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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 5147364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952850

RESUMO

Based on the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiological mechanisms of sepsis and the importance of PCT as a clinically applicable biomarker for early detection of inflammatory response initiation, we aimed this study at examining the correlation between PCT levels and oxidative stress parameters (prooxidants and antioxidants) in patients with sepsis. This study was designed as a case-series prospective clinical study which involved 103 critically ill patients and 17 healthy participants with diagnosis of sepsis/septic shock (over 18 years of age, both gender) admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Valjevo General Hospital in Serbia. All subjects were divided into patients who were operated on/underwent surgery before sampling and have sepsis (n = 24), patients who were operated on/underwent surgery before sampling and have septic shock (n = 25), patients who were not operated on/did not undergo surgery before sampling and have sepsis (n = 26), patients who were not operated on/did not undergo surgery before sampling and have septic shock (n = 28), and participants who are healthy (n = 17). PCT has confirmed a positive correlation with prooxidants and type of critical illness, and performing surgical intervention diminished oxidative stress in patients with septic shock. Prognosis in critically ill patients was strongly associated with PCT levels but not with nonspecifically C-reactive protein.

2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(3): 873-877, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352242

RESUMO

The "Heart failure specialists of Tomorrow" (HoT) group gathers young researchers, physicians, basic scientists, nurses and many other professions under the auspices of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology. After its foundation in 2014, it has quickly grown to a large group of currently 925 members. Membership in this growing community offers many advantages during, before, and after the 'Heart Failure and World Congress on Acute Heart Failure'. These include: eligibility to receive travel grants, participation in moderated poster sessions and young researcher and clinical case sessions, the HoT walk, the career café, access to the networking opportunities, and interaction with a large and cohesive international community that constantly seeks multinational collaborations.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(5): 763-774, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187429

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is the major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Given its rising prevalence, the costs of HF care can be expected to increase. Multidisciplinary management of HF can improve quality of care and survival. However, specialized HF programmes are not widely available in most European countries. These circumstances underlie the suggestion of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) for the development of quality of care centres (QCCs). These are defined as health care institutions that provide multidisciplinary HF management at all levels of care (primary, secondary and tertiary), are accredited by the HFA/ESC and are implemented into existing health care systems. Their major goals are to unify and improve the quality of HF care, and to promote collaboration in education and research activities. Three types of QCC are suggested: community QCCs (primary care facilities able to provide non-invasive assessment and optimal therapy); specialized QCCs (district hospitals with intensive care units, able to provide cardiac catheterization and device implantation services), and advanced QCCs (national reference centres able to deliver advanced and innovative HF care and research). QCC accreditation will require compliance with general and specific HFA/ESC accreditation standards. General requirements include confirmation of the centre's existence, commitment to QCC implementation, and collaboration with other QCCs. Specific requirements include validation of the centre's level of care, service portfolio, facilities and equipment, management, human resources, process measures, quality indicators and outcome measures. Audit and recertification at 4-6-year intervals are also required. The implementation of QCCs will evolve gradually, following a pilot phase in selected countries. The present document summarizes the definition, major goals, development, classification and crucial aspects of the accreditation process of the HFA/ESC QCC Programme.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(4): 638-645, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125085

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) constitutes the growing cardiovascular burden and the major public health issue, but comprehensive statistics on HF epidemiology and related management in Europe are missing. The Heart Failure Association (HFA) Atlas has been initiated in 2016 in order to close this gap, representing the continuity directly rooted in the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Atlas of Cardiology. The major aim of the HFA Atlas is to establish a contemporary dataset on HF epidemiology, resources and reimbursement policies for HF management, organization of the National Heart Failure Societies (NHFS) and their major activities, including education and HF awareness. These data are gathered in collaboration with the network of NHFS of the ESC member and ESC affiliated countries. The dataset will be continuously improved and advanced based on the experience and enhanced understanding of data collection in the forthcoming years. This will enable revealing trends, disparities and gaps in knowledge on epidemiology and management of HF. Such data are highly needed by the clinicians of different specialties (aside from cardiologists and cardiac surgeons), researchers, healthcare policy makers, as well as HF patients and their caregivers. It will also allow to map the snapshot of realities in HF care, as well as to provide insights for evidence-based health care policy in contemporary management of HF. Such data will support the ESC/HFA efforts to improve HF management ant outcomes through stronger recommendations and calls for action. This will likely influence the allocation of funds for the prevention, treatment, education and research in HF.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(1): 113-125, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822042

