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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644003

RESUMO

Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome is an autosomal dominant overgrowth syndrome caused by pathogenic DNMT3A variants in the germline. Clinical findings of tall stature due to postnatal overgrowth, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features, are the most consistent findings observed in patients with Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS). Since the syndrome was first described in 2014, an expanding spectrum of neuropsychiatric, musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiovascular manifestations have been reported. However, most TBRS cases described in the literature are children with de novo DNMT3A variants, signaling a need to better characterize the phenotypes in adults. In this report, we describe a 34 year old referred to genetics for possible Marfan syndrome with aortic root dilatation, mitral valve prolapse, and dilated cardiomyopathy, who was diagnosed with TBRS due to a heterozygous de novo DNMT3A variant. This represents the third reported TBRS case with aortic root dilation and the second with cardiomyopathy. Collectively, these data provide evidence for an association with aortic disease and cardiomyopathy, highlight the clinical overlap with Marfan syndrome, and suggest that cardiovascular surveillance into adulthood is indicated.

2.
J Biol Chem ; : 101228, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600884

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants of the ACTA2 gene, which encodes smooth muscle (SM) α-actin, predispose to heritable thoracic aortic disease. The ACTA2 variant p.Arg149Cys (R149C) is the most common alteration; however only 60% of carriers have a dissection or undergo repair of an aneurysm by 70 years of age. A mouse model of ACTA2 p.Arg149Cys was generated using CRISPR/Cas9 technology to determine the etiology of reduced penetrance. Acta2R149C/+ mice had significantly decreased aortic contraction compared to wild type (WT) mice but did not form aortic aneurysms or dissections when followed to 24 months, even when hypertension was induced. In vitro motility assays found decreased interaction of mutant SM α-actin filaments with smooth muscle myosin. Polymerization studies using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy showed enhanced nucleation of mutant SM α-actin by formin, which correlated with disorganized and reduced SM α-actin filaments in Acta2R149C/+ smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, the most prominent molecular defect was the increased retention of mutant SM α-actin in the chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide (CCT) folding complex, which was associated with reduced levels of mutant compared to WT SM α-actin in Acta2R149C/+ SMCs. These data indicate that Acta2R149C/+ mice do not develop thoracic aortic disease despite decreased contraction of aortic segments and disrupted SM α-actin filament formation and function in Acta2R149C/+ SMCs. Enhanced binding of mutant SM α-actin to CCT decreases the mutant actin versus WT monomer levels in Acta2R149C/+ SMCs, thus minimizing the effect of the mutation on SMC function and potentially preventing aortic disease in the Acta2R149C/+ mice.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare midterm outcomes of aortic valve-replacing root replacement (AVR) and aortic valve-sparing root replacement (AVS) operations in patients with Marfan syndrome. METHODS: Patients who met strict Ghent diagnostic criteria for Marfan syndrome and who underwent either AVR or AVS between March 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010 were enrolled in a 3-year follow-up prospective, multicenter, international registry study; the study was subsequently amended to include 20-year follow-up. Enrollees were followed clinically and echocardiographically. RESULTS: Of the 316 patients enrolled, 77 underwent AVR and 239 underwent AVS; 214 gave reconsent for 20-year follow-up. The median clinical follow-up time for surviving patients was 64 months (interquartile range, 42-66 months). Survival rates for the AVR and AVS groups were similar at 88.2% ± 4.4% and 95.0% ± 1.5%, respectively (P = .1). Propensity score-adjusted competing risk modeling showed associations between AVS and higher cumulative incidences of major adverse valve-related events, valve-related morbidity, combined structural valve deterioration and nonstructural valve dysfunction, and aortic regurgitation ≥2+ (all P < .01). No differences were found for reintervention (P = .7), bleeding (P = .2), embolism (P = .3), or valve-related mortality (P = .8). CONCLUSIONS: Five years postoperatively, major adverse valve-related events and valve-related morbidity were more frequent after AVS than after AVR procedures, primarily because of more frequent aortic valve dysfunction. No between-group differences were found in rates of survival, valve-related mortality, reintervention on the aortic valve, or bleeding. We plan to follow this homogenous cohort for 20 years after aortic root replacement.

