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1.
FP Essent ; 507: 11-18, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410092

RESUMO

Communication is an essential component in providing health care for adolescent patients. A critical part of adolescence is identity development. Affirmation of identity and emphasis on individual strengths are important for this age group. The concept of resilience is at the center of adolescent care and shapes how care is defined and delivered. A primary goal is to protect patients from harm through a combination of promotion of protective factors, including resilience, and risk factor reduction. In adolescents, use of motivational interviewing has been shown to decrease risky sexual behaviors, help prevent unplanned pregnancy, increase physical activity levels, and decrease substance use. Confidentiality is another essential component of care. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends use of the Strengths, School, Home, Activities, Drugs/substance use, Emotions/eating/depression, Sexuality, Safety (SSHADESS) screen for psychosocial assessment. Several other standardized, validated screening tools also may be valuable in guiding discussions and identifying risky behaviors. Sexual orientation, gender identity, religious, racial, and ethnic components of identity development should be addressed. The empowerment of adolescent patients to achieve personal independence in the health care setting is part of the transition from an adolescent approach to health care to an adult approach.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Identidade de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Estados Unidos
2.
FP Essent ; 507: 19-25, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410093

RESUMO

Unintentional injuries, suicide, and homicide were the leading causes of deaths among US individuals ages 10 to 24 years in 2017. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death by unintentional injury among US adolescents. Family physicians can encourage adolescent patients who drive to use safe driving practices (eg, seat belt use, cell phone-free driving, sober driving). Poisoning and drowning are the second and third most common causes of death by unintentional injury among adolescents, respectively. Suicide is the second overall leading cause of death among adolescents and is a growing problem. Depression is a risk factor. The Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) suicide risk screening tool has been validated for use in patients ages 10 to 21 years in all medical settings. Screening, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of adolescent patients for depression and development of safety plans are key to suicide prevention. Homicides are the third leading cause of death among adolescents, and firearms are a clear contributor. Family physicians should assess adolescent patients for risk factors for violence, provide trauma-informed care, promote resilience and strong relationships with adults, and empower adolescents to use their strengths and skills to reduce their risk of involvement in violence.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Criança , Homicídio , Humanos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Violência , Adulto Jovem
3.
FP Essent ; 507: 26-32, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410094

RESUMO

Substance use in adolescents affects brain development and can influence health in adulthood. The substances most commonly used by adolescents are alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco. Adolescent alcohol use has been shown to inhibit and alter normal brain development, and has been associated with alcohol use disorder and other mental disorders in adulthood. Cannabis use during adolescence has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. Adolescents may incorrectly assume that the negative health effects of smoking will not affect them. Electronic nicotine delivery systems, such as e-cigarettes, for vaping may be used to inhale nicotine, cannabis, or both. Strong family relationships and parental monitoring are protective factors against substance use. Screening at every preventive services visit is an essential element of adolescent care. The evidence-based Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) strategy has been shown to decrease substance use and its adverse effects in adolescents. On societal and community levels, family physicians have numerous opportunities to advocate for adolescent well-being and prevention of substance use. The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) recommends that family physicians advocate for legislation and governmental policies that facilitate the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of substance use.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Vaping , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Fumar , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle
4.
FP Essent ; 507: 33-38, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410095

