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1.
Am J Sports Med ; : 3635465211047554, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance-based measurements of signal intensity have been used to track healing of surgically treated anterior cruciate ligaments (ACLs). However, it is unknown how the signal intensity values in different regions of the ligament or graft change during healing. HYPOTHESES: (1) Normalized signal intensity of the healing graft or repaired ACL is heterogeneous; (2) temporal changes in normalized signal intensity values differ among the tibial, middle, and femoral regions; and (3) there are no differences in regional normalized signal intensity values 2 years postoperatively among grafts, repaired ACLs, and contralateral native ACLs. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed from patients in a trial comparing ACL reconstruction (n = 35) with bridge-enhanced ACL repair (n = 65). The ACLs were segmented from images acquired at 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively and were partitioned into 3 sections along the longitudinal axis (femoral, middle, and tibial). Linear mixed modeling was used to compare location-specific differences in normalized ligament signal intensity among time points (6, 12, and 24 months) and groups (ACL reconstruction, repair, and contralateral native ACL). RESULTS: For grafts, the middle region had a higher mean normalized signal intensity when compared with the femoral region at all time points (P < .01) but compared with the tibial region only at 6 months (P < .01). For repaired ACLs, the middle region had a higher mean normalized signal intensity versus the femoral region at all time points (P < .01) but versus the tibial region only at 6 and 12 months (P < .04). From 6 to 24 months, the grafts showed the greatest reduction in normalized signal intensity in the femoral and middle regions (vs tibial regions; P < .01), while there were no regional differences in repaired ACLs. At 2 years after surgery, repaired ACLs had a lower normalized signal intensity in the tibial region as compared with reconstructed grafts and contralateral native ACLs (P < .01). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that graft remodeling is location specific. Repaired ACLs were more homogeneous, with lower or comparable normalized signal intensity values at 2 years as compared with the contralateral native ACL and reconstructed grafts.

2.
J Surg Orthop Adv ; 30(3): 181-184, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591010

RESUMO

Research has demonstrated similar efficacy of drill epiphysiodesis and percutaneous epiphysiodesis using transphyseal screws for the management of adolescent leg length discrepancy. A cost analysis was performed to determine which procedure is more cost-effective. Patients seen for epiphysiodesis of the distal femur and/or proximal tibia and fibula between 2004 and 2017 were reviewed. A decision analysis model was used to compare costs. Two hundred thirty-five patients who underwent either drill (155/235, 66%) or screw (80/235, 34%) epiphysiodesis were analyzed with an average age at initial procedure of 13 years (range, 8.4 to 16.7 years). There was no significant difference in average initial procedure cost or total cost of all procedures across treatment groups (n = 184). The cost difference between drill and screw epiphysiodesis is minimal. In order for screw epiphysiodesis to be cost-favored, there would need to be a significant decrease in its cost or complication rate. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 30(3):181-184, 2021).


Assuntos
Epífises , Perna (Membro) , Adolescente , Artrodese , Parafusos Ósseos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Epífises/cirurgia , Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tíbia/cirurgia
3.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult literature has demonstrated chlorhexidine (CH) superiority at preventing surgical-site infections when compared with povidone-iodine (P-I). The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of postoperative infections after preoperative skin cleansing with either CH or P-I in pediatric orthopaedic surgery in an effort to identify superiority. METHODS: We retrospectively identified all patients (18 y and below) that underwent orthopaedic surgery at our institution in 2015, when P-I was the preoperative skin antisepsis of choice, and in 2018, when a change in protocol resulted in more frequent use of CH. Open fractures, infections, neuromuscular, and tumor surgeries were excluded. Orthopaedic surgeries were classified according to their subspecialty (sports-related/upper extremity, hip and lower extremity, trauma-related, or spine procedure). A 1:1 propensity score matching was conducted within each procedure group on the basis of age, sex, and year using nearest-neighbor matching. Spine procedures could not be matched and were subsequently excluded from analyses. RESULTS: Propensity score matching matched 1416 CH cases with 1416 P-I controls. The infection rate for CH was 19 infections per 1000 cases (27/1416; 1.9%) compared with an infection rate of 11 infections per 1000 cases (16/1416; 1.1%) for P-I subjects. No difference was detected in infection rate across preoperative skin antisepsis groups (P=0.12). Moreover, it was found that CH and P-I resulted in significantly equivalent infection rates to within ±1.5% (P=0.004). When stratified by procedure type, CH used in sports/upper extremity procedures resulted in 29 more infections per 1000 cases compared with P-I use (16/450; 3/450; P=0.005). No difference was detected in infection rate across CH and P-I skin antisepsis groups in lower extremity procedures (9/792; 8/792; P=1.00) or in trauma-related procedures (3/174; 4/174; P=1.00). CONCLUSIONS: CH and P-I are both protective against postoperative infections after sports/upper extremity, lower extremity, and trauma-related pediatric orthopaedic procedures. P-I may provide improved protection over CH as a preoperative skin antisepsis in upper extremity and sports-related procedures. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-comparative cohort.

