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1.
Front Neurol ; 9: 690, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177910

RESUMO

Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) has provided important insights into functional reorganization in subjects with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) at different stage of disease. In this cross-sectional study we first assessed, by means of rs-fMRI, the impact of overall T2 lesion load (T2LL) and MS severity score (MSSS) on resting state networks (RSNs) in 62 relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients with mild disability (MSSS < 3). Independent Component Analysis (ICA) followed by dual regression analysis confirmed functional connectivity (FC) alterations of many RSNs in RRMS subjects compared to healthy controls. The anterior default mode network (DMNa) and the superior precuneus network (PNsup) showed the largest areas of decreased FC, while the sensory motor networks area M1 (SMNm1) and the medial visual network (MVN) showed the largest areas of increased FC. In order to better understand the nature of these alterations as well as the mechanisms of functional alterations in MS we proposed a method, based on linear regression, that takes into account FC changes and their correlation with T2LL and MSSS. Depending on the sign of the correlation between FC and T2LL, and furthermore the sign of the correlation with MSSS, we suggested the following possible underlying mechanisms to interpret altered FC: (1) FC reduction driven by MS lesions, (2) "true" functional compensatory mechanism, (3a) functional compensation attempt, (3b) "false" functional compensation, (4a) neurodegeneration, (4b) pre-symptomatic condition (damage precedes MS clinical manifestation). Our data shows areas satisfying 4 of these 6 conditions (i.e., 1,2,3b,4b), supporting the suggestion that increased FC has a complex nature that may exceed the simplistic assumption of an underlying compensatory mechanism attempting to limit the brain damage caused by MS progression. Exploring differences between RRMS subjects with short disease duration (MSshort) and RRMS with similar disability but longer disease duration (MSlong), we found that MSshort and MSlong were characterized by clearly distinct pattern of FC, involving predominantly sensory and cognitive networks respectively. Overall, these results suggest that the analysis of FC alterations in multiple large-scale networks in relation to radiological (T2LL) and clinical (MSSS, disease duration) status may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of relapse onset MS evolution.

2.
Neurology ; 91(12): e1130-e1134, 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of including optic nerve involvement in dissemination in space (DIS) criteria for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). METHODS: We studied 160 patients with CIS: 129 with optic neuritis (ON) and 31 with non-ON CIS. MRI brain/spinal cord was done at the time of presentation and a follow-up MRI brain after 3-12 months. We evaluated optic nerve involvement clinically or with visual evoked potentials (VEPs, n = 42). We investigated the performance of the McDonald 2017 DIS criteria and modified DIS criteria including optic nerve involvement for development of clinically definite MS after ∼15 years. RESULTS: In the ON group, including symptomatic optic nerve involvement identified an additional 15 patients with DIS. The modified DIS criteria that included optic nerve involvement were more sensitive (95% vs 83%) and more accurate (81% vs 78%) than the McDonald 2017 DIS criteria, but less specific (57% vs 68%). In combination with dissemination in time criteria, the modified DIS criteria remained more sensitive (83% vs 74%) and accurate (81% vs 75%), and the specificity was the same (77%). Including asymptomatic optic nerve involvement in DIS the non-ON group did not identify any additional patients and the performance of the McDonald 2017 criteria and the modified criteria was the same. CONCLUSION: The inclusion of symptomatic optic nerve involvement in DIS in patients with ON improved the overall performance of MS diagnostic criteria. Including asymptomatic optic nerve involvement in DIS in patients with a non-ON CIS may be of limited value. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with suspected MS, inclusion of symptomatic optic nerve involvement in DIS criteria improves the overall performance of diagnostic criteria for MS.