RESUMO

AIMS: Impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on non-thromboembolic outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF) is insufficiently explored. This prospective cohort study of AF patients aimed (i) to analyse the association between T2DM and heart failure (HF) events (including new-onset HF), and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, (ii) to assess the impact of baseline T2DM treatment on outcomes, and (iii) to explore characteristics of new-onset HF phenotypes in relation to T2DM status. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 1803 AF patients (515/1288, with/without prior HF), 389 (22%) had T2DM at baseline. After 5 years of median follow-up, T2DM patients had an 85% greater risk of HF events [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51-2.28; P < 0.001], including a 45% increased risk for new-onset HF (1.45; 1.17-2.28; P = 0.015). T2DM conferred a 56% higher all-cause (1.56, 1.22-2.01; P = 0.003) and a 48% higher cardiovascular mortality (1.48; 1.34-1.93; P = 0.007). Fine-Gray analysis, with mortality as a competing risk, confirmed greater HF risk among T2DM patients. All risks were highest among insulin-treated patients. The prevalence of new-onset HF phenotypes was as follows: 67% preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), 20% mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) and 13% reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). On time-dependent Cox regression, adjusted for baseline characteristics and an interim acute coronary event, T2DM increased aHRs for new-onset HFpEF (2.38; 1.30-4.58; P <0.001) and the combined HFmrEF/HFrEF (1.77; 1.11-3.62; P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Atrial fibrillation patients with T2DM have independently increased risk of new-onset/recurrent HF events, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, particularly when insulin-treated. The prevailing phenotype of new-onset HF was HFpEF; T2DM conferred higher risk of both HFpEF and HFmrEF/HFrEF.

7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(1): 92-102, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863522

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to assess age- and sex-related differences in management and 1-year risk for all-cause mortality and hospitalization in chronic heart failure (HF) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 16 354 patients included in the European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Long-Term Registry, 9428 chronic HF patients were analysed [median age: 66 years; 28.5% women; mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 37%]. Rates of use of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) were high (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists: 85.7%, 88.7% and 58.8%, respectively). Crude GDMT utilization rates were lower in women than in men (all differences: P ≤ 0.001), and GDMT use became lower with ageing in both sexes, at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Sex was not an independent predictor of GDMT prescription; however, age >75 years was a significant predictor of GDMT underutilization. Rates of all-cause mortality were lower in women than in men (7.1% vs. 8.7%; P = 0.015), as were rates of all-cause hospitalization (21.9% vs. 27.3%; P < 0.001) and there were no differences in causes of death. All-cause mortality and all-cause hospitalization increased with greater age in both sexes. Sex was not an independent predictor of 1-year all-cause mortality (restricted to patients with LVEF ≤45%). Mortality risk was significantly lower in patients of younger age, compared to patients aged >75 years. CONCLUSIONS: There was a decline in GDMT use with advanced age in both sexes. Sex was not an independent predictor of GDMT or adverse outcomes. However, age >75 years independently predicted lower GDMT use and higher all-cause mortality in patients with LVEF ≤45%.

8.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 6984845, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275451

RESUMO

Disturbed redox balance in heart failure (HF) might contribute to impairment of cardiac function, by oxidative damage, or by regulation of cell signaling. The role of polymorphism in glutathione transferases (GSTs), involved both in antioxidant defense and in regulation of apoptotic signaling pathways in HF, has been proposed. We aimed to determine whether GST genotypes exhibit differential risk effects between coronary artery disease (CAD) and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) in HF patients. GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 genotypes were determined in 194 HF patients (109 CAD, 85 IDC) and 274 age- and gender-matched controls. No significant association was found for GSTA1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genotypes with HF occurrence due to either CAD or IDC. However, carriers of at least one variant GSTP1∗Val (rs1695) allele were at 1.7-fold increased HF risk than GSTP1∗Ile/Ile carriers (p = 0.031), which was higher when combined with the variant GSTA1∗B allele (OR = 2.2, p = 0.034). In HF patients stratified based on the underlying cause of disease, an even stronger association was observed in HF patients due to CAD, who were carriers of a combined GSTP1(rs1695)/GSTA1 "risk-associated" genotype (OR = 2.8, p = 0.033) or a combined GSTP1∗Ile/Val+Val/Val (rs1695)/GSTP1∗AlaVal+∗ValVal (rs1138272) genotype (OR = 2.1, p = 0.056). Moreover, these patients exhibited significantly decreased left ventricular end-systolic diameter compared to GSTA1∗AA/GSTP1∗IleIle carriers (p = 0.021). Higher values of ICAM-1 were found in carriers of the GSTP1∗IleVal+∗ValVal (rs1695) (p = 0.041) genotype, whereas higher TNFα was determined in carriers of the GSTP1∗AlaVal+∗ValVal genotype (rs1138272) (p = 0.041). In conclusion, GSTP1 polymorphic variants may determine individual susceptibility to oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in HF.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

