from 2017 (4.9%) to 2019 (2.2%), followed by an increased prevalence in 2020 (4.2%) mainly due to the months "post-lockdown." The transferred product was very frequently diluted, and an empty drinking bottle was usually used as secondary container. Exposures were mostly of minor severity, and no deaths occurred. The study highlights the importance of PCCs data in the evaluation of the hazard communication to users through labels and advises for public campaigns to promote safe behaviours during future lockdowns to prevent exposures at a later period.

9.
Oncology ; 99(12): 747-755, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583356

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tivozanib is a potent and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3, recently approved in Europe for the first-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of safety and activity of tivozanib administered at 1.34 mg daily (3 weeks on, 1 week off) within a compassionate-use program to patients with mRCC with no prior systemic treatment in Italy. RESULTS: From August 2018 to April 2019, 64 patients have started tivozanib in 9 oncology units. The median age was 67.5 years (range 40-85), 62.5% males. According to International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium criteria, 27.1% of patients were good prognosis, 57.6% intermediate, and 15.3% poor. Primary tumor had been removed in 71.9% of patients. Histology was clear cell 89%, papillary 4.7%, and unclassified 6.3%. The response rate was 34.4%, stable disease 40.6%, and progression 15.6%. Grade 3-4 toxicities were 7.8% hypertension, 4.7% anemia, 3.1% mucositis, 3.1% asthenia, 1.6% diarrhea, 1.6% anorexia, 1.6% worsening of renal function, and 3.1% cardiac events. Dose reduction to 0.89 mg was applied to 17.2% of patients, and the discontinuation rate due to toxicity was 5.8%. Median progression-free survival was 12.4 months, with 68.7% of patients alive at 12 months. The developing of hypertension predicted increased progression-free survival at multivariate analysis (HR, 0.128; 95% CI, 0.03-0.59; p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Tivozanib showed good activity and favorable safety profile in a real-world cohort of unselected patients with mRCC. Predictive biomarkers of response to antiangiogenic therapy are urgently needed in order to identify RCC patients who could still receive a monotherapy with VEGFR inhibitors in the first line.

10.
Hum Pathol ; 118: 30-41, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562502

RESUMO

Hepatoid tumors (HT) are rare neoplasms morphologically resembling hepatocellular carcinoma, which arise in several organs other than the liver. A comprehensive molecular profile of this group of neoplasms is still lacking. Genomic characterization of 19 HTs from different organs (three colon HTs, four esophagogastric HTs, four biliary HTs, six genitourinary HTs, two lung HTs) was performed using a multigene next-generation sequencing panel. NGS unraveled a composite molecular profile of HT. Their genetic alterations were clearly clustered by tumor site: (i) colorectal HT displayed microsatellite instability, high tumor mutational burden, mutations in ARID1A/B genes and NCOA4-RET gene fusion (2/3 cases); (ii) gastric HT had TP53 mutations (2/4); (iii) biliary HT displayed loss of CDKN2A (3/4) and loss of chromosome 18 (2/4); (iv) genital HT showed gain of chromosome 12 (3/6); (v) lung HT had STK11 somatic mutations (2/2). The only commonly mutated gene occurring in HT of different sites was TP53 (8/19 cases: colon 2, esophagogastric 2, biliary 2, genital 1, lungs 1). This study shows that most genetic alterations of HT were clustered by site, indicating that context matters. The novel potential targets for HT precision oncology are also clustered based on the anatomic origin. This study shed light on the biology of these rare cancers and may have important consequences for treatment decisions and clinical trial selection for HT patients.

11.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvement in radiotherapy techniques and expected outcomes, as well as in understanding the underlying biological mechanisms contributing to its action (immunomodulation in primis), led to the integration of this therapeutical approach in the current management of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), not only in oncogene-driven tumors, but also in non-oncogene addicted NSCLC where the combination of platinum-based chemotherapy plus pembrolizumab represents nowadays the pivotal strategy. In this light, we have designed a randomized phase II (ESPERa) trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adding Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) to pembrolizumab-pemetrexed maintenance in advanced NSCLC patients experiencing disease response or stability after chemo-immunotherapy induction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Advanced non-oncogene addicted NSCLC patients with ECOG performance status of 0 or 1, who obtained disease response or stability after 4 cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy plus pembrolizumab will be randomized 2:1 to receive pembrolizumab-pemetrexed maintenance plus SBRT vs pembrolizumab-pemetrexed alone. The primary endpoint is progression-free survival (PFS). Concomitant translational researches will be performed to identify potential prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers, as well as to analyze and monitor tumour microenvironment and tumor-host interactions. CONCLUSIONS: Although available data suggest the safety and efficacy of combining immunotherapy and radiotherapy, their systematic integration in the current first-line landscape still remains to be explored. If the pre-planned endpoints of the ESPERa trial will be achieved, the addition of SBRT to pembrolizumab-pemetrexed maintenance as a strategy to consolidate and ideally improve the awaited benefit could be considered as a promising strategy in NSCLC undergoing first-line therapy, as well as an interesting approach to be evaluated in other disease setting, as well as in other oncological malignancies where immunotherapy represents nowadays the standard-of-care.

