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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 614665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747978

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi, a zoonotic kinetoplastid protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease). Having a very plastic, repetitive and complex genome, the parasite displays a highly diverse repertoire of surface molecules, with pivotal roles in cell invasion, immune evasion and pathogenesis. Before 2016, the complexity of the genomic regions containing these genes impaired the assembly of a genome at chromosomal level, making it impossible to study the structure and function of the several thousand repetitive genes encoding the surface molecules of the parasite. We here describe the genome assembly of the Sylvio X10/1 genome sequence, which since 2016 has been used as a reference genome sequence for T. cruzi clade I (TcI), produced using high coverage PacBio single-molecule sequencing. It was used to analyze deep Illumina sequence data from 34 T. cruzi TcI isolates and clones from different geographic locations, sample sources and clinical outcomes. Resolution of the surface molecule gene distribution showed the unusual duality in the organization of the parasite genome, a synteny of the core genomic region with related protozoa flanked by unique and highly plastic multigene family clusters encoding surface antigens. The presence of abundant interspersed retrotransposons in these multigene family clusters suggests that these elements are involved in a recombination mechanism for the generation of antigenic variation and evasion of the host immune response on these TcI strains. The comparative genomic analysis of the cohort of TcI strains revealed multiple cases of such recombination events involving surface molecule genes and has provided new insights into T. cruzi population structure.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16395, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009443

RESUMO

Chagas disease is considered the most important parasitic disease in Latin America. The protozoan agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, comprises six genetic lineages, TcI-TcVI. Genotyping to link lineage(s) to severity of cardiomyopathy and gastrointestinal pathology is impeded by the sequestration and replication of T. cruzi in host tissues. We describe serology specific for TcI, the predominant lineage north of the Amazon, based on expression of recombinant trypomastigote small surface antigen (gTSSA-I) in the eukaryote Leishmania tarentolae, to allow realistic glycosylation and structure of the antigen. Sera from TcI-endemic regions recognised gTSSA-I (74/146; 50.7%), with no cross reaction with common components of gTSSA-II/V/VI recombinant antigen. Antigenicity was abolished by chemical (periodate) oxidation of gTSSA-I glycosylation but retained after heat-denaturation of conformation. Conversely, non-specific recognition of gTSSA-I by non-endemic malaria sera was abolished by heat-denaturation. TcI-specific serology facilitates investigation between lineage and diverse clinical presentations. Glycosylation cannot be ignored in the search for immunogenic antigens.

3.
Microorganisms ; 8(9)2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962237

RESUMO

The clinical manifestation of leishmaniases depends on parasite species, host genetic background, and immune response. Manifestations of human leishmaniases are highly variable, ranging from self-healing skin lesions to fatal visceral disease. The scope of standard model hosts is insufficient to mimic well the wide disease spectrum, which compels the introduction of new model animals for leishmaniasis research. In this article, we study the susceptibility of three Asian rodent species (Cricetulus griseus, Lagurus lagurus, and Phodopus sungorus) to Leishmania major and L. donovani. The external manifestation of the disease, distribution, as well as load of parasites and infectiousness to natural sand fly vectors, were compared with standard models, BALB/c mice and Mesocricetus auratus. No significant differences were found in disease outcomes in animals inoculated with sand fly- or culture-derived parasites. All Asian rodent species were highly susceptible to L. major. Phodopus sungorus showed the non-healing phenotype with the progressive growth of ulcerative lesions and massive parasite loads. Lagurus lagurus and C. griseus represented the healing phenotype, the latter with high infectiousness to vectors, mimicking best the character of natural reservoir hosts. Both, L. lagurus and C. griseus were also highly susceptible to L. donovani, having wider parasite distribution and higher parasite loads and infectiousness than standard model animals.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238840, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925980