3.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(3): 346-356, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29560379

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the relationship between brain volume and disability worsening over ≥3 years in the natural history of primary progressive multiple sclerosis using data from the placebo group of the INFORMS trial (n = 487; clinicaltrials.gov NCT00731692). Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging scans were collected annually. Brain volume loss was determined using SIENA. Patients were stratified by baseline normalized brain volume after adjusting for demographic and disease-burden covariates. Results: Baseline normalized brain volume was predictive of disability worsening: Risk of 3-month confirmed disability progression was reduced by 36% for high versus low baseline normalized brain volume (Cox's model hazard ratio 0.64, P = 0.0339; log-rank test: P = 0.0297). Moreover, on-study brain volume loss was significantly associated with disability worsening (P = 0.012) and was evident in patients with or without new lesions or relapses. Brain volume loss depended significantly on baseline T2 lesion volume (P < 0.0001). Despite low inflammatory activity at baseline (13% of patients had gadolinium-enhancing lesions) and throughout the study (mean 0.5 new/enlarging T2 lesions and 172 mm3 T2 lesion volume increase per year), baseline T2 lesion volume was substantial (mean 10 cm3). Lower normalized brain volume at baseline correlated with higher baseline T2 volume and older age (both P < 0.0001). Interpretation: Baseline brain volume and the rate of ongoing brain atrophy are significantly associated with disability worsening in primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Brain volume loss is significantly related to baseline T2 lesion volume, but partially independent of new lesion activity, which might explain the limited efficacy of anti-inflammatory treatment.

5.
Mult Scler ; 24(2): 96-120, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease with new drugs becoming available in the past years. There is a need for a reference tool compiling current data to aid professionals in treatment decisions. OBJECTIVES: To develop an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the pharmacological treatment of people with MS. METHODS: This guideline has been developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology and following the updated EAN recommendations. Clinical questions were formulated in Patients-Intervention-Comparator-Outcome (PICO) format and outcomes were prioritized. The quality of evidence was rated into four categories according to the risk of bias. The recommendations with assigned strength (strong and weak) were formulated based on the quality of evidence and the risk-benefit balance. Consensus between the panelists was reached by use of the modified nominal group technique. RESULTS: A total of 10 questions were agreed, encompassing treatment efficacy, response criteria, strategies to address suboptimal response and safety concerns and treatment strategies in MS and pregnancy. The guideline takes into account all disease-modifying drugs approved by the European Medicine Agency (EMA) at the time of publication. A total of 21 recommendations were agreed by the guideline working group after three rounds of consensus. CONCLUSION: The present guideline will enable homogeneity of treatment decisions across Europe.

6.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(2): 162-173, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275977

RESUMO

The 2010 McDonald criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis are widely used in research and clinical practice. Scientific advances in the past 7 years suggest that they might no longer provide the most up-to-date guidance for clinicians and researchers. The International Panel on Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis reviewed the 2010 McDonald criteria and recommended revisions. The 2017 McDonald criteria continue to apply primarily to patients experiencing a typical clinically isolated syndrome, define what is needed to fulfil dissemination in time and space of lesions in the CNS, and stress the need for no better explanation for the presentation. The following changes were made: in patients with a typical clinically isolated syndrome and clinical or MRI demonstration of dissemination in space, the presence of CSF-specific oligoclonal bands allows a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis; symptomatic lesions can be used to demonstrate dissemination in space or time in patients with supratentorial, infratentorial, or spinal cord syndrome; and cortical lesions can be used to demonstrate dissemination in space. Research to further refine the criteria should focus on optic nerve involvement, validation in diverse populations, and incorporation of advanced imaging, neurophysiological, and body fluid markers.

