Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 155
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 164, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex multifactorial affliction, the pathogenesis of which is thought to involve gene-environment interactions that might be captured in the epigenome. The present study investigated epigenome-wide patterns of DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine, 5mC) and hydroxymethylation (5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5hmC), as well as the abundance of unmodified cytosine (UC), in relation to AD. RESULTS: We identified epigenetic differences in AD patients (n = 45) as compared to age-matched controls (n = 35) in the middle temporal gyrus, pertaining to genomic regions close to or overlapping with genes such as OXT (- 3.76% 5mC, pSidák = 1.07E-06), CHRNB1 (+ 1.46% 5hmC, pSidák = 4.01E-04), RHBDF2 (- 3.45% UC, pSidák = 4.85E-06), and C3 (- 1.20% UC, pSidák = 1.57E-03). In parallel, in an independent cohort, we compared the blood methylome of converters to AD dementia (n = 54) and non-converters (n = 42), at a preclinical stage. DNA methylation in the same region of the OXT promoter as found in the brain was found to be associated with subsequent conversion to AD dementia in the blood of elderly, non-demented individuals (+ 3.43% 5mC, pSidák = 7.14E-04). CONCLUSIONS: The implication of genome-wide significant differential methylation of OXT, encoding oxytocin, in two independent cohorts indicates it is a promising target for future studies on early biomarkers and novel therapeutic strategies in AD.

2.
Mol Autism ; 10: 38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719968

RESUMO

Background: A gap exists in our mechanistic understanding of how genetic and environmental risk factors converge at the molecular level to result in the emergence of autism symptoms. We compared blood-based gene expression signatures in identical twins concordant and discordant for autism spectrum condition (ASC) to differentiate genetic and environmentally driven transcription differences, and establish convergent evidence for biological mechanisms involved in ASC. Methods: Genome-wide gene expression data were generated using RNA-seq on whole blood samples taken from 16 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins and seven twin pair members (39 individuals in total), who had been assessed for ASC and autism traits at age 12. Differential expression (DE) analyses were performed between (a) affected and unaffected subjects (N = 36) and (b) within discordant ASC MZ twin pairs (total N = 11) to identify environmental-driven DE. Gene set enrichment and pathway testing was performed on DE gene lists. Finally, an integrative analysis using DNA methylation data aimed to identify genes with consistent evidence for altered regulation in cis. Results: In the discordant twin analysis, three genes showed evidence for DE at FDR < 10%: IGHG4, EVI2A and SNORD15B. In the case-control analysis, four DE genes were identified at FDR < 10% including IGHG4, PRR13P5, DEPDC1B, and ZNF501. We find enrichment for DE of genes curated in the SFARI human gene database. Pathways showing evidence of enrichment included those related to immune cell signalling and immune response, transcriptional control and cell cycle/proliferation. Integrative methylomic and transcriptomic analysis identified a number of genes showing suggestive evidence for cis dysregulation. Limitations: Identical twins stably discordant for ASC are rare, and as such the sample size was limited and constrained to the use of peripheral blood tissue for transcriptomic and methylomic profiling. Given these primary limitations, we focused on transcript-level analysis. Conclusions: Using a cohort of ASC discordant and concordant MZ twins, we add to the growing body of transcriptomic-based evidence for an immune-based component in the molecular aetiology of ASC. Whilst the sample size was limited, the study demonstrates the utility of the discordant MZ twin design combined with multi-omics integration for maximising the potential to identify disease-associated molecular signals.