4.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 7(1): 64, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475413

RESUMO

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant, age-related but highly penetrant condition with substantial intrafamilial and interfamilial variability. MFS is caused by pathogenetic variants in FBN1, which encodes fibrillin-1, a major structural component of the extracellular matrix that provides support to connective tissues, particularly in arteries, the pericondrium and structures in the eye. Up to 25% of individuals with MFS have de novo variants. The most prominent manifestations of MFS are asymptomatic aortic root aneurysms, aortic dissections, dislocation of the ocular lens (ectopia lentis) and skeletal abnormalities that are characterized by overgrowth of the long bones. MFS is diagnosed based on the Ghent II nosology; genetic testing confirming the presence of a FBN1 pathogenetic variant is not always required for diagnosis but can help distinguish MFS from other heritable thoracic aortic disease syndromes that can present with skeletal features similar to those in MFS. Untreated aortic root aneurysms can progress to life-threatening acute aortic dissections. Management of MFS requires medical therapy to slow the rate of growth of aneurysms and decrease the risk of dissection. Routine surveillance with imaging techniques such as transthoracic echocardiography, CT or MRI is necessary to monitor aneurysm growth and determine when to perform prophylactic repair surgery to prevent an acute aortic dissection.

6.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 3(4): e200496, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505060

RESUMO

This International Consensus Classification and Nomenclature for the congenital bicuspid aortic valve condition recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valves: 1. The fused type (right-left cusp fusion, right-non-coronary cusp fusion and left-non-coronary cusp fusion phenotypes); 2. The 2-sinus type (latero-lateral and antero-posterior phenotypes); and 3. The partial-fusion (forme fruste) type. The presence of raphe and the symmetry of the fused type phenotypes are critical aspects to describe. The International Consensus also recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valve-associated aortopathy: 1. The ascending phenotype; 2. The root phenotype; and 3. Extended phenotypes. © 2021 Jointly between the RSNA, the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery. The articles are identical except for minor stylistic and spelling differences in keeping with each journal's style. All rights reserved. Keywords: Bicuspid Aortic Valve, Aortopathy, Nomenclature, Classification.

7.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(3): e203-e235, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304860

RESUMO

This International Consensus Classification and Nomenclature for the congenital bicuspid aortic valve condition recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valves: 1. The fused type (right-left cusp fusion, right-non-coronary cusp fusion and left-non-coronary cusp fusion phenotypes); 2. The 2-sinus type (latero-lateral and antero-posterior phenotypes); and 3. The partial-fusion (forme fruste) type. The presence of raphe and the symmetry of the fused type phenotypes are critical aspects to describe. The International Consensus also recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valve-associated aortopathy: 1. The ascending phenotype; 2. The root phenotype; and 3. Extended phenotypes.


Assuntos
Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/classificação , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine
8.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(3): 1005-1022, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304861

RESUMO

This International evidence-based nomenclature and classification consensus on the congenital bicuspid aortic valve and its aortopathy recognizes 3 types of bicuspid aortic valve: 1. Fused type, with 3 phenotypes: right-left cusp fusion, right-non cusp fusion and left-non cusp fusion; 2. 2-sinus type with 2 phenotypes: Latero-lateral and antero-posterior; and 3. Partial-fusion or forme fruste. This consensus recognizes 3 bicuspid-aortopathy types: 1. Ascending phenotype; root phenotype; and 3. extended phenotypes.


Assuntos
Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/classificação , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/cirurgia , Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos , Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1578-1589, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265237

RESUMO

Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is characterized by dilation of the aortic root or ascending/descending aorta. TAA is a heritable disease that can be potentially life threatening. While 10%-20% of TAA cases are caused by rare, pathogenic variants in single genes, the origin of the majority of TAA cases remains unknown. A previous study implicated common variants in FBN1 with TAA disease risk. Here, we report a genome-wide scan of 1,351 TAA-affected individuals and 18,295 control individuals from the Cardiovascular Health Improvement Project and Michigan Genomics Initiative at the University of Michigan. We identified a genome-wide significant association with TAA for variants within the third intron of TCF7L2 following replication with meta-analysis of four additional independent cohorts. Common variants in this locus are the strongest known genetic risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Although evidence indicates the presence of different causal variants for TAA and type 2 diabetes at this locus, we observed an opposite direction of effect. The genetic association for TAA colocalizes with an aortic eQTL of TCF7L2, suggesting a functional relationship. These analyses predict an association of higher expression of TCF7L2 with TAA disease risk. In vitro, we show that upregulation of TCF7L2 is associated with BCL2 repression promoting vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, a key driver of TAA disease.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Íntrons , Michigan , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
10.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 60(3): 481-496, 2021 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292332

