Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 572
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Manage ; 285: 112064, 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588169

RESUMO

Powering electrochemical technologies with renewable energies is a promising way to get more sustainable environmental remediation techniques. However, the operational conditions of those processes must be optimized to undergo fast and efficient treatments. In this work, the influence of electrical and hydraulic connections in the performance of a set of two electrolyzers directly powered by photovoltaic panels was evaluated. Despite both electrolyzers were assembled using the same electrode material, they showed different performances. Results indicate that the electrolyzer with higher ohmic resistance and higher overpotential attained a greater production of oxidant species, being produced under the most efficient strategy around 4.8 and 15.1 mmol of oxidants per Ah by electrolyzer 1 and 2, respectively. Nevertheless, an excess of oxidant production because of an inefficient energy management, led to low removal efficiencies as a consequence of a waste of energy into undesirable reactions. Regarding the hydraulic distribution of wastewater between the cells, it was found to influence on the total remediation attained, being the serial connection 2.5 and 1.8 more efficient than a parallel wastewater distribution under series and parallel electrical strategies, respectively. Regarding electrical strategies, parallel connections maximize the use of power produced by the photovoltaic panels. Furthermore, this allows the system to work under lower current densities, reducing the mass transfer limitations. Considering both advantages, a hydraulic connection of the cells in series and an electrical connection in parallel was found to reach the highest specific removal of pollutant, 2.52 mg clopyralid (Wh)-1. Conversely, the opposite strategy (parallel hydraulic connection-series electrical connection) showed the lowest remediation ratio, 0.48 mg clopyralid (Wh)-1. These results are important to be considered in the design of electrolytic treatments of waste directly powered by photovoltaic panels, because they show the way to optimize the cells stack layout in full-scale applications, exhibiting significant impact on the sustainability of the electrochemical application.

2.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387236

RESUMO

Deficits in social skills are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and there is an urgent need for effective social skills interventions, especially for improving interactions with typically developing peers. This study examined the effects of a naturalistic behavioral social skills intervention in improving social initiations to peers through a randomized controlled trial. Analyses of multimethod, multi-informant measures indicated that children in the active group (SIMI) demonstrated greater improvement in the types of initiations which were systematically prompted and reinforced during treatment (i.e., behavior regulation). Generalization to joint attention and social interaction initiation types, as well as collateral gains in broader social functioning on clinician- and parent-rated standardized measures were also observed.

3.
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil ; 126(1): 45-57, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370790

RESUMO

Given the high prevalence of communication deficits in developmental disorders, there is need for efficient early interventions. The aim of this pilot study is to examine benefits of pivotal response treatment (PRT) for improving language in young children with developmental disorders without autism spectrum disorder. Parents of 15 children with developmental disorders received weekly PRT parent training for 12 weeks. Standardized parent-rated assessments were administered at baseline and post-treatment to measure changes in language. Structured laboratory observation indicated children demonstrated significantly greater frequency of utterances and improvement on standardized questionnaires measuring expressive language and adaptive communication skills following PRT. Findings suggest that PRT may be efficacious in improving language abilities among children with developmental disorders.

4.
J Environ Manage ; : 111597, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168294

RESUMO

This work aims to assess the influence of ultrasounds (US) application or ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation on the efficiency and sustainability of the treatment of wastes by conductive diamond electrochemical oxidation (CDEO). To do this, a life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts of the intensified CDEO processes. Inventories of three bench scale remediation plants (CDEO, Sono-CDEO and Photo-CDEO) in which the different technologies are implemented are performed by means of Ecoinvent 3.3 data base. AWARE, USEtox, IPPC and ReCiPe methodologies are used to quantify the environmental burden into 5 midpoint (water footprint, global warming 100a, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity) and 17 endpoint impact categories. Photo-CDEO attains the faster and more efficient removal in terms of energy consumed. All impact categories are lower in the case in which UV light irradiation is coupled to the CDEO treatment, particularly if the electrolyte does not contain chloride anions. From the point of view of toxicity and ecotoxicity, it is essential to achieve a complete mineralization, because of the intermediates generated into wastes containing chloride anions can become more hazardous than the initial pesticide. The operation of these technologies at large current densities shows positive results from the sustainability point of view, despite the huge environmental impact related to the energy production. Data notice that almost a 99.0% of the total global warming potential is mainly due to the electricity required during the electrochemical treatment, being higher by the sono and photo CDEO treatments because of the use of additional devices. Nevertheless, this issue can be overcome by means of using renewable energies as power sources of these remediation treatments. According to results, it can be claimed that the electrochemical technologies may successfully compete with other AOPs in terms of sustainability.