12.
Front Oncol ; 11: 688889, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568019

RESUMO

Background: The clinical consequences of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency and its treatment in advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are poorly investigated. This retrospective study aims at investigating the pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) use and its impact on survival and maldigestion-related symptoms in advanced PDAC patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on advanced PDAC patients, treated with first-line gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel at two academic institutions (March 2015-October 2018). Data were correlated with overall survival (OS) using Cox regression model. Kaplan-Meier curves were compared using Log-Rank test. Results: Data from 110 patients were gathered. PERT was administered in 55 patients (50%). No significant differences in baseline characteristics with those who did not receive PERT were found. Median OS for the entire group was 12 months (95% CI 9-15). At multivariate analysis, previous surgical resection of the primary tumor, (HR 2.67, p=0.11), weight gain after 3 months (HR 1.68, p=0.07) and PERT (HR 2.85, p ≤ 0.001) were independent predictors of OS. Patients who received PERT reported an improvement of maldigestion-related symptoms at 3 months more frequently than patients who did not (85.2% vs 14.8%, p ≤ 0.0001). Conclusion: PERT is associated with significantly prolonged survival and maldigestion-related symptoms alleviation in advanced PDAC patients.

13.
J Cancer Educ ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523076

RESUMO

Educational health materials may be important tools to increase physical activity in cancer patients. Nevertheless, most of the available resources regarding physical activity for cancer patients were found not suitable, had a low grade of readability, and thus, represent a significant barrier to behavior change. To date, little data about development criteria and evaluation of physical activity resources for cancer before their spread exist. The purposes of this study were (i) to describe the development of a physical activity guidebook designed for cancer patients and (ii) to test its readability and suitability. The guidebook was developed through multi-step passages, including group discussions, a literature review, identification of a motivational theory, and using previous research on exercise preferences, barriers, and facilitators to target the information. Two validated formulae were used to assess the readability, whereas thirty-four judges completed the Suitability of Assessment Materials questionnaire to evaluate the suitability of the guidebook. The guidebook was found readable for patients having at least a primary education, and the judges scored it as "superior" material. Our guidebook, following a rigorous method in the development phase, was considered to be suitable and readable. Further evaluations through clinical trials could investigate its effectiveness for behavior change and its impact on cancer patients.

14.
Breast ; 60: 6-14, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454324

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The impact of the adherence to dietary guidelines of early-stage breast cancer (EBC) patients on body composition changes during treatment is not entirely defined. This study aimed to evaluate the role of an evidence-based nutrition educational intervention, according to adherence to dietary guidelines, in EBC patients. METHODS: This prospective study included EBC patients, candidates for neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy. Patients received an evidence-based tailored nutrition educational intervention. The adherence to dietary guidelines, anthropometric and dietary assessments, and blood glucose and lipid profile tests were evaluated at baseline and after a 12-months nutritional intervention. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-three patients were enrolled. At baseline, 38.3% and 23.9% of patients were overweight and obese, weight gain ≥5% (compared to 6-months before enrollment) and central obesity were observed in 47.3% and 52.7% of patients, respectively. Adherence to dietary guidelines was low (median Med-Diet score: 6 [IQR 4-8]). After the nutritional intervention (median follow-up: 22 months [range 12-45]), adherence to dietary guidelines significantly increased (median Med-Diet score: 12 [IQR 8-13]), p < 0.0001). High adherence to dietary guidelines (defines as Med-Diet score ≥10) significantly correlated with: 1) overall weight loss ≥5% (21.8% vs. 2.5%, p = 0.003); 2) median BMI drop (from 25.6 kg/m2 to 24.4 kg/m2, p = 0.003); 3) lower prevalence of central obesity (38.2% vs. 7.2%, p = 0.01); 4) improvement in blood glucose levels and lipid profile. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that an evidence-based tailored nutrition educational intervention during treatment for EBC significantly increases overall adherence to dietary guidelines, and it improves both anthropometric measures and serum metabolic biomarkers in patients with high adherence.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439308