RESUMO

This International evidence-based nomenclature and classification consensus on the congenital bicuspid aortic valve and its aortopathy recognizes 3 types of bicuspid aortic valve: 1. Fused type, with 3 phenotypes: right-left cusp fusion, right-non cusp fusion and left-non cusp fusion; 2. 2-sinus type with 2 phenotypes: Latero-lateral and antero-posterior; and 3. Partial-fusion or forme fruste. This consensus recognizes 3 bicuspid-aortopathy types: 1. Ascending phenotype; root phenotype; and 3. extended phenotypes.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Consenso , Humanos , Fenótipo
11.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 60(3): 448-476, 2021 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293102

RESUMO

This International Consensus Classification and Nomenclature for the congenital bicuspid aortic valve condition recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valves: 1. The fused type (right-left cusp fusion, right-non-coronary cusp fusion and left-non-coronary cusp fusion phenotypes); 2. The 2-sinus type (latero-lateral and antero-posterior phenotypes); and 3. The partial-fusion (forme fruste) type. The presence of raphe and the symmetry of the fused type phenotypes are critical aspects to describe. The International Consensus also recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valve-associated aortopathy: 1. The ascending phenotype; 2. The root phenotype; and 3. Extended phenotypes.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Consenso , Humanos , Fenótipo
12.
PLoS Genet ; 17(7): e1009679, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324492

RESUMO

Numerous genetic studies have established a role for rare genomic variants in Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) at the copy number variation (CNV) and de novo variant (DNV) level. To identify novel haploinsufficient CHD disease genes, we performed an integrative analysis of CNVs and DNVs identified in probands with CHD including cases with sporadic thoracic aortic aneurysm. We assembled CNV data from 7,958 cases and 14,082 controls and performed a gene-wise analysis of the burden of rare genomic deletions in cases versus controls. In addition, we performed variation rate testing for DNVs identified in 2,489 parent-offspring trios. Our analysis revealed 21 genes which were significantly affected by rare CNVs and/or DNVs in probands. Fourteen of these genes have previously been associated with CHD while the remaining genes (FEZ1, MYO16, ARID1B, NALCN, WAC, KDM5B and WHSC1) have only been associated in small cases series or show new associations with CHD. In addition, a systems level analysis revealed affected protein-protein interaction networks involved in Notch signaling pathway, heart morphogenesis, DNA repair and cilia/centrosome function. Taken together, this approach highlights the importance of re-analyzing existing datasets to strengthen disease association and identify novel disease genes and pathways.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283347

RESUMO

Moyamoya disease (MMD) is characterized by narrowing of the distal internal carotid artery and the circle of Willis (CoW) and leads to recurring ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. A retrospective review of data from 50 pediatric MMD patients revealed that among the 24 who had a unilateral stroke and were surgically treated, 11 (45.8%) had a subsequent, contralateral stroke. There is no reliable way to predict these events. After a pilot study in Acta-/- mice that have features of MMD, we hypothesized that local hemodynamics are predictive of contralateral strokes and sought to develop a patient-specific analysis framework to noninvasively assess this stroke risk. A pediatric MMD patient with an occlusion in the right middle cerebral artery and a right-sided stroke, who was surgically treated and then had a contralateral stroke, was selected for analysis. By using an unsteady Navier-Stokes solver within an isogeometric analysis framework, blood flow was simulated in the CoW model reconstructed from the patient's postoperative imaging data, and the results were compared with those from an age- and sex-matched control subject. A wall shear rate (WSR) > 60,000 s-1 (about 12 × higher than the coagulation threshold of 5000 s-1 and 9 × higher than control) was measured in the terminal left supraclinoid artery; its location coincided with that of the subsequent postsurgical left-sided stroke. A parametric study of disease progression revealed a strong correlation between the degree of vascular morphology altered by MMD and local hemodynamic environment. The results suggest that an occlusion in the CoW could lead to excessive contralateral WSRs, resulting in thromboembolic ischemic events, and that WSR could be a predictor of future stroke.

14.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 162(3): 781-797, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304894

RESUMO

This International evidence-based nomenclature and classification consensus on the congenital bicuspid aortic valve and its aortopathy recognizes 3 types of bicuspid aortic valve: 1. Fused type, with 3 phenotypes: right-left cusp fusion, right-non cusp fusion and left-non cusp fusion; 2. 2-sinus type with 2 phenotypes: Latero-lateral and antero-posterior; and 3. Partial-fusion or forme fruste. This consensus recognizes 3 bicuspid-aortopathy types: 1. Ascending phenotype; root phenotype; and 3. extended phenotypes.