5.
Atherosclerosis ; 312: 104-109, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to study subclinical non-invasive vascular markers as predictors of incident long-term cognitive impairment in a longitudinal population-based study. METHODS: The Barcelona-Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis (AsIA) study is a population-based study that included a random sample of 933 Caucasian subjects (mean age 66 years, 64% male) with a moderate-high vascular risk and without history of stroke or dementia. Subclinical carotid and intracranial stenosis was assessed at baseline visit by cervical and transcranial color-coded duplex (TCCD) and confirmed by magnetic resonance angiography. Cervico-cerebral stenosis (CCS) was defined as the presence of extra and/or intracranial stenosis >50%. Baseline middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA-PI) was measured bilaterally by TCCD, and mean PI of both sides was considered for analyses. Subjects were followed-up to determine incident long-term cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment or dementia). RESULTS: After a median of 7.16 [6.91-7.75] years of follow-up, 91 subjects (9.7%) developed cognitive impairment, 27 of them mild cognitive impairment, and 64 dementia. Incidence of cognitive impairment was significantly higher among subjects with subclinical CCS (21.4% versus 9% in those without CCS) and among those with mean MCA-PI>1 (13.5% versus 7.4% in those with MCA-PI<1). In multivariate Cox regression analyses, both CCS and MCA-PI>1 were independently associated with incident cognitive impairment with HR of 2.07 [1.11-3.88] and 1.58 [1.02-2.46], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical cervico-cerebral stenosis and higher MCA-PI are non-invasive neurosonological markers of incident long-term cognitive impairment in our population.

6.
Water Res ; 182: 115906, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629317

RESUMO

While we increasingly turn to desalination as a secure water supply, it is still perceived as an expensive and environmentally damaging solution, affordable only for affluent societies. In this contribution, we recast desalination from one of a last resort to a far-reaching, climate change mitigating, water security solution. First, we argue that the benefits of desalination go beyond the single-use value of the water produced. If coupled with water reuse for irrigation, desalination reduces groundwater abstraction and augments the water cycle. As such, it may support both adaptation to, and mitigation of climate change impacts by deploying plentiful water for human use, with all the benefits that entails, while helping preserve and restore ecosystems. Second, we counter two arguments commonly raised against desalination, namely its environmental impact and high cost. The environmental impact can be fully controlled so as not to pose long-term threats, if driven by renewable energy. Desalination may then have a zero carbon footprint. Moreover, appropriately designed outfalls make the disposal of brine at sea compatible with marine ecosystems.. Recovery of energy, minerals and more water from brine reject (particularly in the form of vapour for cooling to enable more crops and vegetation to grow), while possible, is often hardly economically justified. However, resource recovery may become more attractive in the future, and help reduce the brine volumes to dispose of. When fresh water becomes scarce, its cost tends to go up, making desalination increasingly economic. Moreover, desalination can have virtually no environmental costs. Considering the environmental costs of over-abstraction of freshwater, desalination tilts the balance in its favour.