RESUMO

Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) relies on invasive and risky aspirate procedures, and confirmation of cure after treatment is unreliable. Detection of Leishmania donovani antigens in urine has the potential to provide both a non-invasive diagnostic and a test of cure. We searched for L. donovani antigens in urine of VL patients from India and Sudan to contribute to the development of urine antigen capture immunoassays. VL urine samples were incubated with immobilised anti-L. donovani polyclonal antibodies and captured material was eluted. Sudanese eluted material and concentrated VL urine were analysed by western blot. Immunocaptured and immunoreactive material from Indian and Sudanese urine was submitted to mass spectrometry for protein identification. We identified six L. donovani proteins from VL urine. Named proteins were 40S ribosomal protein S9, kinases, and others were hypothetical. Thirty-three epitope regions were predicted with high specificity in the 6 proteins. Of these, 20 were highly specific to Leishmania spp. and are highly suitable for raising antibodies for the subsequent development of an antigen capture assay. We present all the identified proteins and analysed epitope regions in full so that they may contribute to the development of non-invasive immunoassays for this deadly disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/urina , Antígenos de Protozoários/urina , Leishmania donovani/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Protozoários/urina , Adulto , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/urina , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação
5.
Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist ; 13: 107-120, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688218

RESUMO

Ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors, such as posaconazole and ravuconazole, have been proposed as drug candidates for Chagas disease, a neglected infectious tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. To understand better the mechanism of action and resistance to these inhibitors, a clone of the T. cruzi Y strain was cultured under intermittent and increasing concentrations of ravuconazole until phenotypic stability was achieved. The ravuconazole-selected clone exhibited loss in fitness in vitro when compared to the wild-type parental clone, as observed in reduced invasion capacity and slowed population growth in both mammalian and insect stages of the parasite. In drug activity assays, the resistant clone was above 300-fold more tolerant to ravuconazole than the sensitive parental clone, when the half-maximum effective concentration (EC50) was considered. The resistant clones also showed reduced virulence in vivo, when compared to parental sensitive clones. Cross-resistance to posaconazole and other CYP51 inhibitors, but not to other antichagasic drugs that act independently of CYP51, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, was also observed. A novel amino acid residue change, T297M, was found in the TcCYP51 gene in the resistant but not in the sensitive clones. The structural effects of the T297M, and of the previously described P355S residue changes, were modelled to understand their impact on interaction with CYP51 inhibitors.

6.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 289, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a gastrointestinal protozoan causing 184 million cases of giardiasis worldwide annually. Detection is by microscopy or coproantigen assays, although sensitivity is often compromised by intermittent shedding of cysts or trophozoites, or operator expertise. Therefore, for enhanced surveillance field-applicable, point-of-care (POC), molecular assays are needed. Our aims were to: (i) optimise the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for the isothermal amplification of the G. duodenalis ß-giardin gene from trophozoites and cysts, using published primer and probes; and (ii) perform a pilot field validation of RPA at a field station in a resource-poor setting, on DNA extracted from stool samples from schoolchildren in villages around Lake Albert, Uganda. Results were compared to an established laboratory small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) qPCR assay with additional testing using a qPCR targeting the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) DNA regions that can distinguish G. duodenalis of two different assemblages (A and B), which are human-specific. RESULTS: Initial optimisation resulted in the successful amplification of predicted RPA products from G. duodenalis-purified gDNA, producing a double-labelled amplicon detected using lateral flow strips. In the field setting, of 129 stool samples, 49 (37.9%) were positive using the Giardia/Cryptosporidium QuikChek coproantigen test; however, the RPA assay when conducted in the field was positive for a single stool sample. Subsequent molecular screening in the laboratory on a subset (n = 73) of the samples demonstrated better results with 21 (28.8%) RPA positive. The SSU rDNA qPCR assay resulted in 30/129 (23.3%) positive samples; 18 out of 73 (24.7%) were assemblage typed (9 assemblage A; 5 assemblage B; and 4 mixed A+B). Compared with the SSU rDNA qPCR, QuikChek was more sensitive than RPA (85.7 vs 61.9%), but with similar specificities (80.8 vs 84.6%). In comparison to QuikChek, RPA had 46.4% sensitivity and 82.2% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in-field and comparative laboratory validation of RPA for giardiasis in low resource settings. Further refinement and technology transfer, specifically in relation to stool sample preparation, will be needed to implement this assay in the field, which could assist better detection of asymptomatic Giardia infections.