4.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 41(9): e828-e832, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excision of pediatric tarsal coalition has been successful in most patients. However, some patients have ongoing pain after coalition excision. This study prospectively assessed patient-based clinical outcomes before and after surgical excision of tarsal coalition, with particular emphasis on comparison to radiologic imaging. METHODS: We prospectively studied 55 patients who had symptomatic coalition excision for 2 years postoperatively. Patients filled out the modified American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score, the University of California Los Angeles activity score, and the simple question "does foot pain limit your activity" at 4 different time points: preoperative, 6 months postoperative, 12 months postoperative, and 24 months postoperative. Comparisons were done utilizing patient demographics, imaging parameters, and patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with preoperative levels, patients showed improvements in all outcome parameters. Patients with calcaneonavicular coalitions showed initial rapid improvement with later slight decline, while patients with talocalcaneal coalitions showed more steady improvement; both were similar at 2 years postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study demonstrated remarkable clinical improvements after tarsal coalition excision regardless coalition type, though postoperative courses differed between calcaneonavicular and talocalcaneal types. Finally, a subset of patients has ongoing activity limiting foot pain after coalition excision which could not be explained by the data in this study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II-prospective cohort study.


Assuntos
Sinostose , Ossos do Tarso , Coalizão Tarsal , Criança , Humanos , Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Sinostose/diagnóstico por imagem , Sinostose/cirurgia , Coalizão Tarsal/diagnóstico por imagem , Coalizão Tarsal/cirurgia
5.
Am J Cardiol ; 157: 56-63, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391575

RESUMO

Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is intricately related to health status. The optimal approach for CRF quantification is through assessment of peak oxygen uptake (VO2), but such measurements have been largely confined to small referral populations. Here we describe protocols and methodological considerations for peak VO2 assessment and determination of volitional effort in a large community-based sample. Maximum incremental ramp cycle ergometry cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was performed by Framingham Heart Study participants at a routine study visit (2016 to 2019). Of 3,486 individuals presenting for a multicomponent study visit, 3,116 (89%) completed CPET. The sample was middle-aged (54 ± 9 years), with 53% women, body mass index 28.3 ± 5.6 kg/m2, 48% with hypertension, 6% smokers, and 8% with diabetes. Exercise duration was 12.0 ± 2.1 minutes (limits 3.7to20.5). No major cardiovascular events occurred. A total of 98%, 96%, 90%, 76%, and 57% of the sample reached peak respiratory exchange ratio (RER) values of ≥1.0, ≥1.05, ≥1.10, ≥1.15, and ≥1.20, respectively (mean peak RER = 1.21 ± 0.10). With rising peak RER values up to ≈1.10, steep changes were observed for percent predicted peak VO2, VO2 at the ventilatory threshold/peak VO2, heart rate response, and Borg (subjective dyspnea) scores. More shallow changes for effort dependent CPET variables were observed with higher achieved RER values. In conclusion, measurement of peak VO2 is feasible and safe in a large sample of middle-aged, community-dwelling individuals with heterogeneous cardiovascular risk profiles. Peak RER ≥1.10 was achievable by the majority of middle-aged adults and RER values beyond this threshold did not necessarily correspond to higher peak VO2 values.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Am J Cardiol ; 152: 146-149, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237610

RESUMO

The optimal screening strategy to prevent sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes remains unknown. Pre-participation screening with electrocardiogram (ECG) remains controversial. The utility and accuracy of limb-lead (LL) ECG alone in identifying cardiac abnormalities associated with SCD has not been studied. This study was a comparative secondary data analysis, comparing the interpretation accuracy of 4 physicians evaluating publicly available ECGs of the most common cardiac conditions associated with SCD in athletes. Each physician interpreted a total of 100 ECGs: 50 normal ECGs (25 LL and 25 standard 12L) and 50 abnormal ECGs (25 LL and 25 standard 12L). The agreement between LL ECGs and 12L ECGs was assessed by Cohen's kappa coefficient and the accuracy of identifying an abnormal ECG was compared across LL and 12L ECGs using a chi-squared test. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by estimating the Fleiss's kappa coefficient. The sensitivity of LL ECG and 12L ECG was identical at 86%. The specificity of LL ECG was 75% (95% CI = 65% to 83%) and 12L ECG was 82% (95% CI = 73% to 89%). Substantial agreement was seen between LL ECG and 12L ECG interpretation across all readers (k = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.77). Interpretation accuracy was 81% (95% CI = 74% to 86%) and 84% (95% CI 78% to 89%) using LL ECG and 12L ECG, respectively (p = 0.43). In conclusion, the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were high and comparable for both LL ECG and 12L ECG in identifying cardiovascular conditions associated with SCD. Agreement between LL ECG and 12L ECG was substantial.