Assuntos
Ciclo Hidrológico , Purificação da Água , Ecossistema , Humanos , Água do Mar , Abastecimento de Água
7.
J Environ Manage ; 267: 110665, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421682

RESUMO

The electro-kinetic remediation of soils using different powering strategies has been studied, in order to clarify which is the best strategy to couple solar powering with this remediation technology, in a context of developing more sustainable electrochemical remediation technologies. Direct powering from photovoltaic panels (Case a), application of constant electric fields with the same average value of Case a (Case b) and application of constant specific power with the same average value of Case a (Case c) have been compared. Results show an outstanding influence of the powering strategy on the removal efficiency of clopyralid (model of herbicide used in this work). The direct use of solar power profiles obtained the lowest removal efficiencies, which contrasts with the higher expected sustainability of this powering strategy. Reversion of pollutant transport overnight and extreme electric field values at noon help to explain the lower efficiency of this strategy. Evaporation mechanisms are promoted by operating at extreme large electric fields. In addition, harsher conditions lead to a higher negative soil affectation in terms of regions affected by extreme pHs, water contents and/or conductivities and to lower specific pollutant removals. Therefore, maximum efficiencies were found for Case b (constant electric potential gradient) with a total removal over 110 g kWh-1 and only a slight affectation into the final soil properties.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Herbicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Energia Solar , Solo
9.
Rev Neurol ; 70(7): 251-256, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182372

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the sensitivity of stroke detection by emergency medical services (EMS) and to analyse the clinical characteristics of unidentified patients with suspected stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective register of patients with suspected stroke in our area (850,000 inhabitants) from 2011 to 2017. The population that notified the EMS was selected. Of this population, patients with and without stroke code activation by the EMS were compared (EMS+ versus EMS-). Demographics, time to progression, clinical characteristics of the episode and reperfusion therapy administered were recorded. RESULTS: Of a total of 5,497 patients with suspected stroke, 2,087 alerted the EMS: 1,611 (77%) EMS+ and 476 (33%) EMS-. The EMS- patients presented lower scores on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (8 vs. 11) and a greater frequency of clinical features of the vertebrobasilar territory (14.1% vs. 8.7%) and partial hemispheric clinical features (23.5% vs. 18.4%), especially in the left hemisphere (78.1% vs. 48.4%). Reperfusion treatment was administered in 29% of EMS+ and 23% of EMS-. The time from symptom onset to treatment was 42 minutes longer in the EMS group (175 versus 133 minutes). CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity of EMS to detect stroke patients in our series is 77%. We have identified clinical features associated with lack of sensitivity, such as vertebrobasilar territory symptoms or isolated language disorder.

10.
J Neuroradiol ; 47(1): 59-61, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448427

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is the most common neurological complication of cardiac catheterization resulting in a high morbidity and mortality. We present a 44-year-old man admitted for vasospastic angina that suffered a right middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion after a cardiac catheterization. Mechanical thrombectomy was indicated and complete arterial recanalization was achieved. The material obtained showed a fragment of a healthy artery. Partial radial endarterectomy and cerebral embolization may be a rare complication of cardiac catheterization.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/etiologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Adulto , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
11.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 22(5): 717-724, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300934

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and impact of gene-expression assays (GEAs) on treatment decisions in a real-world setting of early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) patients. METHODS: This is a regional, prospective study promoted by the Council Health Authorities in Madrid. Enrolment was offered to women with estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, node-negative or micrometastatic, stage I or II breast cancer from 21 hospitals in Madrid. Treatment recommendations were recorded before and after knowledge of tests results. An economic model compared the cost-effectiveness of treatment, guided by GEAs or by common prognostic factors. RESULTS: 907 tests (440 Oncotype DX® and 467 MammaPrint®) were performed between February 2012 and November 2014. Treatment recommendation changed in 42.6% of patients. The shift was predominantly from chemohormonal (CHT) to hormonal therapy (HT) alone, in 30.5% of patients. GEAs increased patients' confidence in treatment decision making. Tumor grade, progesterone receptor positivity and Ki67 expression were associated with the likelihood of change from CHT to HT (P < 0.001) and from HT to CHT (P < 0.001). Compared with current clinical practice genomic testing increased quality-adjusted life years by 0.00787 per patient and was cost-saving from a national health care system (by 13.867€ per patient) and from a societal perspective (by 32.678€ per patient). CONCLUSION: Using GEAs to guide adjuvant therapy in ESBC is cost-effective in Spain and has a significant impact on treatment decisions.