RESUMO

Extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas (EP-NECs) are lethal cancers with limited treatment options. Identification of contributing factors to the observed heterogeneity of clinical outcomes within the EP-NEC family is warranted, to enable identification of effective treatments. A multicentre retrospective study investigated potential differences in "real-world" treatment/survival outcomes between small-cell (SC) versus (vs.) non-SC EP-NECs. One-hundred and seventy patients were included: 77 (45.3%) had SC EP-NECs and 93 (54.7%) had non-SC EP-NECs. Compared to the SC subgroup, the non-SC subgroup had the following features: (1) a lower mean Ki-67 index (69.3% vs. 78.7%; p = 0.002); (2) a lower proportion of cases with a Ki-67 index of ≥55% (73.9% vs. 88.7%; p = 0.025); (3) reduced sensitivity to first-line platinum/etoposide (objective response rate: 31.6% vs. 55.1%, p = 0.015; and disease control rate; 59.7% vs. 79.6%, p = 0.027); (4) worse progression-free survival (PFS) (adjusted-HR = 1.615, p = 0.016) and overall survival (OS) (adjusted-HR = 1.640, p = 0.015) in the advanced setting. Within the advanced EP-NEC cohort, subgroups according to morphological subtype and Ki-67 index (<55% vs. ≥55%) had significantly different PFS (adjusted-p = 0.021) and OS (adjusted-p = 0.051), with the non-SC subgroup with a Ki-67 index of <55% and non-SC subgroup with a Ki-67 index of ≥55% showing the best and worst outcomes, respectively. To conclude, the morphological subtype of EP-NEC provides complementary information to the Ki-67 index and may aid identification of patients who could benefit from alternative first-line treatment strategies to platinum/etoposide.

16.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(7): 3369-3384, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34430373

RESUMO

Objective: In this review, we aim to collect and discuss available data about the role and composition of tumor microenvironment (TME) in oligometastatic (OMD) and oligoprogressive (OPD) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Furthermore, we aim to summarize the ongoing clinical trials evaluating as exploratory objective the TME composition, through tissue and/or blood samples, in order to clarify whether TME and its components could explain, at least partially, the oligometastatic/oligoprogressive process and could unravel the existence of predictive and/or prognostic factors for local ablative therapy (LAT). Background: OMD/OPD NSCLC represent a heterogeneous group of diseases. Several data have shown that TME plays an important role in tumor progression and therefore in treatment response. The crucial role of several types of cells and molecules such as immune cells, cytokines, integrins, protease and adhesion molecules, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been widely established. Due to the peculiar activation of specific pathways and expression of adhesion molecules, metastatic cells seem to show a tropism for specific anatomic sites (the so-called "seed and soil" hypothesis). Based on this theory, metastases appear as a biologically driven process rather than a random release of cancer cells. Although the role and the function of TME at the time of progression in patients with NSCLC treated with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been investigated, limited data about the role and the biological meaning of TME are available in the specific OMD/OPD setting. Methods: Through a comprehensive PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov search, we identified available and ongoing studies exploring the role of TME in oligometastatic/oligoprogressive NSCLC. Conclusions: Deepening the knowledge on TME composition and function in OMD/OPD may provide innovative implications in terms of both prognosis and prediction of outcome in particular from local treatments, paving the way for future investigations of personalized approaches in both advanced and early disease settings.