3.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165892

RESUMO

Methylome-wide association studies (MWASs) are promising complements to sequence variation studies. We used existing sequencing-based methylation data, which assayed the majority of all 28 million CpGs in the human genome, to perform an MWAS for schizophrenia in blood, while controlling for cell-type heterogeneity with a recently generated platform-specific reference panel. Next, we compared the MWAS results with findings from 3 existing large-scale array-based schizophrenia methylation studies in blood that assayed up to ~450 000 CpGs. Our MWAS identified 22 highly significant loci (P < 5 × 10-8) and 852 suggestively significant loci (P < 1 × 10-5). The top finding (P = 5.62 × 10-11, q = 0.001) was located in MFN2, which encodes mitofusin-2 that regulates Ca2+ transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria in cooperation with DISC1. The second-most significant site (P = 1.38 × 10-9, q = 0.013) was located in ALDH1A2, which encodes an enzyme for astrocyte-derived retinoic acid-a key neuronal morphogen with relevance for schizophrenia. Although the most significant MWAS findings were not assayed on the arrays, we observed significant enrichment of overlapping findings with 2 of the 3 array datasets (P = 0.0315, 0.0045, 0.1946). Overrepresentation analysis of Gene Ontology terms for the genes in the significant overlaps suggested high similarity in the biological functions detected by the different datasets. Top terms were related to immune and/or stress responses, cell adhesion and motility, and a broad range of processes essential for neurodevelopment.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(13): 2201-2211, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220268

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a collection of complex neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by deficits in social functioning, communication and repetitive behaviour. Building on recent studies supporting a role for developmentally moderated regulatory genomic variation in the molecular aetiology of ASD, we quantified genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation in 223 post-mortem tissues samples isolated from three brain regions [prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex and cerebellum (CB)] dissected from 43 ASD patients and 38 non-psychiatric control donors. We identified widespread differences in DNA methylation associated with idiopathic ASD (iASD), with consistent signals in both cortical regions that were distinct to those observed in the CB. Individuals carrying a duplication on chromosome 15q (dup15q), representing a genetically defined subtype of ASD, were characterized by striking differences in DNA methylationacross a discrete domain spanning an imprinted gene cluster within the duplicated region. In addition to the dramatic cis-effects on DNA methylation observed in dup15q carriers, we identified convergent methylomic signatures associated with both iASD and dup15q, reflecting the findings from previous studies of gene expression and H3K27ac. Cortical co-methylation network analysis identified a number of co-methylated modules significantly associated with ASD that are enriched for genomic regions annotated to genes involved in the immune system, synaptic signalling and neuronal regulation. Our study represents the first systematic analysis of DNA methylation associated with ASD across multiple brain regions, providing novel evidence for convergent molecular signatures associated with both idiopathic and syndromic autism.

5.
Genome Res ; 29(7): 1057-1066, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160375

RESUMO

Germline mutations in fundamental epigenetic regulatory molecules including DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) are commonly associated with growth disorders, whereas somatic mutations are often associated with malignancy. We profiled genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in DNMT3A c.2312G > A; p.(Arg771Gln) carriers in a large Amish sibship with Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS), their mosaic father, and 15 TBRS patients with distinct pathogenic de novo DNMT3A variants. This defined widespread DNA hypomethylation at specific genomic sites enriched at locations annotated as genes involved in morphogenesis, development, differentiation, and malignancy predisposition pathways. TBRS patients also displayed highly accelerated DNA methylation aging. These findings were most marked in a carrier of the AML-associated driver mutation p.Arg882Cys. Our studies additionally defined phenotype-related accelerated and decelerated epigenetic aging in two histone methyltransferase disorders: NSD1 Sotos syndrome overgrowth disorder and KMT2D Kabuki syndrome growth impairment. Together, our findings provide fundamental new insights into aberrant epigenetic mechanisms, the role of epigenetic machinery maintenance, and determinants of biological aging in these growth disorders.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 157, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164630