12.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 65(1): 87-94, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001763

RESUMO

Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli are common causative agents of human urinary tract infections. Organotin compounds (OTCs) are man-made chemicals that may affect the renal function of exposed humans and rodents. OTCs are widely recognized as bactericides. However, many environmental and a few clinically relevant bacteria have been found resistant to high concentrations of some OTCs. We examined the susceptibility from 47 E. coli clinical isolates to 12 antibiotics and 5 OTCs. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by the fully automated Sensititre™ ARIS™ 2X system, and E. coli strains were classified as resistant, intermediate resistant, or sensitive, according to the M07-A10 and M100-S26 criteria from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. All 47 E. coli strains were susceptible to amikacin but resistant to imipenem and intermediate resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxime, and chloramphenicol. In addition, 26 strains were resistant and 21 intermediate resistant to aztreonam, 24 strains were resistant and 23 intermediate resistant to ceftazidime, 44 strains were intermediate resistant and 3 sensitive to cephalothin, and 43 strains were intermediate resistant and 4 sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Approximately half of the strains were susceptible to cefepime, cefotaxime, and gentamicin. E. coli strains were also found resistant to triphenyltin, tributyltin, dibutyltin, trimethyltin, or dimethyltin at final concentration between 10 µmol/L and 1 mmol/L, during 72-h in vitro culture. However, higher in vitro growth inhibition was induced by these OTCs in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, which suggests that efflux pumps contribute to making antibiotic-resistant E. coli also resistant to OTCs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/farmacologia , Carbonil Cianeto m-Clorofenil Hidrazona/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11829, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413265

RESUMO

Most of over a thousand mitochondrial proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and must be imported from the cytosol. Little is known about the cytosolic events regulating mitochondrial protein import, partly due to the lack of appropriate tools for its assessment in living cells. We engineered an inducible biosensor for monitoring the main presequence-mediated import pathway with a quantitative, luminescence-based readout. This tool was used to explore the regulation of mitochondrial import by the PINK1 kinase-driven Parkin ubiquitin ligase, which is dysfunctional in autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. We show that mitochondrial import was stimulated by Parkin, but not by disease-causing Parkin variants. This effect was dependent on Parkin activation by PINK1 and accompanied by an increase in the abundance of K11 ubiquitin chains on mitochondria and by ubiquitylation of subunits of the translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial import efficiency was abnormally low in cells from patients with PINK1- and PARK2-linked Parkinson's disease and was restored by phosphomimetic ubiquitin in cells with residual Parkin activity. Altogether, these findings uncover a role of ubiquitylation in mitochondrial import regulation and suggest that loss of this regulatory loop may underlie the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, providing novel opportunities for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Transporte Proteico
14.
Talanta ; 204: 802-811, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357367

RESUMO

Thermochemolysis of seven nucleobases-adenine, thymine, uracil, cytosine, guanine, xanthine, and hypoxanthine-in tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was studied individually by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry in the frame of the Mars surface exploration. The analyses were performed under conditions relevant to the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument of the Mars Curiosity Rover and the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument of the ExoMars Rover. The thermochemolysis products of each nucleobase were identified and the reaction mechanisms studied. The thermochemolysis temperature was optimized and the limit of detection and quantification of each nucleobase were also investigated. Results indicate that 600°C is the optimal thermochemolysis temperature for all seven nucleobases. The methylated products trimethyl-adenine, 1, 3-dimethyl-thymine, 1, 3-dimethyl-uracil, trimethyl-cytosine, 1, 3, 7-trimethyl-xanthine (caffeine), and dimethyl-hypoxanthine, respectively, are the most stable forms of adenine, thymine, uracil, cytosine, guanine, and xanthine, and hypoxanthine in TMAH solutions. The limits of detection for adenine, thymine, and uracil were 0.075 nmol; the limits of detection for guanine, cytosine, and hypoxanthine were higher, at 0.40, 0.55, and 0.75 nmol, respectively. These experiments allowed to well constrain the analytical capabilities of the thermochemolysis experiments that will be performed on Mars to detect nucleobases.