7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0007143, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310945

RESUMO

Parasites of the genus Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) cause widespread and devastating human diseases. Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania donovani is endemic in Ethiopia where it has also been responsible for major epidemics. The presence of hybrid genotypes has been widely reported in surveys of natural populations, genetic variation reported in a number of Leishmania species, and the extant capacity for genetic exchange demonstrated in laboratory experiments. However, patterns of recombination and the evolutionary history of admixture that produced these hybrid populations remain unclear. Here, we use whole-genome sequence data to investigate Ethiopian L. donovani isolates previously characterized as hybrids by microsatellite and multi-locus sequencing. To date there is only one previous study on a natural population of Leishmania hybrids based on whole-genome sequences. We propose that these hybrids originate from recombination between two different lineages of Ethiopian L. donovani occurring in the same region. Patterns of inheritance are more complex than previously reported with multiple, apparently independent, origins from similar parents that include backcrossing with parental types. Analysis indicates that hybrids are representative of at least three different histories. Furthermore, isolates were highly polysomic at the level of chromosomes with differences between parasites recovered from a recrudescent infection from a previously treated individual. The results demonstrate that recombination is a significant feature of natural populations and contributes to the growing body of data that shows how recombination, and gene flow, shape natural populations of Leishmania.


Assuntos
Quimera , Leishmania donovani/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Etiópia , Genótipo , Humanos , Recombinação Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Elife ; 92020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209228

RESUMO

Protozoan parasites of the Leishmania donovani complex - L. donovani and L. infantum - cause the fatal disease visceral leishmaniasis. We present the first comprehensive genome-wide global study, with 151 cultured field isolates representing most of the geographical distribution. L. donovani isolates separated into five groups that largely coincide with geographical origin but vary greatly in diversity. In contrast, the majority of L. infantum samples fell into one globally-distributed group with little diversity. This picture is complicated by several hybrid lineages. Identified genetic groups vary in heterozygosity and levels of linkage, suggesting different recombination histories. We characterise chromosome-specific patterns of aneuploidy and identified extensive structural variation, including known and suspected drug resistance loci. This study reveals greater genetic diversity than suggested by geographically-focused studies, provides a resource of genomic variation for future work and sets the scene for a new understanding of the evolution and genetics of the Leishmania donovani complex.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227828, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951634

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan agent of Chagas disease in the Americas, is comprised of six genetic lineages (TcI-TcVI) and a possible seventh (TcBat, related to TcI). Identification of T. cruzi lineages infecting reservoir mammalian species is fundamental to resolving transmission cycles. However, this is hindered by the limited sensitivity and technical complexity of parasite isolation and genotyping. An alternative approach is serology using T. cruzi lineage-specific epitopes, such as those of the trypomastigote small surface antigen (TSSA). For surveillance of T. cruzi lineage infections in mammal species from diverse Brazilian regions, we apply a novel rapid diagnostic test (RDT, Chagas Sero K-SeT), which incorporates the TSSA peptide epitope specific to TcII/V/VI (TSSApep-II/V/VI) and Protein G detection of antibodies. Chagas Sero K-SeT RDT results with sera from experimentally infected mice, from tamarin primates (Leontopithecus spp.) and from canines (Canis familiaris) were concordant with corresponding TSSApep-II/V/VI ELISAs. The Chagas Sero K-Set detected TcII/V/VI infections in Leontopithecus spp. from the Atlantic forest (n = 46), in C. familiaris (n = 16) and Thrichomys laurentius (n = 2) from Caatinga biome and Chiroptera (n = 1) from Acre, Amazonia. The Chagas Sero K-SeT RDT is directly applicable to TcII/V/VI-specific serological surveillance of T. cruzi infection in several different mammalian Orders. It can replace ELISAs and provides efficient, point-of-sampling, low-cost detection of TcII/V/VI infections, with at least equivalent sensitivity, although some mammals may be difficult to trap, and, not unexpectedly, Chagas Sero K-SeT could not recognise feline IgG. Knowledge of sylvatic hosts of T. cruzi can be expanded, new reservoir species discovered, and the ecology of transmission cycles clarified, particularly with adaptation to further mammalian Orders.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doença de Chagas/sangue , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Camundongos , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia
11.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 114(6): 433-439, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of asymptomatic leishmaniasis in Venezuela. The objective of this study was to quantify Leishmania asymptomatic infection in six endemic foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Portuguesa State, Venezuela, where no previous data were available. METHODS: Study of the prevalence of Leishmania asymptomatic infection was carried out in 841 individuals from six endemic foci of CL in the municipalities Sucre and Ospino, Portuguesa State. We applied the leishmanin skin test (LST) and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) PCR to DNA from sera and blood clots of all LST-positive and 20% of LST-negative patients. RESULTS: Of 841 inhabitants tested by LST, 197 returned a positive reaction (23.42%); all of the LST-positives (197) and 121 negatives were screened by nested PCR using serum and blood clots. Among the LST-positive group, 2.54% were PCR-positive with sera, while 44.67% were positive with blood clots. In the LST-negative group, PCR was positive in 2.48% of serum samples and in 38.84% of blood clots. CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended that LST and PCR on blood clots are used together to detect exposure and asymptomatic infection and for identification of the Leishmania species.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3972, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481692