7.
Mult Scler ; 24(7): 932-941, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28516804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure the development of spinal cord (SC) atrophy over 1 year in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS) and determine the sample sizes required to demonstrate a reduction in spinal cord cross-sectional area (SC-CSA) as an outcome measure in clinical trials. METHODS: In total, 44 PMS patients (26 primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), 18 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS)) and 29 healthy controls (HCs) were studied at baseline and 12 months. SC-CSA was measured using the three-dimensional (3D) fast field echo sequences acquired at 3T and the active surface model. Multiple linear regressions were used to investigate changes in imaging measurements. RESULTS: PPMS patients had shorter disease duration, lower Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and larger SC-CSA than SPMS patients. All patients together showed a significantly greater decrease in percentage SC-CSA change than HCs, which was driven by the PPMS. All patients deteriorated over 1 year, but no association was found between percentage SC-CSA change and clinical changes. The sample size per arm required to detect a 50% treatment effect over 1 year, at 80% power, was 57 for PPMS and 546 for SPMS. CONCLUSION: SC-CSA may become an outcome measure in trials of PPMS patients, when they are at an early stage of the disease, have moderate disability and modest SC atrophy.

8.
Mult Scler ; 23(12): 1571-1572, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29041869
9.
Funct Neurol ; 32(2): 97-101, 2017 Apr/Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676143

RESUMO

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to white matter (WM) damage in multiple sclerosis (MS), not only in focal lesions but also in the normal-appearing WM (NAWM). However, DTI indices can also be affected by natural spatial variation in WM, as seen in crossing and dispersing white matter fibers. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) is an advanced diffusion-weighted imaging technique that provides distinct indices of fiber density and dispersion. We performed NODDI of lesion tissue and NAWM in five MS patients and five controls, comparing the technique with traditional DTI. Both DTI and NODDI identified tissue damage in NAWM and in lesions. NODDI was able to detect additional changes and it provided better contrast in MS-NAWM microstructure, because it distinguished orientation dispersion and fiber density better than DTI. We showed that NODDI is viable in MS patients and that it offers, compared with DTI parameters, improved sensitivity and possibly greater specificity to microstructure features such as neurite orientation.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Neuritos/patologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Projetos Piloto
10.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458516686847, 2017 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28671487

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), most likely autoimmune in origin, usually beginning in early adulthood. The aetiology of the disease is not well understood; it is viewed currently as a multifactorial disease which results from complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors, of which a few are potentially modifiable. Improving our understanding of these factors can lead to new and more effective approaches to patient counselling and, possibly, prevention and management of the disease. The 2016 focused workshop of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) addressed the topic of environmental, modifiable risk factors for MS, gathering experts from around the world, to collate experimental and clinical research into environmental factors that have been associated with the disease onset and, in a few cases, disease activity and progression. A number of factors, including infections, vitamin D deficiency, diet and lifestyle factors, stress and comorbidities, were discussed. The meeting provided a forum to analyse available evidence, to identify inconsistencies and gaps in current knowledge and to suggest avenues for future research.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(8): 4661-4672, 2017 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28355063

RESUMO

A quantitative adverse outcome pathway (qAOP) consists of one or more biologically based, computational models describing key event relationships linking a molecular initiating event (MIE) to an adverse outcome. A qAOP provides quantitative, dose-response, and time-course predictions that can support regulatory decision-making. Herein we describe several facets of qAOPs, including (a) motivation for development, (b) technical considerations, (c) evaluation of confidence, and (d) potential applications. The qAOP used as an illustrative example for these points describes the linkage between inhibition of cytochrome P450 19A aromatase (the MIE) and population-level decreases in the fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). The qAOP consists of three linked computational models for the following: (a) the hypothalamic-pitutitary-gonadal axis in female FHMs, where aromatase inhibition decreases the conversion of testosterone to 17ß-estradiol (E2), thereby reducing E2-dependent vitellogenin (VTG; egg yolk protein precursor) synthesis, (b) VTG-dependent egg development and spawning (fecundity), and (c) fecundity-dependent population trajectory. While development of the example qAOP was based on experiments with FHMs exposed to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole, we also show how a toxic equivalence (TEQ) calculation allows use of the qAOP to predict effects of another, untested aromatase inhibitor, iprodione. While qAOP development can be resource-intensive, the quantitative predictions obtained, and TEQ-based application to multiple chemicals, may be sufficient to justify the cost for some applications in regulatory decision-making.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase/toxicidade , Fadrozol/toxicidade , Animais , Cyprinidae , Estradiol/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
12.
Brain ; 140(2): 387-398, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28043954