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is associated with high mortality. DNA methylation levels vary over the life course, and pre-selected combinations of methylation array probes can be used to estimate "methylation age" (mAge). mAge correlates highly with chronological age but when it differs, termed mAge acceleration, it has been previously associated with all-cause mortality. We tested the association between mAge acceleration and mortality in SCZ and controls. We selected 190 SCZ cases and 190 controls from the Sweden Schizophrenia Study. Cases were identified from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register with ≥5 specialist treatment contacts and ≥5 antipsychotic prescriptions. Controls had no psychotic disorder or antipsychotics. Subjects were selected if they had died or survived during follow-up (2:1 oversampling). Extracted DNA was assayed on the Illumina MethylationEPIC array. mAge was regressed on age at sampling to obtain mAge acceleration. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, the association between mAge acceleration and mortality was tested. After quality control, the following were available: n = 126 SCZ died, 63 SCZ alive, 127 controls died, 62 controls alive. In the primary analyses, we did not find a significant association between mAge acceleration and SCZ mortality (adjusted p > 0.005). Sensitivity analyses excluding SCZ cases with pre-existing cancer demonstrated a significant association between the Hannum mAge acceleration and mortality (hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.22, p = 0.005). Per our pre-specified criteria, we did not confirm our primary hypothesis that mAge acceleration would predict subsequent mortality in people with SCZ, but we cannot rule out smaller effects or effects in patient subsets.

7.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 366, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a steady increase in the number of studies aiming to identify DNA methylation differences associated with complex phenotypes. Many of the challenges of epigenetic epidemiology regarding study design and interpretation have been discussed in detail, however there are analytical concerns that are outstanding and require further exploration. In this study we seek to address three analytical issues. First, we quantify the multiple testing burden and propose a standard statistical significance threshold for identifying DNA methylation sites that are associated with an outcome. Second, we establish whether linear regression, the chosen statistical tool for the majority of studies, is appropriate and whether it is biased by the underlying distribution of DNA methylation data. Finally, we assess the sample size required for adequately powered DNA methylation association studies. RESULTS: We quantified DNA methylation in the Understanding Society cohort (n = 1175), a large population based study, using the Illumina EPIC array to assess the statistical properties of DNA methylation association analyses. By simulating null DNA methylation studies, we generated the distribution of p-values expected by chance and calculated the 5% family-wise error for EPIC array studies to be 9 × 10- 8. Next, we tested whether the assumptions of linear regression are violated by DNA methylation data and found that the majority of sites do not satisfy the assumption of normal residuals. Nevertheless, we found no evidence that this bias influences analyses by increasing the likelihood of affected sites to be false positives. Finally, we performed power calculations for EPIC based DNA methylation studies, demonstrating that existing studies with data on ~ 1000 samples are adequately powered to detect small differences at the majority of sites. CONCLUSION: We propose that a significance threshold of P < 9 × 10- 8 adequately controls the false positive rate for EPIC array DNA methylation studies. Moreover, our results indicate that linear regression is a valid statistical methodology for DNA methylation studies, despite the fact that the data do not always satisfy the assumptions of this test. These findings have implications for epidemiological-based studies of DNA methylation and provide a framework for the interpretation of findings from current and future studies.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Lineares
8.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(6): 576-586, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962612

RESUMO

Young people's life chances can be predicted by characteristics of their neighbourhood1. Children growing up in disadvantaged neighbourhoods exhibit worse physical and mental health and suffer poorer educational and economic outcomes than children growing up in advantaged neighbourhoods. Increasing recognition that aspects of social inequalities tend, in fact, to be geographical inequalities2-5 is stimulating research and focusing policy interest on the role of place in shaping health, behaviour and social outcomes. Where neighbourhood effects are causal, neighbourhood-level interventions can be effective. Where neighbourhood effects reflect selection of families with different characteristics into different neighbourhoods, interventions should instead target families or individuals directly. To test how selection may affect different neighbourhood-linked problems, we linked neighbourhood data with genetic, health and social outcome data for >7,000 European-descent UK and US young people in the E-Risk and Add Health studies. We tested selection/concentration of genetic risks for obesity, schizophrenia, teen pregnancy and poor educational outcomes in high-risk neighbourhoods, including genetic analysis of neighbourhood mobility. Findings argue against genetic selection/concentration as an explanation for neighbourhood gradients in obesity and mental health problems. By contrast, modest genetic selection/concentration was evident for teen pregnancy and poor educational outcomes, suggesting that neighbourhood effects for these outcomes should be interpreted with care.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Obesidade , Gravidez na Adolescência , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/genética , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1770): 20180120, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966880