Assuntos
Aorta , Doenças da Aorta/classificação , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/cirurgia , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Aortografia , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/cirurgia , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Consenso , Humanos , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
15.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 162(3): e383-e414, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304896

RESUMO

This International Consensus Classification and Nomenclature for the congenital bicuspid aortic valve condition recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valves: 1. The fused type (right-left cusp fusion, right-non-coronary cusp fusion and left-non-coronary cusp fusion phenotypes); 2. The 2-sinus type (latero-lateral and antero-posterior phenotypes); and 3. The partial-fusion (forme fruste) type. The presence of raphe and the symmetry of the fused type phenotypes are critical aspects to describe. The International Consensus also recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valve-associated aortopathy: 1. The ascending phenotype; 2. The root phenotype; and 3. Extended phenotypes.


Assuntos
Aorta , Doenças da Aorta/classificação , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/cirurgia , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Aortografia , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/cirurgia , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Consenso , Humanos , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(8): 2532-2540, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089229

RESUMO

The RNA exosome is a multi-subunit complex involved in the processing, degradation, and regulated turnover of RNA. Several subunits are linked to Mendelian disorders, including pontocerebellar hypoplasia (EXOSC3, MIM #614678; EXOSC8, MIM #616081: and EXOSC9, MIM #618065) and short stature, hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, and distinctive facies (EXOSC2, MIM #617763). More recently, EXOSC5 (MIM *606492) was found to underlie an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, hypotonia, cerebellar abnormalities, and dysmorphic facies. An unusual feature of EXOSC5-related disease is the occurrence of complete heart block requiring a pacemaker in a subset of affected individuals. Here, we provide a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of two siblings with microcephaly, developmental delay, cerebellar volume loss, hypomyelination, with cardiac conduction and rhythm abnormalities including sinus node dysfunction, intraventricular conduction delay, atrioventricular block, and ventricular tachycardia (VT) due to compound heterozygous variants in EXOSC5: (1) NM_020158.4:c.341C > T (p.Thr114Ile; pathogenic, previously reported) and (2) NM_020158.4:c.302C > A (p.Thr101Lys; novel variant). A review of the literature revealed an additional family with biallelic EXOSC5 variants and cardiac conduction abnormalities. These clinical and molecular data provide compelling evidence that cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias are part of the EXOSC5-related disease spectrum and argue for proactive screening due to potential risk of sudden cardiac death.

17.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(8): 993-1003, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125151

RESUMO

Importance: Moyamoya disease (MMD), a progressive vasculopathy leading to narrowing and ultimate occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid arteries, is a cause of childhood stroke. The cause of MMD is poorly understood, but genetic factors play a role. Several familial forms of MMD have been identified, but the cause of most cases remains elusive, especially among non-East Asian individuals. Objective: To assess whether ultrarare de novo and rare, damaging transmitted variants with large effect sizes are associated with MMD risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: A genetic association study was conducted using whole-exome sequencing case-parent MMD trios in a small discovery cohort collected over 3.5 years (2016-2019); data were analyzed in 2020. Medical records from US hospitals spanning a range of 1 month to 1.5 years were reviewed for phenotyping. Exomes from a larger validation cohort were analyzed to identify additional rare, large-effect variants in the top candidate gene. Participants included patients with MMD and, when available, their parents. All participants who met criteria and were presented with the option to join the study agreed to do so; none were excluded. Twenty-four probands (22 trios and 2 singletons) composed the discovery cohort, and 84 probands (29 trios and 55 singletons) composed the validation cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures: Gene variants were identified and filtered using stringent criteria. Enrichment and case-control tests assessed gene-level variant burden. In silico modeling estimated the probability of variant association with protein structure. Integrative genomics assessed expression patterns of MMD risk genes derived from single-cell RNA sequencing data of human and mouse brain tissue. Results: Of the 24 patients in the discovery cohort, 14 (58.3%) were men and 18 (75.0%) were of European ancestry. Three of 24 discovery cohort probands contained 2 do novo (1-tailed Poisson P = 1.1 × 10-6) and 1 rare, transmitted damaging variant (12.5% of cases) in DIAPH1 (mammalian diaphanous-1), a key regulator of actin remodeling in vascular cells and platelets. Four additional ultrarare damaging heterozygous DIAPH1 variants (3 unphased) were identified in 3 other patients in an 84-proband validation cohort (73.8% female, 77.4% European). All 6 patients were non-East Asian. Compound heterozygous variants were identified in ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoproteinlike protein EVL, a mammalian diaphanous-1 interactor that regulates actin polymerization. DIAPH1 and EVL mutant probands had severe, bilateral MMD associated with transfusion-dependent thrombocytopenia. DIAPH1 and other MMD risk genes are enriched in mural cells of midgestational human brain. The DIAPH1 coexpression network converges in vascular cell actin cytoskeleton regulatory pathways. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings provide the largest collection to date of non-East Asian individuals with sporadic MMD harboring pathogenic variants in the same gene. The results suggest that DIAPH1 is a novel MMD risk gene and impaired vascular cell actin remodeling in MMD pathogenesis, with diagnostic and therapeutic ramifications.