RESUMO

Digital media use has increased rapidly during the past two decades, and media use is now a major issue in adolescent development. Online connections and communities can help foster healthy identity development and provide needed peer support, particularly for adolescents from historically marginalized communities. Online harassment, or cyberbullying, is a common phenomenon. Media use can interfere with sleep hygiene and quality, and screen-based sedentary behaviors have been associated with decreased physical activity, decreased aerobic fitness, and increased adiposity among adolescents. The literature on media use and adolescent mental health still is evolving. Some research suggests a U-shaped association between these two factors, with high and low levels of internet use associated with depression. Social media use may amplify peer pressure to engage in sexual behavior, provide exposure to a greater network of individuals with sexual experience, and increase the risk of sexual behaviors. Counseling adolescent patients about safe and healthy media use is essential. Conversations with patients and their families about media use should begin before adolescence and continue through adolescence in the context of routine preventive care. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends creation and implementation of a Family Media Use Plan.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Comunicação , Humanos , Internet
5.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(8): e31072, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression interferes with maternal engagement in interventions that are effective in improving infant social-emotional and social-communication outcomes. There is an absence of integrated interventions with demonstrated effectiveness in both reducing maternal depression and promoting parent-mediated practices that optimize infant social-emotional and social-communication competencies. Interventions targeting maternal depression are often separate from parent-mediated interventions. To address the life course needs of depressed mothers and their infants, we need brief, accessible, and integrated interventions that target both maternal depression and specific parent practices shown to improve infant social-emotional and social-communication trajectories. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a mobile internet intervention, Mom and Baby Net, with remote coaching to improve maternal mood and promote parent practices that optimize infant social-emotional and social-communication development. METHODS: This is a two-arm, randomized controlled intent-to-treat trial. Primary outcomes include maternal depression symptoms and observed parent and infant behaviors. Outcomes are measured via direct observational assessments and standardized questionnaires. The sample is being recruited from the urban core of a large southern city in the United States. Study enrollment was initiated in 2017 and concluded in 2020. Participants are biological mothers with elevated depression symptoms, aged 18 years or older, and who have custody of an infant less than 12 months of age. Exclusion criteria at the time of screening include maternal homelessness or shelter residence, inpatient mental health or substance abuse treatment, or maternal or infant treatment of a major mental or physical illness that would hinder meaningful study participation. RESULTS: The start date of this grant-funded randomized controlled trial (RCT) was September 1, 2016. Data collection is ongoing. Following the institutional review board (IRB)-approved pilot work, the RCT was approved by the IRB on November 17, 2017. Recruitment was initiated immediately following IRB approval. Between February 15, 2018, and March 11, 2021, we successfully recruited a sample of 184 women and their infants into the RCT. The sample is predominantly African American and socioeconomically disadvantaged. CONCLUSIONS: Data collection is scheduled to be concluded in March 2022. We anticipate that relative to the attention control condition, which is focused on education around maternal depression and infant developmental milestones with matching technology and coaching structure, mothers in the Mom and Baby Net intervention will experience greater reductions in depression and gains in sensitive and responsive parent practices and that their infants will demonstrate greater gains in social-emotional and social-communication behavior. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03464630; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03464630. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/31072.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276610

RESUMO

Mothers in the United States (U.S.) who are of non-dominant culture and socioeconomically disadvantaged experience depression during postpartum at a rate 3 to 4 times higher than mothers in the general population, but these mothers are least likely to receive services for improving mood. Little research has focused on recruiting these mothers into clinical intervention trials. The purpose of this article is to report on a study that provided a unique context within which to view the differential success of three referral approaches (i.e., community agency staff referral, research staff referral, and maternal self-referral). It also enabled a preliminary examination of whether the different strategies yielded samples that differed with regard to risk factors for adverse maternal and child outcomes. The examination took place within a clinical trial of a mobile intervention for improving maternal mood and increasing parent practices that promote infant social communication development. The sample was recruited within the urban core of a large southern city in the U.S. and was comprised primarily of mothers of non-dominant culture, who were experiencing severe socioeconomic disadvantage. Results showed that mothers self-referred at more than 3.5 times the rate that they were referred by either community agency staff or research staff. Moreover, compared to women referred by research staff, women who self-referred and those who were referred by community gatekeepers were as likely to eventually consent to study participation and initiate the intervention. Results are discussed with regard to implications for optimizing referral into clinical intervention trials.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/terapia , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Mães , Poder Familiar , Criança , Comunicação , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Internet , Período Pós-Parto , Encaminhamento e Consulta
7.
J Child Fam Stud ; 28(7): 1780-1789, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787829

RESUMO

Objectives: There are a variety of parent-support programs designed to improve parenting and, thereby,the safety and well-being of children. Providers trained in multiple programs are likely to select components of interventions they feel will meet the needs of the families they serve leaving out aspects they deem unnecessary orredundant. In so doing, the fidelity of the evidence-based program is at risk. A potential solution is systematic braiding in which evidence-based programs are combined such that the fidelity to each original model and its implementation are maintained. Methods: Drawing on qualitative feedback from a prior iteration, this paper discusses results of a feasibility and acceptability pilot of a modified version of the systematically braided Parents as Teachers and SafeCare at Home (PATSCH) curriculum This modification removed a provider-perceived "redundant" portion from the original PATSCH curriculum. A pre-post design (N=18) was used to evaluate the efficacy of the modified curriculum. Results: Significant improvements were seen in trained parent behaviors surrounding home safety and child health. There was also improvement in self-reported parenting behaviors, the portion of the braided curriculum removed, suggesting that the PAT curriculum adequately teaches these skills. Providers and parents were highly satisfied with themodified curriculum. Conclusions: If a curriculum is modified to reflect provider and parent preferences, then the potential for delivery without fidelity is minimized.