RESUMO

There is great interest in the role epigenetic variation induced by non-genetic exposures may play in the context of health and disease. In particular, DNA methylation has previously been shown to be highly dynamic during the earliest stages of development and is influenced by in utero exposures such as maternal smoking and medication. In this study we sought to identify the specific DNA methylation differences in blood associated with prenatal and birth factors, including birth weight, gestational age and maternal smoking. We quantified neonatal methylomic variation in 1263 infants using DNA isolated from a unique collection of archived blood spots taken shortly after birth (mean = 6.08 days; s.d. = 3.24 days). An epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of gestational age and birth weight identified 4299 and 18 differentially methylated positions (DMPs) respectively, at an experiment-wide significance threshold of p < 1 × 10-7. Our EWAS of maternal smoking during pregnancy identified 110 DMPs in neonatal blood, replicating previously reported genomic loci, including AHRR. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the relationship between maternal smoking and lower birth weight, finding evidence that methylomic variation at three DMPs may link exposure to outcome. These findings complement an expanding literature on the epigenomic consequences of prenatal exposures and obstetric factors, confirming a link between the maternal environment and gene regulation in neonates. This article is part of the theme issue 'Developing differences: early-life effects and evolutionary medicine'.

10.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(8): 599-607, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and DNA methylation in children. We report the first epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, based on peripheral blood DNA methylation (Infinium HumanMethylation450K array) in three population-based adult cohorts. METHODS: An epigenome-wide association study was performed in the Netherlands Twin Register (N = 2258, mean age 37 years), Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (N = 800, age 38 years), and Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study (N = 1631, age 18 years), and results were combined through meta-analysis (total sample size N = 4689). Region-based analyses accounting for the correlation between nearby methylation sites were also performed. RESULTS: One epigenome-wide significant differentially methylated position was detected in the Dunedin study, but meta-analysis did not detect differentially methylated positions that were robustly associated across cohorts. In region-based analyses, six significant differentially methylation regions (DMRs) were identified in the Netherlands Twin Register, 19 in the Dunedin study, and none in the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study. Of these DMRs, 92% were associated with methylation quantitative trait loci, and 68% showed moderate to large blood-brain correlations for DNA methylation levels. DMRs included six nonoverlapping DMRs (three in the Netherlands Twin Register, three in the Dunedin study) in the major histocompatibility complex, which were associated with expression of genes in the major histocompatibility complex, including C4A and C4B, previously implicated in schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings point at new candidate loci involved in immune and neuronal functions that await further replication. Our work also illustrates the need for further research to examine to what extent epigenetic associations with psychiatric traits depend on characteristics such as age, comorbidities, exposures, and genetic background.

11.
Bioinformatics ; 35(6): 981-986, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875430

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: The datasets generated by DNA methylation analyses are getting bigger. With the release of the HumanMethylationEPIC micro-array and datasets containing thousands of samples, analyses of these large datasets using R are becoming impractical due to large memory requirements. As a result there is an increasing need for computationally efficient methodologies to perform meaningful analysis on high dimensional data. RESULTS: Here we introduce the bigmelon R package, which provides a memory efficient workflow that enables users to perform the complex, large scale analyses required in epigenome wide association studies (EWAS) without the need for large RAM. Building on top of the CoreArray Genomic Data Structure file format and libraries packaged in the gdsfmt package, we provide a practical workflow that facilitates the reading-in, preprocessing, quality control and statistical analysis of DNA methylation data.We demonstrate the capabilities of the bigmelon package using a large dataset consisting of 1193 human blood samples from the Understanding Society: UK Household Longitudinal Study, assayed on the EPIC micro-array platform. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The bigmelon package is available on Bioconductor (http://bioconductor.org/packages/bigmelon/). The Understanding Society dataset is available at https://www.understandingsociety.ac.uk/about/health/data upon request. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