RESUMO

In established multiple sclerosis, tissue abnormality-as assessed using magnetization transfer ratio-increases close to the lateral ventricles. We aimed to determine whether or not (i) these changes are present from the earliest clinical stages of multiple sclerosis; (ii) they occur independent of white matter lesions; and (iii) they are associated with subsequent conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis and disability. Seventy-one subjects had MRI scanning a median of 4.6 months after a clinically isolated optic neuritis (49 females, mean age 33.5 years) and were followed up clinically 2 and 5 years later. Thirty-seven healthy controls (25 females, mean age 34.4 years) were also scanned. In normal-appearing white matter, magnetization transfer ratio gradients were measured 1-5 mm and 6-10 mm from the lateral ventricles. In control subjects, magnetization transfer ratio was highest adjacent to the ventricles and decreased with distance from them; in optic neuritis, normal-appearing white matter magnetization transfer ratio was lowest adjacent to the ventricles, increased over the first 5 mm, and then paralleled control values. The magnetization transfer ratio gradient over 1-5 mm differed significantly between the optic neuritis and control groups [+0.059 percentage units/mm (pu/mm) versus -0.033 pu/mm, P = 0.010], and was significantly steeper in those developing clinically definite multiple sclerosis within 2 years compared to those who did not (0.132 pu/mm versus 0.016 pu/mm, P = 0.020). In multivariate binary logistic regression the magnetization transfer ratio gradient was independently associated with the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis within 2 years (magnetization transfer ratio gradient odds ratio 61.708, P = 0.023; presence of T2 lesions odds ratio 8.500, P = 0.071). At 5 years, lesional measures overtook magnetization transfer ratio gradients as significant predictors of conversion to multiple sclerosis. The magnetization transfer ratio gradient was not significantly affected by the presence of brain lesions [T2 lesions (P = 0.918), periventricular T2 lesions (P = 0.580) or gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesions (P = 0.724)]. The magnetization transfer ratio gradient also correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score 5 years later (Spearman r = 0.313, P = 0.027). An abnormal periventricular magnetization transfer ratio gradient occurs early in multiple sclerosis, is clinically relevant, and may arise from one or more mechanisms that are at least partly independent of lesion formation.


Assuntos
Ventrículos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Atrofia , Estudos de Coortes , Avaliação da Deficiência , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Neurite Óptica/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurite Óptica/etiologia , Prótons , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Lancet ; 389(10076): 1336-1346, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27889190

RESUMO

The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is based on neurological symptoms and signs, alongside evidence of dissemination of CNS lesions in space and time. MRI is often sufficient to confirm the diagnosis when characteristic lesions accompany a typical clinical syndrome, but in some patients, further supportive information is obtained from cerebrospinal fluid examination and neurophysiological testing. Differentiation is important from other diseases in which demyelination is a feature (eg, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) and from non-demyelinating disorders such as chronic small vessel disease and other inflammatory, granulomatous, infective, metabolic, and genetic causes that can mimic multiple sclerosis. Advances in MRI and serological and genetic testing have greatly increased accuracy in distinguishing multiple sclerosis from these disorders, but misdiagnosis can occur. In this Series paper we explore the progress and challenges in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis with reference to diagnostic criteria, important differential diagnoses, controversies and uncertainties, and future prospects.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico , Neuromielite Óptica/diagnóstico , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Mult Scler ; 23(2): 253-265, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27207449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF) demonstrated strong efficacy and a favorable benefit-risk profile for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in phase 3 DEFINE/CONFIRM studies. ENDORSE is an ongoing long-term extension of DEFINE/CONFIRM. OBJECTIVE: We report efficacy and safety results of a 5-year interim analysis of ENDORSE (2 years DEFINE/CONFIRM; minimum 3 years ENDORSE). METHODS: In ENDORSE, patients randomized to DMF 240 mg twice (BID) or thrice daily (TID) in DEFINE/CONFIRM continued this dosage, and those initially randomized to placebo (PBO) or glatiramer acetate (GA) were re-randomized to DMF 240 mg BID or TID. RESULTS: For patients continuing DMF BID (BID/BID), annualized relapse rates were 0.202, 0.163, 0.139, 0.143, and 0.138 (years 1-5, respectively) and 63%, 73%, and 88% were free of new or enlarging T2 hyperintense lesions, new T1 hypointense lesions, and gadolinium-enhanced lesions, respectively, at year 5. Adverse events (AEs; serious adverse events (SAEs)) were reported in 91% (22%; BID/BID), 95% (24%; PBO/BID), and 88% (16%; GA/BID) of the patients. One case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy was reported in the setting of severe, prolonged lymphopenia. CONCLUSION: Treatment with DMF was associated with continuously low clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disease activity in patients with RRMS. These interim data demonstrate a sustained treatment benefit and an acceptable safety profile with DMF.