RESUMO

Genetic exchange enables parasites to rapidly transform disease phenotypes and exploit new host populations. Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasitic agent of Chagas disease and a public health concern throughout Latin America, has for decades been presumed to exchange genetic material rarely and without classic meiotic sex. We present compelling evidence from 45 genomes sequenced from southern Ecuador that T. cruzi in fact maintains truly sexual, panmictic groups that can occur alongside others that remain highly clonal after past hybridization events. These groups with divergent reproductive strategies appear genetically isolated despite possible co-occurrence in vectors and hosts. We propose biological explanations for the fine-scale disconnectivity we observe and discuss the epidemiological consequences of flexible reproductive modes. Our study reinvigorates the hunt for the site of genetic exchange in the T. cruzi life cycle, provides tools to define the genetic determinants of parasite virulence, and reforms longstanding theory on clonality in trypanosomatid parasites.


Assuntos
Genoma de Protozoário , Meiose , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Animais , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Equador , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Recombinação Genética , Reprodução/genética , Roedores/parasitologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Triatominae/parasitologia
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 424, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan agent of Chagas disease, is comprised of at least 6 genetic lineages (TcI-TcVI). Their geographical distribution, clinical associations and reservoir hosts are not fully elucidated, as genotyping is hampered due to the difficulty in isolating representative populations of organisms. Lineage-specific serological techniques may address these issues. METHODS: Trypanosoma cruzi lineage-specific serological assays were performed on human, canine, feline and armadillo sera from the Gran Chaco in northern Argentina, a region of ongoing transmission. Synthetic peptides representing lineage-specific epitopes of the trypomastigote small surface antigen (TSSA) were used in ELISA, and the TcII/V/VI shared epitope peptide (TSSApep-II/V/VI) was used in the Chagas Sero K-SeT rapid diagnostic test (RDT). RESULTS: Chagas Sero K-SeT RDT, using Protein G to detect human and canine IgG, was at least as sensitive as TSSApep-II/V/VI ELISA using specific secondary antibodies. For sera from humans TSSApep-II/V/VI seroprevalence by Chagas Sero K-SeT was 273/393 (69.5%), for dogs 48/73 (65.8%) and for armadillos 1/7 (14.3%); by ELISA for cats 5/19 (26.3%). The seroprevalence for humans was similar to that for Bolivian patients, amongst whom we previously observed an association of TSSApep-II/V/VI seropositivity with severity of cardiomyopathy. In humans, prevalence of TSSApep-II/V/VI recognition was associated with locality, and with increasing and decreasing age within the Qom and Creole populations, respectively. For dogs TSSApep-II/V/VI recognition was associated with being born before community-wide insecticide spraying (P = 0.05) and with Qom household (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We show here that Chagas Sero K-SeT RDT can replace ELISA for TSSApep-II/V/VI serology of humans and dogs; for humans there were statistically significant associations between a positive Chagas Sero K-SeT RDT and being resident in Area IV, and for dogs association with Qom household or with being born before the mass spraying campaign; we also show that with cats the TcII/V/VI epitope can be detected by ELISA. We assessed the lineage distribution in an unprecedented 83% of the human T. cruzi-seropositive population. These results form the basis for more detailed studies, enabling rapid in-the-field surveillance of the distribution and clustering of these lineages among humans and mammalian reservoirs of T. cruzi infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Sorogrupo , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Trypanosoma cruzi/classificação , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Tatus , Gatos , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 88: 14-20, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Local health personnel have drawn attention to an apparent increase in incidence and severity of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sudan. The objective of this study was to investigate CL burden and surveillance. METHODS: Surveillance data were compiled from the KalaCORE programme, Leishmania coordinators in Northern Kordofan and Southern Darfur, and Khartoum Dermatology Hospital. CL lesions were sampled from 14 suspected cases from Northern Kordofan and the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Omdurman. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and multilocus sequencing were used to characterize the disease agent. RESULTS: All sites reported substantial increases from 2014 to 2016/7, far exceeding World Health Organization case reports for 2014, consistent with a widespread outbreak. Single seasonal peak incidence was observed, except for two peaks in Southern Darfur. In Northern Kordofan, the odds ratio for CL in the 35-44 years age group was 2.6 times higher than in the >45 years age group (p<0.0001); in Southern Darfur, the OR was 2.38 greater in males than females (p<0.0001). Lesions included severe presentations, despite chemotherapy. Leishmania major was identified as the agent. CONCLUSIONS: Active surveillance is required to understand the extent of CL in Sudan, as well as training to standardize surveillance, diagnosis, reporting, and quality control. Point-of-care rapid diagnosis would be valuable. Genotyping and phenotyping are required to monitor the emergence of pathogenic strains, drug resistance, outbreaks, and changes in severity.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Leishmania major/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Leishmania major/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Sudão/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007353, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The search for diagnostic biomarkers has been profiting from a growing number of high quality sequenced genomes and freely available bioinformatic tools. These can be combined with wet lab experiments for a rational search. Improved, point-of-care diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), early case detection and surveillance are required. Previous investigations demonstrated the potential of IgG1 as a biomarker for monitoring clinical status in rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), although using a crude lysate antigen (CLA) as capturing antigen. Replacing the CLA by specific antigens would lead to more robust RDTs. METHODOLOGY: Immunoblots revealed L. donovani protein bands detected by IgG1 from VL patients. Upon confident identification of these antigens by mass spectrometry (MS), we searched for evidence of constitutive protein expression and presence of antigenic domains or high accessibility to B-cells. Selected candidates had their linear epitopes mapped with in silico algorithms. Multiple high-scoring predicted epitopes from the shortlisted proteins were screened in peptide arrays. The most promising candidate was tested in RDT prototypes using VL and nonendemic healthy control (NEHC) patient sera. RESULTS: Over 90% of the proteins identified from the immunoblots did not satisfy the selection criteria and were excluded from the downstream epitope mapping. Screening of predicted epitope peptides from the shortlisted proteins identified the most reactive, for which the sensitivity for IgG1 was 84% (95% CI 60-97%) with Sudanese VL sera on RDT prototypes. None of the sera from NEHCs were positive. CONCLUSION: We employed in silico searches to reduce drastically the output of wet lab experiments, focusing on promising candidates containing selected protein features. By predicting epitopes in silico we screened a large number of peptides using arrays, identifying the most promising one, for which IgG1 sensitivity and specificity, with limited sample size, supported this proof of concept strategy for diagnostics discovery, which can be applied to the development of more robust IgG1 RDTs for monitoring clinical status in VL.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/análise , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/análise , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Leishmania donovani/genética , Leishmania donovani/imunologia , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Peptídeos/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(5): e149-e161, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799251

RESUMO

In the past 5-10 years, Venezuela has faced a severe economic crisis, precipitated by political instability and declining oil revenue. Public health provision has been affected particularly. In this Review, we assess the impact of Venezuela's health-care crisis on vector-borne diseases, and the spillover into neighbouring countries. Between 2000 and 2015, Venezuela witnessed a 359% increase in malaria cases, followed by a 71% increase in 2017 (411 586 cases) compared with 2016 (240 613). Neighbouring countries, such as Brazil, have reported an escalating trend of imported malaria cases from Venezuela, from 1538 in 2014 to 3129 in 2017. In Venezuela, active Chagas disease transmission has been reported, with seroprevalence in children (<10 years), estimated to be as high as 12·5% in one community tested (n=64). Dengue incidence increased by more than four times between 1990 and 2016. The estimated incidence of chikungunya during its epidemic peak is 6975 cases per 100 000 people and that of Zika virus is 2057 cases per 100 000 people. The re-emergence of many vector-borne diseases represents a public health crisis in Venezuela and has the possibility of severely undermining regional disease elimination efforts. National, regional, and global authorities must take action to address these worsening epidemics and prevent their expansion beyond Venezuelan borders.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Epidemias , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Incidência , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/prevenção & controle , Venezuela/epidemiologia
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(4): 625-632, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698523