12.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 52, 2019 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is hypothesized to involve epigenetic dysfunction. Previous studies of DNA modifications in Alzheimer's disease have been unable to distinguish between DNA methylation and DNA hydroxymethylation. DNA hydroxymethylation has been shown to be enriched in the human brain, although its role in Alzheimer's disease has not yet been fully explored. Here, we utilize oxidative bisulfite conversion, in conjunction with the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450K microarray, to identify neuropathology-associated differential DNA methylation and DNA hydroxymethylation in the entorhinal cortex. RESULTS: We identified one experiment-wide significant differentially methylated position residing in the WNT5B gene. Next, we investigated pathology-associated regions consisting of multiple adjacent loci. We identified one significant differentially hydroxymethylated region consisting of four probes spanning 104 bases in the FBXL16 gene. We also identified two significant differentially methylated regions: one consisting of two probes in a 93 base-pair region in the ANK1 gene and the other consisting of six probes in a 99-base pair region in the ARID5B gene. We also highlighted three regions that show alterations in unmodified cytosine: two probes in a 39-base pair region of ALLC, two probes in a 69-base pair region in JAG2, and the same six probes in ARID5B that were differentially methylated. Finally, we replicated significant ANK1 disease-associated hypermethylation and hypohydroxymethylation patterns across eight CpG sites in an extended 118-base pair region in an independent cohort using oxidative-bisulfite pyrosequencing. CONCLUSIONS: Our study represents the first epigenome-wide association study of both DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in Alzheimer's disease entorhinal cortex. We demonstrate that previous estimates of DNA hypermethylation in ANK1 in Alzheimer's disease were underestimates as it is confounded by hypohydroxymethylation.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 92, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770782

RESUMO

Large-scale epigenome-wide association meta-analyses have identified multiple 'signatures'' of smoking. Drawing on these findings, we describe the construction of a polyepigenetic DNA methylation score that indexes smoking behavior and that can be utilized for multiple purposes in population health research. To validate the score, we use data from two birth cohort studies: The Dunedin Longitudinal Study, followed to age-38 years, and the Environmental Risk Study, followed to age-18 years. Longitudinal data show that changes in DNA methylation accumulate with increased exposure to tobacco smoking and attenuate with quitting. Data from twins discordant for smoking behavior show that smoking influences DNA methylation independently of genetic and environmental risk factors. Physiological data show that changes in DNA methylation track smoking-related changes in lung function and gum health over time. Moreover, DNA methylation changes predict corresponding changes in gene expression in pathways related to inflammation, immune response, and cellular trafficking. Finally, we present prospective data about the link between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and epigenetic modifications; these findings document the importance of controlling for smoking-related DNA methylation changes when studying biological embedding of stress in life-course research. We introduce the polyepigenetic DNA methylation score as a tool both for discovery and theory-guided research in epigenetic epidemiology.

14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 69, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718501