Assuntos
Fumarato de Dimetilo/uso terapêutico , Acetato de Glatiramer/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Mult Scler ; 23(7): 1031-1034, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27600111

RESUMO

In patients who present with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), whose features are suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS), fulfilling McDonald 2010 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria for dissemination in space (DIS) and dissemination in time (DIT) enables a diagnosis of MS. While ⩾1 periventricular lesion is included in the 2010 DIS criteria, earlier McDonald criteria required ⩾3 periventricular lesions to confirm DIS and recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis (MAGNIMS)-recommended DIS criteria also require ⩾3 lesions. We investigated the effect of varying the required number of periventricular lesions and found that the best combination of specificity and sensitivity for clinically definite MS was seen for ⩾1 periventricular lesion using both the McDonald 2010 and MAGNIMS 2016 criteria.


Assuntos
Ventrículos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Doenças Desmielinizantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0164890, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27741303

RESUMO

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has recently started to be adopted into clinical investigations of spinal cord (SC) diseases. However, DTI applications to the lower SC are limited due to a number of technical challenges, related mainly to the even smaller size of the SC structure at this level, its position relative to the receiver coil elements and the effects of motion during data acquisition. Developing methods to overcome these problems would offer new means to gain further insights into microstructural changes of neurological conditions involving the lower SC, and in turn could help explain symptoms such as bladder and sexual dysfunction. In this work, the feasibility of obtaining grey and white matter (GM/WM) DTI indices such as axial/radial/mean diffusivity (AD/RD/MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) within the lumbosacral enlargement (LSE) was investigated using a reduced field-of-view (rFOV) single-shot echo-planar imaging (ss-EPI) acquisition in 14 healthy participants using a clinical 3T MR system. The scan-rescan reproducibility of the measurements was assessed by calculating the percentage coefficient of variation (%COV). Mean FA was higher in WM compared to GM (0.58 and 0.4 in WM and GM respectively), AD and MD were higher in WM compared to GM (1.66 µm2ms-1 and 0.94 µm2ms-1 in WM and 1.2 µm2ms-1 and 0.82 µm2ms-1 in GM for AD and MD respectively) and RD was lower in WM compared to GM (0.58 µm2ms-1 and 0.63 µm2ms-1 respectively). The scan-rescan %COV was lower than 10% in all cases with the highest values observed for FA and the lowest for MD. This pilot study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain reliable tissue-specific estimation of DTI indices within the LSE using a rFOV ss-EPI acquisition. The DTI acquisition and analysis protocol presented here is clinically feasible and may be used in future investigations of neurological conditions implicating the lower SC.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 6: 36151, 2016 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27786306

RESUMO

Axonal loss in the spinal cord is one of the main contributing factors to irreversible clinical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). In vivo axonal loss can be assessed indirectly by estimating a reduction in the cervical cross-sectional area (CSA) of the spinal cord over time, which is indicative of spinal cord atrophy, and such a measure may be obtained by means of image segmentation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this work, we propose a new fully automated spinal cord segmentation technique that incorporates two different multi-atlas segmentation propagation and fusion techniques: The Optimized PatchMatch Label fusion (OPAL) algorithm for localising and approximately segmenting the spinal cord, and the Similarity and Truth Estimation for Propagated Segmentations (STEPS) algorithm for segmenting white and grey matter simultaneously. In a retrospective analysis of MRI data, the proposed method facilitated CSA measurements with accuracy equivalent to the inter-rater variability, with a Dice score (DSC) of 0.967 at C2/C3 level. The segmentation performance for grey matter at C2/C3 level was close to inter-rater variability, reaching an accuracy (DSC) of 0.826 for healthy subjects and 0.835 people with clinically isolated syndrome MS.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Algoritmos , Automação , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 87(11): 1212-1217, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27601434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between proximity to the inner (ventricular and aqueductal) and outer (pial) surfaces of the brain and the distribution of normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and grey matter (GM) abnormalities, and white matter (WM) lesions, in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: 67 people with relapse-onset MS and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Volumetric T1 images and high-resolution (1 mm3) magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) images were acquired and segmented into 12 bands between the inner and outer surfaces of the brain. The first and last bands were discarded to limit partial volume effects with cerebrospinal fluid. MTR values were computed for all bands in supratentorial NAWM, cerebellar NAWM and brainstem NA tissue, and deep and cortical GM. Band WM lesion volumes were also measured. RESULTS: Proximity to the ventricular surfaces was associated with progressively lower MTR values in the MS group but not in controls in supratentorial and cerebellar NAWM, brainstem NA and in deep and cortical GM. The density of WM lesions was associated with proximity to the ventricles only in the supratentorial compartment, and no link was found with distance from the pial surfaces. CONCLUSIONS: In MS, MTR abnormalities in NAWM and GM are related to distance from the inner and outer surfaces of the brain, and this suggests that there is a common factor underlying their spatial distribution. A similar pattern was not found for WM lesions, raising the possibility that different factors promote their formation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/patologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/patologia , Aqueduto do Mesencéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Ventrículos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pia-Máter/diagnóstico por imagem , Pia-Máter/patologia , Valores de Referência
20.
Neurology ; 87(7): 680-3, 2016 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27421541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether inclusion of lesions in the symptomatic region influences the performance of dissemination in space (DIS) criteria for a diagnosis of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). METHODS: We studied 30 patients with CIS with brainstem/cerebellar and spinal cord syndromes who had MRI scans at the time of CIS and were followed up for the development of CDMS. We retrospectively applied the McDonald 2010 DIS criteria (excluding all lesions in the symptomatic region) to baseline MRI scans and 2 modified DIS criteria: (1) the inclusion of asymptomatic lesions in the symptomatic region in DIS, and (2) the inclusion of any lesion in the symptomatic region in DIS. The performance of the McDonald 2010 DIS criteria and the 2 modified criteria for the development of CDMS was compared. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the DIS criteria was, respectively, 73%, 73%, and 73% for the McDonald 2010 criteria, 80%, 73%, and 77% when asymptomatic lesions in the symptomatic region were included, and 87%, 73%, and 80% when any lesion in the symptomatic region was included in DIS. CONCLUSIONS: Including lesions in the symptomatic region in DIS increases the sensitivity of MRI criteria for diagnosing multiple sclerosis without compromising specificity. These findings may help inform future revisions of the diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with CIS, including lesions in the symptomatic region as part of the criteria for DIS does not significantly increase the accuracy for predicting the development of CDMS. The study lacks the precision to detect an important change in accuracy.


Assuntos
Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Progressão da Doença , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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