12.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(1): 72-82, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the prevalence of newly diagnosed prediabetes and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and their impact on long-term mortality in patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS: We included patients hospitalized with HFrEF and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II-III. Baseline two-hour oral glucose tolerance test was used to classify patients as normoglycaemic or having newly diagnosed prediabetes or T2DM. Outcomes included post-discharge all-cause and cardiovascular mortality during the median follow-up of 2.1 years. RESULTS: At baseline, out of 150 patients (mean-age 57 ± 12 years; 88% male), prediabetes was diagnosed in 65 (43%) patients, and T2DM in 29 (19%) patients. These patients were older and more often with NYHA class III symptoms, but distribution of comorbidities was similar to normoglycaemic patients. Taking normoglycaemic patients as a reference, adjusted risk of all-cause mortality was significantly increased both in patients with prediabetes (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-6.3; p = 0.040) and in patients with T2DM (hazard ratio, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.7-15.3; p = 0.023). Likewise, both prediabetes (hazard ratio, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1-7.9; p = 0.041) and T2DM (hazard ratio, 9.7; 95% CI 2.9-36.7; p = 0.018) independently increased the risk of cardiovascular mortality compared with normoglycaemic individuals. There was no interaction between either prediabetes or T2DM and heart failure aetiology or gender on study outcomes (all interaction p-values > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Newly diagnosed prediabetes and T2DM are highly prevalent in patients hospitalized for worsening HFrEF and NYHA functional class II-III. Importantly, they impose independently increased long-term risk of higher all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

13.
Eur Heart J ; 39(45): 4030-4039, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101326

RESUMO

Aims: Evidence suggests an excess risk of non-thromboembolic major adverse cardiac events (MACE) associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), particularly in individuals free of overt coronary artery disease (CAD). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases cardiovascular risk in the general population, but less is known how it influences outcomes in AF patients. We aimed to assess whether MetS affects the risk of MACE in AF patients without overt CAD. Methods and results: This prospective, observational study enrolled 843 AF patients (mean-age, 62.5 ± 12.1 years, 38.6% female) without overt CAD. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program. The 5-year composite MACE included myocardial infarction (MI), coronary revascularization, and cardiac death. Metabolic syndrome was present in 302 (35.8%) patients. At 5-year follow-up, 118 (14.0%) patients experienced MACE (2.80%/year). Metabolic syndrome conferred a multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.98 for MACE [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-3.16; P = 0.004], and for individual outcomes: MI (aHR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.69-5.11; P < 0.001), revascularization (aHR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.40-3.87; P = 0.001), and cardiac death (aHR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.25-5.33; P = 0.011). Following the propensity score (PS)-adjustment for MetS, the association between MetS and MACE (PS-aHR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.21-3.01; P = 0.012), MI (PS-aHR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.54-5.00; P = 0.008), revascularization (PS-aHR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.69-3.11; P = 0.015), and cardiac death (PS-aHR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.14-5.11; P = 0.023) remained significant. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is common in AF patients without overt CAD, and confers an independent, increased risk of MACE, including MI, coronary revascularization, and cardiac death. Given its prognostic implications, prevention and treatment of MetS may reduce the burden of non-thromboembolic complications in AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Síndrome Metabólica , Infarto do Miocárdio , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Revascularização Miocárdica/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(5): 853-872, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520964