8.
J Child Fam Stud ; 27(2): 535-546, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540976

RESUMO

Child maltreatment is a significant public health problem best addressed through evidence-based parent-support programs. There is a wide range of programs with different strengths offering a variety of options for families. Choosing one single evidence-based program often limits the range of services available to meet the unique needs of families. This paper presents findings from a study to examine the systematic braiding of two evidence-based programs, Parents as Teachers and SafeCare at Home (PATSCH), with the goal to provide a more robust intervention for higher risk families. A cluster randomized effectiveness trial was conducted to examine if PATSCH improved parenting behaviors known to decrease the risk for child maltreatment compared to Parents as Teachers (PAT) Alone. Parents (N= 159; 92 PAT Alone; 67 PATSCH) were enrolled to complete a baseline, 6-month and 12-month assessment. Results indicate the groups did not differ on number of environmental hazards in the home, parents' health care decision-making abilities, child abuse potential, and physical assault over time. However, with regard to the potential for child abuse, the PATSCH group showed a decrease in nonviolence discipline and increase in psychological aggression compared to the PAT group. Further research is needed to better examine this concept and its implications for the field.

9.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 26(3): 181-187, dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-169594

RESUMO

A singular parent-support program is limited in its ability to address multiple child and family needs. One innovative solution is braiding, a process in which two evidence-based programs are systematically combined as a newly tailored, cohesive curriculum. In this paper we describe the systematic braiding of two parent-support curricula, Parents as Teachers(R)and SafeCare(R) We highlight implementation challenges to inform future planning and braiding efforts. Based on qualitative data (n=13), we discuss five lessons learned, including identifying a pedagogical approach and sustainability at the model- and site-level. Implications and future directions for braiding and implementation are also discussed


El programa de apoyo parental en solitario se ve limitado por su capacidad para abordar las múltiples necesidades de niños y familias. Una solución innovadora es el braiding (enlazado), un proceso en el que se combinan sistemáticamente dos programas basados en evidencia, como currículo cohesivo y de nuevo diseño. En este documento describimos el braidingsistemático de dos currículos de apoyo parental, «Parents as Teachers(R)»y «SafeCare(R)». Hacemos hincapié en las dificultades de su introducción para informar sobre la planificación futura y los resultados del braiding. Basándonos en los datos cualitativos (n=13), comentamos cinco lecciones aprendidas, incluyendo la identificación de un enfoque pedagógico y la sostenibilidad en relación con el modelo y la localización. También abordamos las direcciones futuras en cuanto a braiding y su introducción


Assuntos
Humanos , Licença Parental , Consentimento dos Pais/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Docentes/psicologia , Pais/educação
10.
Fam Community Health ; 40(1): 88-97, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27870760

RESUMO

An effective approach in early intervention for children and families, including child maltreatment prevention, is home-based services. Although several evidence-based programs exist, they are often grouped or delivered together, despite having different foci and approaches. This article describes the development and pilot phases of a trial evaluating the systematic braiding of 2 evidence-based home-based models, SafeCare and Parents as Teachers. We describe the methodology for braiding model implementation and curriculum, specifically focusing on how structured qualitative feedback from pilot families and providers was used to create the braided curriculum and implementation. Systematic braiding of 2 models at the implementation and curriculum levels is a mechanism that has the potential to meet the more comprehensive needs of families at risk for maltreatment.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Pais/educação , Pré-Escolar , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
Interv Psicosoc ; 26(3): 181-187, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233125

RESUMO

A singular parent-support program is limited in its ability to address multiple child and family needs. One innovative solution is braiding, a process in which two evidence-based programs are systematically combined as a newly tailored, cohesive curriculum. In this paper we describe the systematic braiding of two parent-support curricula, Parents as Teachers® and SafeCare®. We highlight implementation challenges to inform future planning and braiding efforts. Based on qualitative data (n = 13), we discuss five lessons learned, including identifying a pedagogical approach and sustainability at the model- and site-level. Implications and future directions for braiding and implementation are also discussed.

12.
Prog Palliat Care ; 22(2): 75-79, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25197172

RESUMO

This study examined participation factors in a study of families (N = 84) within 1 year of a child's cancer-related death. Specific aims were to examine associations between: (a) recruitment variables (number of phone calls made to eligible families, number of calls answered by eligible families) and participation rates (study agreement and refusal) and (b) characteristics of deceased children (gender, age, length of illness, time since death) and participation rates. Characteristics of deceased children did not differ between participating and non-participating families. Researchers made significantly fewer calls to participating versus refusing families. Participating families most often agreed during the first successful call connection, and more calls did not mean more recruitment success. Thus, it is reasonable to limit the number of calls made to bereaved families. Despite recruitment challenges, many bereaved parents and siblings are willing and interested to participate in grief research.

13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20122012 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22605700

RESUMO

Metastasis of primary endometrial adenocarcinoma to unusual sites has been occasionally reported. However, the authors believe this to be the first case report of metastasis to the appendix. This occurred more than 10 years after curative resection, and presented as sepsis with an intra-abdominal focus.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Neoplasias do Apêndice/secundário , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Apendicectomia , Neoplasias do Apêndice/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos
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