RESUMO

Childhood psychotic experiences (PEs), such as seeing or hearing things that others do not, or extreme paranoia, are relatively common with around 1 in 20 children reporting them at age 12. Childhood PEs are often distressing and can be predictive of schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders, and suicide attempts in adulthood, particularly if they persist during adolescence. Previous research has demonstrated that methylomic signatures in blood could be potential biomarkers of psychotic phenomena. This study explores the association between DNA methylation (DNAm) and the emergence, persistence, and remission of PEs in childhood and adolescence. DNAm profiles were obtained from the ALSPAC cohort at birth, age 7, and age 15/17 (n = 901). PEs were assessed through interviews with participants at ages 12 and 18. We identified PE-associated probes (p < 5 × 10-5) and regions (corrected p < 0.05) at ages 12 and 18. Several of the differentially methylated probes were also associated with the continuity of PEs across adolescence. One probe (cg16459265), detected consistently at multiple timepoints in the study sample, was replicated in an independent sample of twins (n = 1658). Six regions, including those spanning the HLA-DBP2 and GDF7 genes, were consistently differentially methylated at ages 7 and 15-17. Findings from this large, population-based study suggest that DNAm at multiple stages of development may be associated with PEs in late childhood and adolescence, though further replication is required. Research uncovering biomarkers associated with pre-clinical PEs is important as it has the potential to facilitate early identification of individuals at increased risk who could benefit from preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Transtornos Psicóticos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/sangue , Reino Unido
15.
Mol Brain ; 12(1): 7, 2019 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691483

RESUMO

Most variants associated with complex phenotypes in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) do not directly index coding changes affecting protein structure. Instead they are hypothesized to influence gene regulation, with common variants associated with disease being enriched in regulatory domains including enhancers and regions of open chromatin. There is interest, therefore, in using epigenomic annotation data to identify the specific regulatory mechanisms involved and prioritize risk variants. We quantified lysine H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac) - a robust mark of active enhancers and promoters that is strongly correlated with gene expression and transcription factor binding - across the genome in entorhinal cortex samples using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by highly parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). H3K27ac peaks were called using high quality reads combined across all samples and formed the basis of partitioned heritability analysis using LD score regression along with publicly-available GWAS results for seven psychiatric and neurodegenerative traits. Heritability for all seven brain traits was significantly enriched in these H3K27ac peaks (enrichment ranging from 1.09-2.13) compared to regions of the genome containing other active regulatory and functional elements across multiple cell types and tissues. The strongest enrichments were for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (enrichment = 2.19; 95% CI = 2.12-2.27), autism (enrichment = 2.11; 95% CI = 2.05-2.16) and major depressive disorder (enrichment = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.92-2.16). Much lower enrichments were observed for 14 non-brain disorders, although we identified enrichment in cortical H3K27ac domains for body mass index (enrichment = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.13-1.19), ever smoked (enrichment = 2.07; 95% CI = 2.04-2.10), HDL (enrichment = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.45-1.62) and trigylcerides (enrichment = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.24-1.42). These results indicate that risk alleles for brain disorders are preferentially located in regions of regulatory/enhancer function in the cortex, further supporting the hypothesis that genetic variants for these phenotypes influence gene regulation in the brain.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Córtex Entorrinal/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Acetilação , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Fatores de Risco
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 654-665, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401456

RESUMO

Characterizing the complex relationship between genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic variation has the potential to increase understanding about the mechanisms underpinning health and disease phenotypes. We undertook a comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation on DNA methylation (DNAm) by using the Illumina EPIC array to profile samples from the UK Household Longitudinal study. We identified 12,689,548 significant DNA methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) associations (p < 6.52 × 10-14) occurring between 2,907,234 genetic variants and 93,268 DNAm sites, including a large number not identified by previous DNAm-profiling methods. We demonstrate the utility of these data for interpreting the functional consequences of common genetic variation associated with > 60 human traits by using summary-data-based Mendelian randomization (SMR) to identify 1,662 pleiotropic associations between 36 complex traits and 1,246 DNAm sites. We also use SMR to characterize the relationship between DNAm and gene expression and thereby identify 6,798 pleiotropic associations between 5,420 DNAm sites and the transcription of 1,702 genes. Our mQTL database and SMR results are available via a searchable online database as a resource to the research community.