Assuntos
Atletas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/complicações , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Brugada/complicações , Síndrome de Brugada/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Brugada/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/complicações , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do QT Longo/fisiopatologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Miocardite/complicações , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Miocardite/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/complicações , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/fisiopatologia
7.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296760

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the effect of hip reconstruction or spinal fusion on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in non-ambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and caregiver burden. METHOD: This was a prospective, longitudinal study of changes in HRQoL and caregiver burden over the 5 years after surgical correction of hip instability or scoliosis in children with bilateral spastic CP classified in Gross Motor Function Classification levels IV or V. Serial parent proxy measures of HRQoL and caregiver burden were obtained before and 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 60 months after surgery using the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities and the Assessment of Caregiver Experience with Neuromuscular Disease. Scores 5 years or more after surgery were compared to pre-surgery scores using paired Student's t-tests. Serial outcome trajectories were estimated by linear mixed modeling. RESULTS: Of 69 participants (40 males, 29 females; mean age 11y 6mo, SD 4y 1mo, range 3y 10mo-20y 7mo), 43 had hip reconstruction and 26 had spinal fusion. Clinically significant improvements in HRQoL were detected (average increase 7.6 points) 5 years or more postoperatively, with hip reconstruction providing greater benefit. Domains improved by surgery included positioning, transferring/mobility, comfort/emotions, and health. Caregiver burden did not change as these children remain maximally dependent. INTERPRETATION: Surgical treatment of hip and spine deformity improves HRQoL, especially for painful hip instability, but does not change caregiver burden.

8.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 103(14): 1276-1283, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solitary osteochondromas, or osteocartilaginous exostoses (OCEs), represent the most common benign bone tumor. Despite frequently causing symptoms about the knee in younger populations, there is minimal previous literature investigating surgical treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients <20 years old who had undergone surgical treatment of symptomatic, pathologically confirmed, solitary periarticular knee OCE at a single pediatric center between 2003 and 2016. The clinical course, radiographic and pathological features, and complications were assessed. Prospective outreach was performed to investigate patient-reported functional outcomes. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-four patients (58% male, 81% athletes) underwent excision of a solitary OCE about the knee at a mean age (and standard deviation) of 14.3 ± 2.24 years. Fifty-five percent of the procedures were performed by orthopaedic oncologists, 25% were performed by pediatric orthopaedic surgeons, and 20% were performed by pediatric orthopaedic sports medicine surgeons, with no difference in outcomes or complications based on training. Of the 264 lesions, 171 (65%) were pedunculated (versus sessile), 157 (59%) were in the distal part of the femur (versus the proximal part of the tibia or proximal part of the fibula), and 182 (69%) were medial (versus lateral). Postoperatively, 96% of the patients returned to sports at a median of 2.5 months (interquartile range, 1.9 to 4.0 months). Forty-two patients (16%) experienced minor complications not requiring operative intervention. Six patients (2%) experienced major complications (symptoms or disability at >6 months or requiring reoperation), which were more common in patients with sessile osteochondromas (p = 0.01), younger age (p = 0.01), and distal femoral lesions as compared with proximal tibial lesions (p = 0.003). Lesion recurrence was identified in 3 patients (1.1%). Overall, the median Pediatric International Knee Documentation Committee (Pedi-IKDC) and mean Hospital for Special Surgery Pediatric Functional Activity Brief Scale (HSS Pedi-FABS) scores were 97 (interquartile range, 93 to 99) and 16.7 ± 8.15, respectively, at a median duration of follow-up of 5.8 years. CONCLUSIONS: In our large cohort of pediatric patients who underwent excision of solitary knee osteochondromas, most patients were male adolescent athletes. Most commonly, the lesions were pedunculated, were located in the distal part of the femur, and arose from the medial aspect of the knee. Regardless of surgeon training or lesion location, patients demonstrated excellent functional outcomes, with minimal clinically important postoperative complications and recurrences, although patients with sessile lesions and younger age may be at higher risk for complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