Assuntos
Purinas/análise , Pirimidinonas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Limite de Detecção , Marte , Purinas/química , Pirimidinonas/química , Pirólise , Voo Espacial/instrumentação
15.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 452, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Full RNA-Seq is a fundamental research tool for whole transcriptome analysis. However, it is too costly and time consuming to be used in routine clinical practice. We evaluated the transcript quantification agreement between RNA-Seq and a digital multiplexed gene expression platform, and the subtype call after running the PAM50 assay in a series of breast cancer patients classified as triple negative by IHC/FISH. The goal of this study is to analyze the concordance between both expression platforms overall, and for calling PAM50 triple negative breast cancer intrinsic subtypes in particular. RESULTS: The analyses were performed in paraffin-embedded tissues from 96 patients recruited in a multicenter, prospective, non-randomized neoadjuvant triple negative breast cancer trial (NCT01560663). Pre-treatment core biopsies were obtained following clinical practice guidelines and conserved as FFPE for further RNA extraction. PAM50 was performed on both digital multiplexed gene expression and RNA-Seq platforms. Subtype assignment was based on the nearest centroid classification following this procedure for both platforms and it was concordant on 96% of the cases (N = 96). In four cases, digital multiplexed gene expression analysis and RNA-Seq were discordant. The Spearman correlation to each of the centroids and the risk of recurrence were above 0.89 in both platforms while the agreement on Proliferation Score reached up to 0.97. In addition, 82% of the individual PAM50 genes showed a correlation coefficient > 0.80. CONCLUSIONS: In our analysis, the subtype calling in most of the samples was concordant in both platforms and the potential discordances had reduced clinical implications in terms of prognosis. If speed and cost are the main driving forces then the preferred technique is the digital multiplexed platform, while if whole genome patterns and subtype are the driving forces, then RNA-Seq is the preferred method.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
16.
Rev. osteoporos. metab. miner. (Internet) ; 11(2): 39-45, abr.-jun. 2019. graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188335

RESUMO

La activación de la señalización de Wnt/β‐catenina en células del linaje osteoblástico conduce a un aumento en la masa ósea a través de un mecanismo dual: por una parte, aumentando la osteoblastogénesis, y por otra, disminuyendo la os‐teoclastogénesis. El predominio de un mecanismo sobre otro depende del estado madurativo del osteoblasto en el que produzca la acumulación de β‐catenina. La activación de la señalización de Wnt/β‐catenina en células del linaje osteo‐clástico y sus posibles efectos en la regulación de la masa ósea es menos conocida. Estudios previos han demostrado que la ablación condicional de β‐catenina en los osteoclastos induce una disminución de la masa ósea asociada a un aumento de los osteoclastos, y este hecho se ha atribuido a un incremento de la osteoclastogénesis. Sin embargo, no se han evaluado otras posibilidades alternativas como que una disminución de la apoptosis normal de los osteoclastos pueda también contribuir al mayor número de los mismos. En este trabajo, para obtener información sobre este hecho, generamos ratones en los que la β‐catenina se eliminó selectivamente de las células del linaje de monocito/macrófago utilizando un alelo flanqueado de la β‐catenina (Catnbf) junto con la línea de deleción LisozimaMCre (LysMCre). El análisis tridimensional de los huesos de los ratones Catnbf/f; LysMrevelaron una disminución significativa del grosor de la cortical femoral, mientras que el hueso trabecular vertebral no se vio afectado. Este fenotipo se asoció con un mayor número de osteoclastos en la superficie ósea. El número de osteoclastos en los cultivos procedentes de los ratones Catnbf/f; LysMfuedos veces mayor que en los cultivos obtenidos de los ratones control. La administración de WNT3a atenuó la formación de osteoclastos inducida por M‐CSF y RANKL in vitro. Además, WNT3a promovió la apoptosis de osteoclastos, y este efecto fue contrarrestado, tanto por la presencia de DKK1 como por la ausencia de β‐catenina. En conjunto, estos resultados apoyan un efecto autónomo celular de la β‐catenina en el osteoclasto, y proporcionan evidencia convincente del papel proapoptótico de β‐catenina en estas células