17.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 194, 2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic influences on gene expression in the human fetal brain plausibly impact upon a variety of postnatal brain-related traits, including susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. However, to date, there have been no studies that have mapped genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) specifically in the human prenatal brain. RESULTS: We performed deep RNA sequencing and genome-wide genotyping on a unique collection of 120 human brains from the second trimester of gestation to provide the first eQTL dataset derived exclusively from the human fetal brain. We identify high confidence cis-acting eQTL at the individual transcript as well as whole gene level, including many mapping to a common inversion polymorphism on chromosome 17q21. Fetal brain eQTL are enriched among risk variants for postnatal conditions including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. We further identify changes in gene expression within the prenatal brain that potentially mediate risk for neuropsychiatric traits, including increased expression of C4A in association with genetic risk for schizophrenia, increased expression of LRRC57 in association with genetic risk for bipolar disorder, and altered expression of multiple genes within the chromosome 17q21 inversion in association with variants influencing the personality trait of neuroticism. CONCLUSIONS: We have mapped eQTL operating in the human fetal brain, providing evidence that these confer risk to certain neuropsychiatric disorders, and identifying gene expression changes that potentially mediate susceptibility to these conditions.

18.
Neurobiol Aging ; 74: 70-76, 2018 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439595

RESUMO

Recent epigenome-wide association studies in Alzheimer's disease have highlighted consistent robust neuropathology-associated DNA hypermethylation of the ankyrin 1 (ANK1) gene in the cortex. The extent to which altered ANK1 DNA methylation is also associated with other neurodegenerative diseases is not currently known. In the present study, we used bisulfite pyrosequencing to quantify DNA methylation across 8 CpG sites within a 118 bp region of the ANK1 gene across multiple brain regions in Alzheimer's disease, Vascular dementia, Dementia with Lewy bodies, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. We demonstrate disease-associated ANK1 hypermethylation in the entorhinal cortex in Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease, whereas in donors with Vascular dementia and Dementia with Lewy bodies, we observed elevated ANK1 DNA methylation only in individuals with coexisting Alzheimer's disease pathology. We did not observe any disease-associated differential ANK1 DNA methylation in the striatum in Huntington's disease or the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease. Our data suggest that ANK1 is characterized by region and disease-specific differential DNA methylation in multiple neurodegenerative diseases.

19.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(11): 1618-1627, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349106

RESUMO

We quantified genome-wide patterns of lysine H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac) in entorhinal cortex samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases and matched controls using chromatin immunoprecipitation and highly parallel sequencing. We observed widespread acetylomic variation associated with AD neuropathology, identifying 4,162 differential peaks (false discovery rate < 0.05) between AD cases and controls. Differentially acetylated peaks were enriched in disease-related biological pathways and included regions annotated to genes involved in the progression of amyloid-ß and tau pathology (for example, APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, and MAPT), as well as regions containing variants associated with sporadic late-onset AD. Partitioned heritability analysis highlighted a highly significant enrichment of AD risk variants in entorhinal cortex H3K27ac peak regions. AD-associated variable H3K27ac was associated with transcriptional variation at proximal genes including CR1, GPR22, KMO, PIM3, PSEN1, and RGCC. In addition to identifying molecular pathways associated with AD neuropathology, we present a framework for genome-wide studies of histone modifications in complex disease.

20.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3738, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218040

RESUMO

X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), i.e., the inactivation of one of the female X chromosomes, restores equal expression of X-chromosomal genes between females and males. However, ~10% of genes show variable degrees of escape from XCI between females, although little is known about the causes of variable XCI. Using a discovery data-set of 1867 females and 1398 males and a replication sample of 3351 females, we show that genetic variation at three autosomal loci is associated with female-specific changes in X-chromosome methylation. Through cis-eQTL expression analysis, we map these loci to the genes SMCHD1/METTL4, TRIM6/HBG2, and ZSCAN9. Low-expression alleles of the loci are predominantly associated with mild hypomethylation of CpG islands near genes known to variably escape XCI, implicating the autosomal genes in variable XCI. Together, these results suggest a genetic basis for variable escape from XCI and highlight the potential of a population genomics approach to identify genes involved in XCI.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA