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1.
Circulation ; 143(7): 727-738, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587666

RESUMO

Maternal mortality rates have been steadily increasing in the United States, and cardiovascular mortality is the leading cause of death among pregnant and postpartum women. Maternal stroke accounts for a significant burden of cardiovascular mortality. Data suggest that rates of maternal stroke have been increasing in recent years. Advancing maternal age at the time of birth and the increasing prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and other risk factors, as well, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, migraine, and infections, may contribute to increased rates of maternal stroke. In this article, we provide an overview of the epidemiology of maternal stroke, explore mechanisms that may explain increasing rates of stroke among pregnant women, and identify key knowledge gaps for future investigation in this area.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e043052, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414149

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (CCVDs) are the leading cause of maternal mortality in the first year after delivery. Women whose pregnancies were complicated by pre-eclampsia are at particularly high risk for adverse events. In addition, women with a history of pre-eclampsia have higher risk of CCVD later in life. The physiological mechanisms that contribute to increased CCVD risk in these women are not well understood, and the optimal clinical pathways for postpartum CCVD risk reduction are not yet defined. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Motherhealth Study (MHS) is a prospective cohort study at Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC), a quaternary care academic medical centre serving a multiethnic population in New York City. MHS began recruitment on 28 September 2018 and will enrol 60 women diagnosed with pre-eclampsia with severe features in the antepartum or postpartum period, and 40 normotensive pregnant women as a comparison cohort. Clinical data, biospecimens and measures of vascular function will be collected from all participants at the time of enrolment. Women in the pre-eclampsia group will complete an additional three postpartum study visits over 12-24 months. Visits will include additional detailed cardiovascular and cerebrovascular phenotyping. As this is an exploratory, observational pilot study, only descriptive statistics are planned. Data will be used to inform power calculations for future planned interventional studies. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The CUIMC Institutional Review Board approved this study prior to initiation of recruitment. All participants signed informed consent prior to enrolment. Results will be disseminated to the clinical and research community, along with the public, on completion of analyses. Data will be shared on reasonable request.

3.
Neurology ; 96(5): e709-e718, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and cognitive impairment 15 years after pregnancy, we measured cognitive performance in 115 women with a history of HDP and in 481 women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. METHODS: This was a nested cohort study embedded in a population-based prospective cohort from early pregnancy onwards. Cognitive function was assessed with cognitive tests 15 years after the index pregnancy (median 14.7 years, 90% range [13.9-16.1]). Cognitive performance was measured in different cognitive domains: executive function, processing speed, verbal memory, motor function, and visuospatial ability. A global cognition factor (g-factor) was derived from principal component analysis. RESULTS: Of the women with HDP, 80 (69.6%) had gestational hypertension (GH) and 35 (30.4%) had preeclampsia. Women with HDP had a lower g-factor than women with a previous normotensive pregnancy (mean -0.22, 90% range [-2.06-1.29]). HDP was negatively associated with the 15-word learning test: immediate recall (-0.25, 95% CI [-0.44 to -0.06]) and delayed recall (-0.30, 95% CI [-0.50 to -0.10]). Women with GH perform significantly worse on their 15-word learning test than women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. CONCLUSION: A history of HDP is independently associated with poorer working memory and verbal learning 15 years after pregnancy. This association is mainly driven by women with GH. Clinicians and women who experienced HDP should be aware of this risk.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Função Executiva , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Memória , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudos Prospectivos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Processamento Espacial , Teste de Stroop
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(11): ofaa501, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230485

RESUMO

Background: Assessment of the impact of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis including investigation for the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for the optimization of patient care. Methods: In this case series, we review patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 undergoing lumbar puncture (LP) admitted to Columbia University Irving Medical Center (New York, NY, USA) from March 1 to May 26, 2020. In a subset of patients, CSF SARS-CoV-2 quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) testing is performed. Results: The average age of 27 patients who underwent LP with definitive SARS-CoV-2 (SD) was 37.5 (28.7) years. CSF profiles showed elevated white blood cell counts and protein in 44% and 52% of patients, respectively. LP results impacted treatment decisions in 10 (37%) patients, either by change of antibiotics, influence in disposition decision, or by providing an alternative diagnosis. CSF SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR was performed on 8 (30%) patients, with negative results in all samples. Conclusions: Among patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2, CSF results changed treatment decisions or disposition in over one-third of our patient cohort. CSF was frequently abnormal, though CSF SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR was negative in all samples. Further studies are required to define whether CSF SARS-CoV-2 testing is warranted in certain clinical contexts.

5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(2): 105490, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253984

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-traumatic Cervical Artery Dissection (CeAD) is a leading cause of ischemic stroke in the young. Influenza-like illnesses (ILI) trigger ischemic strokes. We hypothesized that influenza and ILI are associated with CeAD. METHODS: In a case-crossover study within the New York State (NYS) Department of Health Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (2006-2014), we used ICD-9 codes to exclude major trauma and to define CeAD, influenza, and the Centers for Disease Control defined ILI. We estimated the association of ILI and influenza with CeAD by comparing their prevalence in intervals immediately prior (0-30,0-90,0-180, and 0-365 days) to CeAD (case period) to their prevalence exactly one and two years earlier (control periods). Conditional logistic regression models generated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI). Models were adjusted for NYS estimates of influenza prevalence rates. RESULTS: Our sample included 3,610 cases of CeAD (mean age 52±16 years, 54.7% male, 6.2% Hispanic, 9.9% Black, 68.7% White). During case periods, 7.3% had one or more ILI. ILI was more likely within 90 days of CeAD compared to the same time interval one and two years before (0-15 days: adjusted OR 1.88, 95%CI 1.20-2.94; 0-30 days: adjusted OR 1.74, 95%CI 1.22-2.46; 0-90 days: adjusted OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.00-1.81). Influenza trended with CeAD (adjusted OR 1.86, 95%CI 0.37-9.24), but these results were not statistically significant, due to limited instances of confirmed influenza. CONCLUSIONS: ILI may increase risk of CeAD for 15 days, and possibly up to three months.

6.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(11): 899-907, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that intensive control of systolic blood pressure significantly reduced the occurrence of mild cognitive impairment, but not probable dementia. We investigated the effects of intensive lowering of systolic blood pressure on specific cognitive functions in a preplanned substudy of participants from SPRINT. METHODS: SPRINT was an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial undertaken at 102 sites, including academic medical centres, Veterans Affairs medical centres, hospitals, and independent clinics, in the USA and Puerto Rico. Participants were adults aged 50 years or older with systolic blood pressure higher than 130 mm Hg, but without diabetes, history of stroke, or dementia. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to a systolic blood pressure goal of less than 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment) versus less than 140 mm Hg (standard treatment). All major classes of antihypertensive agents were included. A subgroup of randomly assigned participants including, but not limited to, participants enrolled in an MRI substudy was then selected for a concurrent substudy of cognitive function (target 2800 participants). Each individual was assessed with a screening cognitive test battery and an extended cognitive test battery at baseline and biennially during the planned 4-year follow-up. The primary outcomes for this substudy were standardised composite scores for memory (Logical Memory I and II, Modified Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure [immediate recall], and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised [delayed recall]) and processing speed (Trail Making Test and Digit Symbol Coding). SPRINT was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01206062. FINDINGS: From Nov 23, 2010, to Dec 28, 2012, 2921 participants (mean age 68·4 years [SD 8·6], 1080 [37%] women) who had been randomly assigned in SPRINT were enrolled in the substudy (1448 received intensive treatment and 1473 received standard treatment). SPRINT was terminated early due to benefit observed in the primary outcome (composite of cardiovascular events). After a median follow-up of 4·1 years (IQR 3·7-5·8), there was no between-group difference in memory, with an annual decline in mean standardised domain score of -0·005 (95% CI -0·010 to 0·001) in the intensive treatment group and -0·001 (-0·006 to 0·005) in the standard treatment group (between-group difference -0·004, 95% CI -0·012 to 0·004; p=0·33). Mean standardised processing speed domain scores declined more in the intensive treatment group (between-group difference -0·010, 95% CI -0·017 to -0·002; p=0·02), with an annual decline of -0·025 (-0·030 to -0·019) for the intensive treatment group and -0·015 (-0·021 to 0·009) for the standard treatment group. INTERPRETATION: Intensive treatment to lower systolic blood pressure did not result in a clinically relevant difference compared with standard treatment in memory or processing speed in a subgroup of participants from SPRINT. The effect of blood pressure lowering might not be evident in specific domains of cognitive function, but instead distributed across multiple domains. FUNDING: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Alzheimer's Association.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/tendências , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/tendências
7.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 171: 143-160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736747

RESUMO

The term "neuro-obstetrics" refers to a multidisciplinary approach to the care of pregnant women with neurologic comorbidities, both preconceptionally and throughout pregnancy. General preconception care should be offered to all women, including women with neurologic disease. Women with neurologic comorbidities should also be offered specialist preconception care by an obstetrician who consults with a neurologist, anesthesiologist, and if indicated clinical geneticist and/or other specialists. In women with neurologic comorbidities, neurologic sequelae may influence the course of the pregnancy and delivery. Also, pregnancy may influence the severity of the neurologic condition, depending on the type of disease. Physiologic adaptations during pregnancy and altered pharmacokinetics may cause altered blood serum levels of drugs, leading to decreased or increased drug effects. When administering drugs to a woman who wishes to conceive, it is important to consider possible teratogenic effects and possible secretion in breast milk. Tailoring medication regimens should be considered, preferably preconceptionally. In this chapter, we review general principles of neuro-obstetric care, as well as some specific considerations for neurologists, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists caring for pregnant women with common neurologic conditions.

8.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 171: ix, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736762
9.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 172: 3-31, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768092

RESUMO

Maternal ischemic stroke and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) are dreaded complications of pregnancy and major contributors to maternal disability and mortality. This chapter summarizes the incidence and risk factors for maternal arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and CVST and discusses the pathophysiology of maternal AIS and CVST. The diagnosis, treatment, and secondary preventive strategies for maternal stroke are also reviewed. Special populations at high risk of maternal stroke, including women with moyamoya disease, sickle cell disease, HIV, thrombophilia, and genetic cerebrovascular disorders, are highlighted.

10.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 172: ix, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768097
11.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(8): 800-808, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396948

RESUMO

As New York City became an international epicenter of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, telehealth was rapidly integrated into prenatal care at Columbia University Irving Medical Center, an academic hospital system in Manhattan. Goals of implementation were to consolidate in-person prenatal screening, surveillance, and examinations into fewer in-person visits while maintaining patient access to ongoing antenatal care and subspecialty consultations via telehealth virtual visits. The rationale for this change was to minimize patient travel and thus risk for COVID-19 exposure. Because a large portion of obstetric patients had underlying medical or fetal conditions placing them at increased risk for adverse outcomes, prenatal care telehealth regimens were tailored for increased surveillance and/or counseling. Based on the incorporation of telehealth into prenatal care for high-risk patients, specific recommendations are made for the following conditions, clinical scenarios, and services: (1) hypertensive disorders of pregnancy including preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, and chronic hypertension; (2) pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus; (3) maternal cardiovascular disease; (4) maternal neurologic conditions; (5) history of preterm birth and poor obstetrical history including prior stillbirth; (6) fetal conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction, congenital anomalies, and multiple gestations including monochorionic placentation; (7) genetic counseling; (8) mental health services; (9) obstetric anesthesia consultations; and (10) postpartum care. While telehealth virtual visits do not fully replace in-person encounters during prenatal care, they do offer a means of reducing potential patient and provider exposure to COVID-19 while providing consolidated in-person testing and services. KEY POINTS: · Telehealth for prenatal care is feasible.. · Telehealth may reduce coronavirus exposure during prenatal care.. · Telehealth should be tailored for high risk prenatal patients..


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações na Gravidez , Gravidez de Alto Risco , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Telemedicina , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Cuidado Pré-Natal/tendências , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Consulta Remota/métodos , Telemedicina/instrumentação , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/organização & administração
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e202769, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286658

RESUMO

Importance: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during pregnancy and the postpartum period results in catastrophic maternal outcomes. There is a paucity of population-based estimates of pregnancy-related ICH risk, including risk during the extended postpartum period. Objective: To evaluate ICH risk during pregnancy and an extended 24-week postpartum period in a population-level cohort and to determine fetal and maternal outcomes as well as demographic and comorbidity factors associated with ICH during pregnancy and post partum. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used a cohort-crossover design in which patients serve as their own controls when no longer exposed (pregnant or post partum). Administrative data were obtained from all hospital admissions for New York, California, and Florida for a 7- to 10-year period. Participants included all women admitted for labor and delivery who were older than 12 years and did not have a prior diagnosis of ICH. Conditional Poisson regression models were used to evaluate ICH risk, and data were reported as rate ratios and 95% CIs. Data analysis was performed from August 2018 to February 2020. Exposures: Women were tracked using hospitalization records for the duration of pregnancy (40 weeks), for 24 weeks post partum, and for an additional 64 weeks when no longer exposed. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosis of ICH during both 64-week observation periods was determined using validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Results: A total of 3 314 945 pregnant women were included (mean [SD] age, 28.17 [6.47] years; 1 451 780 white [43.79%], 474 808 black [14.32%], 246 789 Asian [7.44%], and 835 917 Hispanic [25.22%]). The risk of ICH was significantly higher during the third trimester (2.9 vs 0.7 cases per 100 000 pregnancies; rate ratio, 4.16; 95% CI, 2.52-6.86) and remained elevated during the first 12 weeks post partum (4.4 vs 0.5 cases per 100 000 pregnancies; rate ratio, 9.15; 95% CI, 5.16-16.23). Advanced maternal age (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% CI, 1.05-1.10), nonwhite race (adjusted ORs, 2.44 [95% CI, 1.73-3.44] for black patients, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.34-3.35] for Asian patients, and 1.59 [95% CI, 1.12-2.26] for Hispanic patients), hypertension (adjusted OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.19-3.42), coagulopathy (adjusted OR, 14.17; 95% CI, 9.17-21.89), preeclampsia or eclampsia (adjusted OR, 9.23; 95% CI, 6.99-12.19), and tobacco use (adjusted OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.53-5.23) were independently associated with ICH during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Pregnancy-related ICH was associated with a higher risk of maternal (relative risk difference, 792.6; absolute risk difference, 0.18) and fetal (relative risk difference, 5.3; absolute risk difference, 0.03) death, compared with pregnancies without ICH. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the risk of ICH is significantly higher during the third trimester of pregnancy and the first 12 weeks post partum. There are age and race disparities in ICH risk that are associated with devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. These data illustrate the critical need for continuous monitoring and aggressive management of ICH-associated risk factors. These findings suggest that extended postpartum monitoring of high-risk women may be warranted.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Período Pós-Parto , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fatores Raciais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e014775, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973601

RESUMO

Background Racial disparities contribute to maternal morbidity in the United States. Hypertension is associated with poor maternal outcomes, including stroke. Disparities in hypertension might contribute to maternal strokes. Methods and Results Using billing data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Inpatient Sample, we analyzed the effect of race/ethnicity on stroke during delivery admission in women aged 18 to 54 years delivering in US hospitals from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2014. We categorized hypertension as normotensive, chronic hypertension, or pregnancy-induced hypertension. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% CIs were calculated using log-linear Poisson regression models, testing for interactions between race/ethnicity and hypertensive status. A total of 65 286 425 women were admitted for delivery during the study period, of whom 7764 were diagnosed with a stroke (11.9 per 100 000 deliveries). Hypertension modified the effect of race/ethnicity (P<0.0001 for interaction). Among women with pregnancy-induced hypertension, black and Hispanic women had higher stroke risk compared with non-Hispanic whites (blacks: aRR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.86-2.30; Hispanics: aRR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.98-2.43). Among women with chronic hypertension, all minority women had higher stroke risk (blacks: aRR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.30-2.26; Hispanics: aRR, 1.75; 95% CI, 2.32-5.63; Asian/Pacific Islanders: aRR, 3.62; 95% CI, 2.32-5.63). Among normotensive women, only blacks had increased stroke risk (aRR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07-1.28). Conclusions Pregnant US women from minority groups had higher stroke risk during delivery admissions, compared with non-Hispanic whites. The effect of race/ethnicity was larger in women with chronic hypertension or pregnancy-induced hypertension. Targeting blood pressure management in pregnancy may help reduce maternal stroke risk in minority populations.

14.
Anesth Analg ; 130(4): 1085-1096, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124843

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) can be devastating complications during pregnancy and the puerperium that are thought to occur in approximately 30 in 100,000 pregnancies. In high-risk groups, such as women with preeclampsia, the incidence of both stroke subtypes, combined, is up to 6-fold higher than in pregnant women without these disorders. IS or HS may present in young women with atypical symptoms including headache, seizure, extremity weakness, dizziness, nausea, behavioral changes, and visual symptoms. Obstetric anesthesiologists who recognize these signs and symptoms of pregnancy-related stroke are well positioned to facilitate timely care. Acute stroke of any type is an emergency that should prompt immediate coordination of care between obstetric anesthesiologists, stroke neurologists, high-risk obstetricians, nurses, and neonatologists. Historically, guidelines have not addressed the unique situation of maternal stroke, and pregnant women have been excluded from the large stroke trials. More recently, several publications and professional societies have highlighted that pregnant women suspected of having IS or HS should be evaluated for the same therapies as nonpregnant women. Vaginal delivery is generally preferred unless there are obstetric indications for cesarean delivery. Neuraxial analgesia and anesthesia are frequently safer than general anesthesia for cesarean delivery in the patient with a recent stroke. Potential exceptions include therapeutic anticoagulation or intracranial hypertension with risk of herniation. General anesthesia may be appropriate when cesarean delivery will be combined with intracranial neurosurgery.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/terapia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
15.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(21): 3619-3626, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786794

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess how race is associated with adverse maternal outcomes in the setting of preeclampsia.Study design: This retrospective cohort study utilized the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) from the Agency for Health care Research and Quality for the years 2012-2014. Women aged 15-54 with a diagnosis of preeclampsia were included. Race and ethnicity were categorized as non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, Native American, other, and unknown. The overall risk for severe morbidity based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria was analyzed along with the risk for specific outcomes such as stroke, acute heart failure or pulmonary edema, eclampsia, and acute renal failure. The risk for severe morbidity was stratified by comorbid risk and compared by race. Log-linear regression models were created to assess risk for severe morbidity with risk ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals as measures of effect.Results: A total of 101,741 women with preeclampsia from 2012 to 2014 were included in this analysis. The risk for severe morbidity was significantly higher among non-Hispanic black women (9.8%) than non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and all other women, respectively (6.1, 7.7, and 7.5%, respectively, p < .01). For non-Hispanic black compared to non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and all other women, risk was higher for stroke (17.1 versus 6.5, 12.7, and 9.3 per 10,000 deliveries, respectively, p < .01) and pulmonary edema or heart failure (56.2 versus 32.7, 30.2, and 38.4 per 10,000 deliveries, respectively, p < .01). Non-Hispanic black women were also more likely than non-Hispanic white women to experience renal failure (136.4 versus 60.4 per 10,000 deliveries, p < .01). Adjusting for comorbidity, black women remained at higher risk for severe morbidity (p < .01). The risk for death was higher for black compared to non-black women (121.8 per 100,000 deliveries, 95% CI 69.7-212.9 versus 24.1 per 100,000 deliveries, 95% CI 14.6-39.8, respectively, p < .01)Conclusion: Black women were at higher risk for severe morbidity and mortality associated with preeclampsia.

16.
Phys Med Biol ; 65(2): 025010, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746784

RESUMO

Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a non-invasive, ultrasound-based technique, which provides information on arterial wall stiffness by estimating the pulse wave velocity (PWV) along an imaged arterial wall segment. The aims of the present study were to: (1) utilize the PWI information to automatically and optimally divide the artery into the segments with most homogeneous properties and (2) assess the feasibility of this method to provide arterial wall mechanical characterization in normal and atherosclerotic carotid arteries in vivo. A silicone phantom consisting of a soft and stiff segment along its longitudinal axis was scanned at the stiffness transition, and the PWV in each segment was estimated through static testing. The proposed algorithm detected the stiffness interface with an average error of 0.98 ± 0.49 mm and 1.04 ± 0.27 mm in the soft-to-stiff and stiff-to-soft pulse wave transmission direction, respectively. Mean PWVs estimated in the case of the soft-to-stiff pulse wave transmission direction were 2.47 [Formula: see text] 0.04 m s-1 and 3.43 [Formula: see text] 0.08 m s-1 for the soft and stiff phantom segments, respectively, while in the case of stiff-to-soft transmission direction PWVs were 2.60 [Formula: see text] 0.18 m s-1 and 3.72 [Formula: see text] 0.08 m s-1 for the soft and stiff phantom segments, respectively, which were in good agreement with the PWVs obtained through static testing (soft segment: 2.41 m s-1, stiff segment: 3.52 m s-1). Furthermore, the carotid arteries of N = 9 young subjects (22-32 y.o.) and N = 9 elderly subjects (60-73 y.o.) with no prior history of carotid artery disease were scanned, in vivo, as well as the atherosclerotic carotid arteries of N = 12 (59-85 y.o.) carotid artery disease patients. One-way ANOVA with Holm-Sidak correction showed that the number of most homogeneous segments in which the artery was divided was significantly higher in the case of carotid artery disease patients compared to young (3.25 [Formula: see text] 0.86 segments versus 1.00 [Formula: see text] 0.00 segments, p -value < 0.0001) and elderly non-atherosclerotic subjects (3.25 [Formula: see text] 0.86 segments versus 1.44 [Formula: see text] 0.51 segments p -value < 0.0001), indicating increased wall inhomogeneity in atherosclerotic arteries. The compliance provided by the proposed algorithm was significantly higher in non-calcified/high-lipid plaques as compared with calcified plaques (3.35 [Formula: see text] 2.45 *[Formula: see text] versus 0.22 [Formula: see text] 0.18 * [Formula: see text], p -value < 0.01) and the compliance estimated in elderly subjects (3.35 [Formula: see text] 2.45 * [Formula: see text] versus 0.79 [Formula: see text] 0.30 * [Formula: see text], p -value < 0.01). Moreover, lower compliance was estimated in cases where vulnerable plaque characteristics were present (i.e. necrotic lipid core, thrombus), compared to stable plaque components (calcification), as evaluated through plaque histological examination. The proposed algorithm was thus capable of evaluating arterial wall inhomogeneity and characterize wall mechanical properties, showing promise in vascular disease diagnosis and monitoring.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagens de Fantasmas , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Placa Aterosclerótica/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia , Rigidez Vascular
17.
Ann Intern Med ; 171(11): 837-842, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610550

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women in the United States, and stroke is third. This article uses a case scenario to examine female sex-specific cardiovascular risk factors across the lifespan and describes a precision medicine-based approach to risk factor modification and primary prevention. It also presents recent updates to the role of genetic testing and polygenic risk scores for the prediction of stroke and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Medicina de Precisão , Medição de Risco/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Técnicas Genéticas , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Primária , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Stroke ; 50(10): 2685-2691, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412756

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Most cases of pregnancy-related ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) occur postpartum. Infections have been identified as a trigger for strokes in young people and have been associated with strokes during delivery hospitalizations, but a temporal relationship has been difficult to establish. We hypothesized that infections diagnosed during a delivery admission would be associated with an increased risk of readmission for postpartum stroke. Methods- We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Readmissions Database from 2010 to 2014. Using weighted survey design Poisson regression analysis, we calculated adjusted risk ratios (aRR) and 95% CI for the association between infection during delivery admission and 30-day postpartum readmission for IS or HS. Results- Out of 17.2 million delivery admissions during the study period, 2128 were readmitted within 30 days for a stroke of any type. There were 1189 HS (intracerebral hemorrhage or subarachnoid hemorrhage) and 720 IS, and the remainder unspecified pregnancy-related stroke. Adjusting for age and comorbidities, women with delivery infections were at higher risk of readmission for postpartum stroke of any type (aRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.01-1.41). Women with infections had higher risk of readmission for postpartum IS (aRR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.37-2.22), but not for postpartum HS (aRR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.75-1.23). The effect of infection on 30-day IS readmission was larger in women without hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (aRR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.55-2.69 in women without hypertensive disorders of pregnancy versus aRR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.9-2.38 in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, P value for interaction=0.09). Conclusions- Infection during delivery hospitalization was associated with increased risk of readmission for IS, but not HS, within 30 days postpartum, particularly in women without hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Infection may play a role in triggering postpartum IS even in the absence of other risk factors.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Transtornos Puerperais/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Transtornos Puerperais/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
19.
Ann Emerg Med ; 74(4): 562-571, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326206

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Although most transient ischemic attack and minor stroke patients in US emergency departments (EDs) are admitted, experience in other countries suggests that timely outpatient evaluation of transient ischemic attack and minor stroke can be safe. We assess the feasibility and safety of a rapid outpatient stroke clinic for transient ischemic attack and minor stroke: Rapid Access Vascular Evaluation-Neurology (RAVEN). METHODS: Transient ischemic attack and minor stroke patients presenting to the ED with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 5 or less and nondisabling deficit were assessed for potential discharge to RAVEN with a protocol incorporating social and medical criteria. Outpatient evaluation by a vascular neurologist, including vessel imaging, was performed within 24 hours at the RAVEN clinic. Participants were evaluated for compliance with clinic attendance and 90-day recurrent transient ischemic attack and minor stroke and hospitalization rates. RESULTS: Between December 2016 and June 2018, 162 transient ischemic attack and minor stroke patients were discharged to RAVEN. One hundred fifty-four patients (95.1%) appeared as scheduled and 101 (66%) had a final diagnosis of transient ischemic attack and minor stroke. Two patients (1.3%) required hospitalization (one for worsening symptoms and another for intracranial arterial stenosis caused by zoster) at RAVEN evaluation. Among the 101 patients with confirmed transient ischemic attack and minor stroke, 18 (19.1%) had returned to an ED or been admitted at 90 days. Five were noted to have had recurrent neurologic symptoms diagnosed as transient ischemic attack (4.9%), whereas one had a recurrent stroke (0.9%). No individuals with transient ischemic attack and minor stroke died, and none received thrombolytics or thrombectomy, during the interval period. These 90-day outcomes were similar to historical published data on transient ischemic attack and minor stroke. CONCLUSION: Rapid outpatient management appears a feasible and safe strategy for transient ischemic attack and minor stroke patients evaluated in the ED, with recurrent stroke and transient ischemic attack rates comparable to historical published data.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
20.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 21(9): 33, 2019 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230137

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Maternal morbidity and mortality is rising in the USA, and maternal stroke is a major contributor. Here, we review the epidemiology, risk factors, and current recommendations for diagnosis and acute treatment of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke during pregnancy and postpartum, focusing on recent evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of maternal stroke has risen in recent years, possibly due to increasing rates of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The risk of maternal stroke is highest in the peripartum and early postpartum period. Preeclampsia is highly associated with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and is also associated with long-term increased risk of stroke and vascular dementia. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, migraine, and infections are risk factors for maternal stroke. Limited data suggest that thrombolytics and endovascular reperfusion therapy are safe and effective in pregnant women with ischemic stroke, but few data are available regarding safety of thrombolytics in the postpartum period. New consensus guidelines are now available to assist with management of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in pregnancy. Many gaps remain in our understanding of maternal stroke. While risk factors have been identified, there are no prediction tools to help identify which women might be at highest risk for postpartum stroke and require closer monitoring. The risk of recurrent maternal stroke has not been adequately quantified, limiting clinicians' ability to counsel patients. The complex pathophysiology of preeclampsia and its effects on the cerebral vasculature require further targeted study. An increased focus on the prevention, recognition, and optimal treatment of maternal stroke will be critical to reducing maternal morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Mortalidade Materna , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/complicações , Período Pós-Parto , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto Jovem
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