17.
Target Oncol ; 16(5): 625-632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation is a highly aggressive form of kidney cancer. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the outcomes of patients treated with cabozantinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 16 worldwide centers. Overall survival and progression-free survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional models were used for univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: We collected data from 66 patients with metastatic sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma receiving cabozantinib as second-line (51%) or third-line (49%) therapy. The median progression-free survival from the start of cabozantinib was 7.59 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.75-17.49) and was longer in male patients (8.81 vs 5.95 months, p = 0.042) and in patients without bone metastases (7.59 vs 5.11 months, p = 0.010); the median overall survival was 9.11 months (95% CI 7.13-23.80). At the multivariate analysis, female sex (hazard ratio = 1.81; 95% CI 1.02-3.37, p = 0.046), bone metastases (hazard ratio = 2.62; 95% CI 1.34-5.10, p = 0.005), and International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium criteria (hazard ratio = 3.04; 95% CI 1.54-5.99, p = 0.001) were significant predictors of worse overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that cabozantinib is active in pretreated patients with sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. Biomarkers are needed in this field to select patients for multi-kinase inhibitors or other options.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(23): 2617-2631, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the prevalence of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of HRD in PDAC from PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases, and online cancer genomic data sets. The main outcome was pooled prevalence of somatic and germline mutations in the better characterized HRD genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, ATR, CHEK2, RAD51, and the FANC genes). The secondary outcomes were prevalence of germline mutations overall, and in sporadic and familial cases; prevalence of germline BRCA1/2 mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ); and prevalence of HRD based on other definitions (ie, alterations in other genes, genomic scars, and mutational signatures). Random-effects modeling with the Freeman-Tukey transformation was used for the analyses. PROSPERO registration number: (CRD42020190813). RESULTS: Sixty studies with 21,842 participants were included in the systematic review and 57 in the meta-analysis. Prevalence of germline and somatic mutations was BRCA1: 0.9%, BRCA2: 3.5%, PALB2: 0.2%, ATM: 2.2%, CHEK2: 0.3%, FANC: 0.5%, RAD51: 0.0%, and ATR: 0.1%. Prevalence of germline mutations was BRCA1: 0.9% (2.4% in AJ), BRCA2: 3.8% (8.2% in AJ), PALB2: 0.2%, ATM: 2%, CHEK2: 0.3%, and FANC: 0.4%. No significant differences between sporadic and familial cases were identified. HRD prevalence ranged between 14.5%-16.5% through targeted next-generation sequencing and 24%-44% through whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing allowing complementary genomic analysis, including genomic scars and other signatures (surrogate markers of HRD). CONCLUSION: Surrogate readouts of HRD identify a greater proportion of patients with HRD than analyses limited to gene-level approaches. There is a clear need to harmonize HRD definitions and to validate the optimal biomarker for treatment selection. Universal HRD screening including integrated somatic and germline analysis should be offered to all patients with PDAC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Humanos , Prevalência
19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206554

RESUMO

Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is a numeric index that expresses the number of mutations per megabase (muts/Mb) harbored by tumor cells in a neoplasm. TMB can be determined using different approaches based on next-generation sequencing. In the case of high values, it indicates a potential response to immunotherapy. In this systematic review, we assessed the potential predictive role of high-TMB in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), as well as the histo-molecular features of high-TMB PDAC. High-TMB appeared as a rare but not-negligible molecular feature in PDAC, being present in about 1.1% of cases. This genetic condition was closely associated with mucinous/colloid and medullary histology (p < 0.01). PDAC with high-TMB frequently harbored other actionable alterations, with microsatellite instability/defective mismatch repair as the most common. Immunotherapy has shown promising results in high-TMB PDAC, but the sample size of high-TMB PDAC treated so far is quite small. This study highlights interesting peculiarities of PDAC harboring high-TMB and may represent a reliable starting point for the assessment of TMB in the clinical management of patients affected by pancreatic cancer.

20.
Front Oncol ; 11: 669786, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262861

RESUMO

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has proved to be a historic challenge for healthcare systems, particularly with regard to cancer patients. So far, very limited data have been presented on the impact on integrated care pathways (ICPs). Methods: We reviewed the ICPs of lung cancer patients who accessed the Veneto Institute of Oncology (IOV)/University Hospital of Padua (Center 1) and the University Hospital of Verona (Center 2) before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, through sixteen indicators chosen by the members of a multidisciplinary team (MDT). Results: Two window periods (March and April 2019 and 2020) were chosen for comparison. Endoscopic diagnostic procedures and major resections for early stage NSCLC patients increased at Center 1, where a priority pathway with dedicated personnel was established for cancer patients. A slight decrease was observed at Center 2 which became part of the COVID unit. Personnel shortage and different processing methods of tumor samples determined a slightly longer time for diagnostic pathway completion at both Centers. Personnel protection strategies led to a MDT reshape on a web basis and to a significant selection of cases to be discussed in both Centers. The optimization of patient access to healthcare units reduced first outpatient oncological visits, patient enrollment in clinical trials, and end-of-life cancer systemic treatments; finally, a higher proportion of hypofractionation was delivered as a radiotherapy approach for early stage and locally advanced NSCLC. Conclusions: Based on the experience of the two Centers, we identified the key steps in ICP that were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic so as to proactively put in place a robust service provision of thoracic oncology.

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