The activation of Wnt/β‐catenin signaling in cells of the osteoblastic lineage leads to an increase in bone mass through a dual mechanism: increasing osteoblastogenesis and decreasing osteoclastogenesis. The predominance of one mechanism over another depends on the maturational state of the osteoblast in which β‐catenin accumulation occurs. The activation of Wnt/β‐catenin signaling in cells of the osteoclastic lineage and its possible effects on the regulation of bone mass is less known. Previous studies have shown that conditional ablation of β‐catenin in osteoclasts induces a decrease in bone mass associated with an increase in osteoclasts, and this fact has been attributed to an increase in osteoclastogenesis. However, other alternative possibilities have not been evaluated, such as that a decrease in the normal osteoclastapoptosis may also contribute to the greater number of osteoclasts. In this paper, to obtain information about this fact, we generated mice in which β‐catenin was selectively eliminated from cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage usingan allele flanked by β‐catenin (Catnbf) together with the deletion line LisozimaMCre (LysMCre). The three‐dimensional analysis of the bones of the Catnbf/f;LysMmice revealed a significant decrease in the thickness of the femoral cortex, while the trabecular bone of the vertebrae was not affected. This phenotype was associated with a greater number ofosteoclasts on the bone surface. The number of osteoclasts in the cultures from the Catnbf/f;LysMmice was twice as high as in the cultures obtained from the control mice. The administration of WNT3a attenuated the osteoclast formation induced by M‐CSF and RANKL in vitro. In addition, WNT3a promoted apoptosis of osteoclasts, and this effect was counteracted, both by the presence of DKK1 and by the absence of β‐catenin. Taken together, these results support a cellular autonomous effect of β‐catenin in the osteoclast, and provide convincing evidence of the proapoptotic role of β‐cateninin these cells


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Apoptose , Osteoclastos , Proteína Wnt3A/metabolismo , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Western Blotting , Modelos Animais de Doenças
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1598: 183-195, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047659

RESUMO

The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument is a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer onboard the NASA Curiosity rover, currently operating on the surface of Mars. Organic compounds are of major importance with regard to questions of habitability and the potential presence of life on Mars, and one of the mission's main objectives is to analyze the organic content of soil and rock samples. In SAM's first chromatographic measurements, however, unexpected chlorine-bearing organic molecules were detected. These molecules have different origins but the presence of perchlorates and chlorates detected at the surface of Mars suggests that reactivity between organic molecules and thermal decomposition products from oxychlorines is one of the major sources of the chlorinated organic molecules. Here we perform a comprehensive and systematic study of the separation of volatile chlorohydrocarbons with the chromatographic columns used in the SAM instrument. Despite the constrained operating conditions of the flight instrument, we demonstrate that SAM's capillary chromatographic columns allow for effective separation and identification of a wide range of chlorine-bearing species. We also show that instrumental limitations prevent the detection of certain molecules, obscuring our ability to make definitive conclusions about the origin of these organic materials.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Marte , Solo/química
18.
Neurologia ; 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948159