RESUMO

The coexistence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure (HF), either with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is frequent (30-40% of patients) and associated with a higher risk of HF hospitalization, all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. The most important causes of HF in T2DM are coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension and a direct detrimental effect of T2DM on the myocardium. T2DM is often unrecognized in HF patients, and vice versa, which emphasizes the importance of an active search for both disorders in the clinical practice. There are no specific limitations to HF treatment in T2DM. Subanalyses of trials addressing HF treatment in the general population have shown that all HF therapies are similarly effective regardless of T2DM. Concerning T2DM treatment in HF patients, most guidelines currently recommend metformin as the first-line choice. Sulphonylureas and insulin have been the traditional second- and third-line therapies although their safety in HF is equivocal. Neither glucagon-like preptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, nor dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors reduce the risk for HF hospitalization. Indeed, a DPP4 inhibitor, saxagliptin, has been associated with a higher risk of HF hospitalization. Thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) are contraindicated in patients with (or at risk of) HF. In recent trials, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, empagliflozin and canagliflozin, have both shown a significant reduction in HF hospitalization in patients with established CV disease or at risk of CV disease. Several ongoing trials should provide an insight into the effectiveness of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with HFrEF and HFpEF in the absence of T2DM.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Sociedades Médicas , Comorbidade/tendências , Europa (Continente) , Saúde Global , Humanos , Prevalência , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
18.
Int J Cardiol ; 249: 191-197, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation (AF) may also predispose to major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) attributable to coronary artery disease (CAD), including myocardial infarction (MI). The 2MACE score (2 points - Metabolic syndrome and Age≥75years, 1 point - MI/revascularization, Congestive heart failure/ejection-fraction <40%, and thrombo-Embolism) was recently proposed to help identify AF patients at risk of MACE. We assessed the predictive validity of the 2MACE score for MACE occurrence in AF patients free of CAD at baseline. METHODS: Non-valvular AF patients (n=794) without CAD (mean-age, 62.5±12.1years, metabolic syndrome, 34.0%; heart failure/ejection-fraction <40%, 25.7%; thromboembolism, 9.7%) were prospectively followed for 5years, or until MACE (composite of non-fatal/fatal MI, revascularization and cardiovascular death). At inclusion, CAD was excluded by medical history, exercise-stress testing and/or coronary angiography. Also, the 2MACE score was determined. RESULTS: At follow-up, 112 patients experienced MACE (2.8%/year). The 2MACE score demonstrated adequate discrimination (C-statistic, 0.699; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.648-0.750; P<0.001) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow P=0.79) for MACE. The score was significantly associated with MACE, with the adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) of 1.56 (95%CI, 1.35-1.73; P<0.001). As for individual outcomes, the score predicted MI (n=46; aHR, 1.49; 95%CI 1.23-1.80), revascularization (n=32; aHR, 1.41; 95%CI, 1.11-1.80) and cardiovascular death (n=34; aHR, 1.43; 95%CI, 1.14-1.81), all P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The 2MACE score successfully predicts future MACE, including incident MI, coronary revascularization and cardiovascular death in AF patients free of CAD at baseline. It may have a role in risk-stratification and primary prevention of MACE in AF patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Morte , Eletrocardiografia/normas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia/mortalidade , Eletrocardiografia/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Card Fail Rev ; 2(2): 123-129, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28785466

RESUMO

The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is increasing, representing a major cause of death and disability, and a growing financial burden on healthcare systems. Despite the use of effective treatments with both drugs and devices, mortality remains high. There is therefore a need for new and effective therapeutic agents. Ivabradine is a specific sinus node inhibiting agent that was approved in 2005 by the European Medicines Agency, alone or in combination with a beta-blocker. Trimetazidine is a cytoprotective, anti-ischaemic agent established in the treatment of angina pectoris. In the 2012 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of HF, ivabradine was recommended in symptomatic HF patients who are in sinus rhythm with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35 % and heart rate higher than 70 beats per minute, despite optimal medical therapy, including maximally tolerated dose of beta-blocker. The role of trimetazidine in this setting was not mentioned. In the 2016 ESC guidelines, recommendations for ivabradine are unchanged but trimetazidine is included for the treatment of angina pectoris with HF. This article discusses the need for new therapeutic options in HF and reviews clinical evidence in support of these two therapeutic options.

20.
Int J Cardiol ; 200: 3-7, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26404746

RESUMO

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system can be blocked at specific levels by using different classes of pharmacologic agents, including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Broad use of the latter, such as spironolactone, has been limited by significant incidence of gynecomastia and other sex-related adverse effects. These problems can be overcome with use of eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Eplerenone has been specifically developed to bind selectively to the mineralocorticoid receptors in order to minimize binding to the progesterone and androgen receptors. In the last decade, multiple scientific evidences have been accumulated showing the efficacy and safety of the drug in multiple clinical conditions, including heart failure and arterial hypertension. Eplerenone is generally well tolerated, with the most frequent adverse event being hyperkalemia, with sexual adverse events (i.e. gynecomastia) being more uncommon, due to the selectivity of eplerenone. This review focuses on the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of eplerenone, thus providing the scientific basis to fully understand drug-to-drug interactions, in particular, and its efficacy and tolerability, in general. Noteworthy, the activity of eplerenone in special conditions and different patient populations is summarized.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/farmacologia , Espironolactona/análogos & derivados , Interações Medicamentosas , Eplerenona , Humanos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Espironolactona/farmacocinética , Espironolactona/farmacologia
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