18.
J Vasc Surg ; 74(4): 1135-1142.e1, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we defined the outcomes and effects of pregnancy in a cohort of women of childbearing age with acute aortic dissection (AAD). METHODS: We reviewed our database of AAD to identify all eligible female patients. Women aged <45 years were included. Data on pregnancy timing with respect to the occurrence of dissection, the demographic data, dissection extent, dissection treatment, dissection-related outcomes, overall maternal and fetal mortality, and genetic testing results were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 62 women aged <45 years had presented to us with AAD from 1999 to 2017. Of the 62 women, 37 (60%) had had a history of pregnancy at AAD. Of these 37 patients, 10 (27%) had had a peripartum aortic dissection, defined as dissection during pregnancy or within 12 months postpartum. Of the 10 AADs, 5 were type A and 5 were type B. Three patients had presented with AAD during pregnancy (one in the second and two in the third trimester). Five patients (50%) had developed AAD in the immediate postpartum period (within 3 months) and two (20%) in the late postpartum period. For the immediate postpartum AADs (<3 months), four of the five patients delivered via cesarean section. Of these 10 peripartum AADs, 3 (30%) had occurred in patients with known Marfan syndrome. In-hospital mortality for those with peripartum AAD was 10% (1 of 10). Fetal mortality was 20% (2 of 10). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of aortic dissection in women of childbearing age at our institution was low. However, pregnancy might increase the risk of those young women genetically predisposed to dissection events. From these data, this risk appears to be greatest in the immediate postpartum period, even for those who undergo cesarean section. Close clinical and radiographic surveillance is required for all women with suspected aortopathy, especially in the third trimester and early postpartum period.

19.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 62(3): 203-210, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736427

RESUMO

Genetic variation plays a significant role in predisposing individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Advances in genomic research have led to the discovery of 11 genes validated to cause heritable thoracic aortic disease (HTAD). Identifying the pathogenic variants responsible for aortic disease in affected patients confers substantial clinical utility by establishing a definitive diagnosis to inform tailored treatment and management, and enables identification of at-risk relatives to prevent downstream morbidity and mortality. The availability and access to clinical genetic testing has improved dramatically such that genetic testing is considered an integral part of the clinical evaluation for patients with thoracic aortic disease. This review provides an update on our current understanding of the genetic basis of thoracic aortic disease, practical recommendations for genetic testing, and clinical implications.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/genética , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença Aguda , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Neurology ; 96(13): e1783-e1791, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that de novo genetic variants are responsible for moyamoya disease (MMD) in children with unaffected relatives, we performed exome sequencing of 28 affected children and their unaffected parents. METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed on 28 trios of affected patients with MMD and unaffected parents. RESULTS: We identified 3 novel rare de novo RNF213 variants, 1 in the RING domain and 2 in a highly conserved region distal to the RING domain (4,114-4,120). These de novo cases of MMD present at a young age with aggressive MMD and uniquely have additional occlusive vascular lesions, including renal artery stenosis. Two previously reported cases had de novo variants in the same limited region and presented young with aggressive MMD, and 1 case had narrowing of the inferior abdominal aorta. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate a novel syndrome associated with RNF213 rare variants defined by de novo mutations disrupting highly conserved amino acids in the RING domain and a discrete region distal to the RING domain delimited by amino acids 4,114 to 4,120 leading to onset of severe MMD before 3 years of age and occlusion of other arteries, including the abdominal aorta, renal, iliac, and femoral arteries.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Doença de Moyamoya/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Doenças da Aorta/genética , Doenças da Aorta/fisiopatologia , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/genética , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Artéria Femoral , Humanos , Artéria Ilíaca , Masculino , Doença de Moyamoya/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/genética , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/fisiopatologia
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