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ischaemic stroke is the most common neurological complication of cardiac catheterisation. This study aims to analyse the clinical and prognostic differences between post-catheterisation stroke code (SC) and all other in-hospital and prehospital SC. METHODS: We prospectively recorded SC activation at our centre between March 2011 and April 2016. Patients were grouped according to whether SC was activated post-catheterisation, in-hospital but not post-catheterisation, or before arrival at hospital; groups were compared in terms of clinical and radiological characteristics, therapeutic approach, functional status, and three-month mortality. RESULTS: The sample included 2224 patients, of whom 31 presented stroke post-catheterisation. Baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was lower for post-catheterisation SC than for other in-hospital SC and pre-hospital SC (5, 10, and 7, respectively; P=.02), and SC was activated sooner (50, 100, and 125minutes, respectively; P<.001). Furthermore, post-catheterisation SC were more frequently due to transient ischaemic attack (38%, 8%, and 9%, respectively; P<.001) and less frequently to proximal artery occlusion (17.9%, 31.4%, and 39.2%, respectively; P=.023). The majority of patients with post-catheterisation strokes (89.7%) did not receive reperfusion therapy; 60% of the patients with proximal artery occlusion received endovascular treatment. The mortality rate was 12.95% for post-catheterisation strokes and 25% for all other in-hospital strokes. Although patients with post-catheterisation stroke had a better functional prognosis, the adjusted analysis showed that this effect was determined by their lower initial severity. CONCLUSIONS: Post-catheterisation stroke is initially less severe, and presents more often as transient ischaemic attack and less frequently as proximal artery occlusion. Most post-catheterisation strokes are not treated with reperfusion; in case of artery occlusion, mechanical thrombectomy is the preferred treatment.

19.
J Psychiatr Res ; 111: 140-144, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771619

RESUMO

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently exhibit language delays and functional communication deficits. Pivotal response treatment (PRT) is an effective intervention for targeting these skills; however, similar to other behavioral interventions, response to PRT is variable across individuals. Thus, objective markers capable of predicting treatment response are critically-needed to identify which children are most likely to benefit from this intervention. In this pilot study, we investigated whether structural neuroimaging measures from language regions in the brain are associated with response to PRT. Children with ASD (n = 18) who were receiving PRT to target their language deficits were assessed with MRI at baseline. T1-weighted images were segmented with FreeSurfer and morphometric measures of the primary language regions (inferior frontal (IFG) and superior temporal (STG) gyri) were evaluated. Children with ASD and language deficits did not exhibit the anticipated relationships between baseline structural measures of language regions and baseline language abilities, as assessed by the number of utterances displayed during a structured laboratory observation (SLO). Interestingly, the level of improvement on the SLO was correlated with baseline asymmetry of the IFG, and the size of the left STG at baseline was correlated with the level of improvement on standardized parental questionnaires. Although very preliminary, the observed associations between baseline structural properties of language regions and improvement in language abilities following PRT suggest that neuroimaging measures may be able to help identify which children are most likely to benefit from specific language treatments, which could help improve precision medicine for children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Transtornos da Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Projetos Piloto
20.
Hernia ; 23(2): 335-340, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701368

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Incisional hernia (IH) continues to be one of the most common complications of laparotomy. The short-term protective effect of the use of mesh has been demonstrated in several studies. At present, there is little evidence on the long-term results of the prophylactic use of mesh. The aim of the present study is to analyze the long-term prevention of IH 5 years after a midline laparotomy during elective surgery. METHODS: A prospective study was performed including all of the 160 patients that had been previously included in the prospective, randomized, controlled trial performed between May 2009 and November 2012. The protocol and results at 1 year have been previously published in 2014. The patients in group A (mesh) were fitted with a polypropylene mesh to reinforce the standard abdominal wall closure. The patients in group B (non-mesh) underwent a standard abdominal wall closure and were not fitted with the mesh. All patients were followed for 5 years or until the diagnosis of incisional hernia was made, further surgery was performed, or the patient died. Cases lost to follow-up were also registered. RESULTS: Five years after surgery, in group A (mesh) we have found 4/80 (5.1%) incisional hernias, while in group B (no mesh) 37/80 patients were diagnosed with an incisional hernia (46.8%). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves for these results show statistically significant differences (p > 0.001). CONCLUSION: The protective effect of the use of an onlay mesh in abdominal wall closure is significantly maintained in the long-term, up to 5 years after surgery. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial number: ISRCTN98336745.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos Abdominais , Hérnia Incisional/prevenção & controle , Telas Cirúrgicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Abdome/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Hérnia Incisional/epidemiologia , Hérnia Incisional/etiologia , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Polipropilenos , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...