RESUMO

Venezuela's tumbling economy and authoritarian rule have precipitated an unprecedented humanitarian crisis. Hyperinflation rates now exceed 45,000%, and Venezuela's health system is in free fall. The country is experiencing a massive exodus of biomedical scientists and qualified healthcare professionals. Reemergence of arthropod-borne and vaccine-preventable diseases has sparked serious epidemics that also affect neighboring countries. In this article, we discuss the ongoing epidemics of measles and diphtheria in Venezuela and their disproportionate impact on indigenous populations. We also discuss the potential for reemergence of poliomyelitis and conclude that action to halt the spread of vaccine-preventable diseases within Venezuela is a matter of urgency for the country and the region. We further provide specific recommendations for addressing this crisis.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/epidemiologia , América/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/etiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Imunização , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Vacinação , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/diagnóstico , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/etiologia , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/imunologia , Venezuela/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(1): e0007078, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hosts repeatedly bitten by sand flies develop antibodies against sand fly saliva and screening of these immunoglobulins can be employed to estimate the risk of Leishmania transmission, to indicate the feeding preferences of sand flies, or to evaluate the effectiveness of vector control campaigns. Previously, antibodies to sand fly saliva were detected using whole salivary gland homogenate (SGH) or recombinant proteins, both of which also have their disadvantages. This is the first study on sand flies where short peptides designed based on salivary antigens were successfully utilized for antibody screening. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Specific IgG was studied in hosts naturally exposed to Phlebotomus orientalis, the main vector of Leishmania donovani in East Africa. Four peptides were designed by the commercial program EpiQuest-B, based on the sequences of the two most promising salivary antigens, yellow-related protein and ParSP25-like protein. Short amino acid peptides were synthesised and modified for ELISA experiments. Specific anti-P. orientalis IgG was detected in sera of dogs, goats, and sheep from Ethiopia. The peptide OR24 P2 was shown to be suitable for antibody screening; it correlated positively with SGH and its specificity and sensitivity were comparable or even better than that of previously published recombinant proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: OR24 P2, the peptide based on salivary antigen of P. orientalis, was shown to be a valuable tool for antibody screening of domestic animals naturally exposed to P. orientalis. We suggest the application of this promising methodology using species-specific short peptides to other sand fly-host combinations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Peptídeos/imunologia , Phlebotomus/imunologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/imunologia , Animais , Cães , Etiópia , Cabras , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(7): 1130-1135, 2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the Leishmania donovani complex, is a fatal, neglected tropical disease that is targeted for elimination in India, Nepal, and Bangladesh. Improved diagnostic tests are required for early case detection and for monitoring the outcomes of treatments. Previous investigations using Leishmania lysate antigen demonstrated that the immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 response is a potential indicator of a patient's clinical status after chemotherapy. METHODS: IgG1 or IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with rK39 or lysate antigens and novel IgG1 rK39 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were assessed with Indian VL serum samples from the following clinical groups: paired pre- and postchemotherapy (deemed cured); relapsed; other infectious diseases; and endemic, healthy controls. RESULTS: With paired pre- and post-treatment samples (n = 37 pairs), ELISAs with rK39- and IgG1-specific conjugates gave a far more discriminative decrease in post-treatment antibody responses when compared to IgG (P < .0001). Novel IgG1 rK39 RDTs provided strong evidence for decreased IgG1 responses in patients who had successful treatment (P < .0001). Furthermore, both IgG1 rK39 RDTs (n = 38) and ELISAs showed a highly significant difference in test outcomes between cured patients and those who relapsed (n = 23; P < .0001). RDTs were more sensitive than corresponding ELISAs. CONCLUSIONS: We present strong evidence for the use of IgG1 in monitoring treatment outcomes in VL, and the first use of an IgG1-based RDT using the rK39 antigen for the discrimination of post-treatment cure versus relapse in VL. Such an RDT may have a significant role in monitoring patients and in targeted control and elimination of this devastating disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Leishmania/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
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