9.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a response scale for aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) treated with sclerotherapy and determine its inter-rater reproducibility. METHODS: Patients treated with sclerotherapy for an ABC between 1993 and 2014 were identified. An attending orthopaedic surgeon and an attending interventional radiologist independently reviewed the radiographic series for each patient and determined response to treatment using a novel grading system. Pain scores were collected from each visit. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). General estimating equations analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between radiographic and pain scores and outcome, to develop an algorithm for the study patient population. A receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the radiographic and pain scores in identifying the necessity of further treatment. To quantify the diagnostic utility, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was estimated along with a 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The inter-rater reliability was excellent for magnetic resonance imaging (ICC=0.83; 95% CI=0.74-0.89) and good for computed tomography/x-ray (ICC=0.69; 95% CI=0.51-0.81). The radiographic and pain scores proved to be independent predictors of treatment (P<0.001 and 0.004, respectively). An algorithm to determine the predictive probability for treatment versus observation in the study population was developed and tested based on these assessments. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85 (95% CI=0.79-0.92) indicated the good diagnostic performance of the algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: This novel grading system for radiographic response to sclerotherapy treatment demonstrates excellent to good inter-rater reliability giving providers a platform for discussion among themselves and with patients/parents. When incorporated with an assessment of pain, a predictive algorithm shows how this information could be used to determine the next steps after sclerotherapy treatment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV-case series.

10.
Spine Deform ; 9(4): 997-1004, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683641

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior research has indicated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients have lower bone mineral density and lower vitamin D levels than healthy peers. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with higher levels of pain. This study investigated whether vitamin D-deficient AIS patients had higher pain before or immediately after posterior spine fusion (PSF) surgery. METHODS: 25-Hydroxy vitamin D levels were tested in all AIS patients at their pre-operative appointment. Patients were grouped by serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level: deficient, < 20 ng/mL; insufficient, 20-29 ng/mL; sufficient, ≥ 30 ng/mL. Primary outcomes included pre-operative Scoliosis Research Society Health-Related Quality of Life (SRS-30) and numeric rating scale (NRS) scores (0-10) up to 72 h post-operatively, and analyzed using ANOVA and linear mixed modeling, respectively. 176 patients undergoing PSF were included. Intra-operative characteristics by vitamin D status were also assessed. The cohort was 82% female and an average of 15.2 years (range 10.6-25.3 years) at fusion. Average major curve was 60 (range 40-104) degrees pre-operatively. RESULTS: Forty-five (26%) patients were deficient in vitamin D, 75 (43%) were insufficient, and 56 (32%) were sufficient. Patients with vitamin D deficiency had lower average household income by zip code (p < 0.01) and higher secondhand smoke exposure (p < 0.001). There were no differences in pre-operative SRS-30 score, pre- and post-operative major curve angles, or estimated blood loss across vitamin D groups. Trajectories of NRS indicated no differences in pain during the first 72 h after surgery. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency in this population is associated with potential markers of lower socioeconomic status; however, it does not influence AIS PSF patients' experience of pain before or immediately after spine fusion surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.

11.
J Hand Surg Am ; 46(6): 515.e1-515.e11, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423846

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To advance the understanding of the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of congenital upper limb differences, a multicenter registry for Congenital Upper Limb Differences (CoULD) was established. After 4 years of recruitment, we sought to examine whether the relative frequency of congenital conditions compares with prior cross-sectional research and how the data have matured over time by (1) comparing our registry population with previous studies in similar populations and (2) evaluating the change over time of relative frequencies of selected conditions within the CoULD registry cohort, specifically to investigate for registry inclusion effects. METHODS: Data from the 2 founding centers in the CoULD registry were analyzed over a 4-year period. We compared patients included in the CoULD registry against 2 prior studies by matching each condition according to the Oberg-Manske-Tonkin classification system. The relative frequency of 4 representative conditions was calculated to evaluate change over time and to determine when the inception cohort effect diminished. RESULTS: The CoULD cohort of 1,381 patients was found to have notable differences compared with a 1-year cross-sectional cohort from the U.S. Midwest and a Swedish birth registry. Each of these registries had differences from the CoULD population in prevalence for approximately 33% of the diagnosis categories. The CoULD registry identified and included more pathologies of late presentation and those that do not commonly require surgical care. Changes in relative frequencies of incident and prevalent conditions, the registry inclusion effect, occurred early and stabilized by the third year. CONCLUSIONS: The CoULD registry captures a different relative frequency of conditions than prior studies in similar populations. The findings highlight the CoULD registry may be a more accurate representation of clinical practice in tertiary referral centers; however, it is important to note that there was a registry inclusion effect identified. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Inclusion criteria are an important consideration with any longitudinal data collection method and data should display stability prior to registry reporting.


Assuntos
Deformidades Congênitas das Extremidades Superiores , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Suécia , Extremidade Superior
12.
Spine Deform ; 9(4): 1105-1113, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471302

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many patients with presumed idiopathic scoliosis are found to have Chiari I malformation (CM-I) on MRI. The objective of this study is to report on scoliosis progression in CM-I with no syringomyelia. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with scoliosis and CM-I was conducted from 1997 to 2015. Patients with syringomyelia and/or non-idiopathic scoliosis were excluded. Clinical and radiographic characteristics were recorded at presentation and latest follow-up. CM-I was defined as the cerebellar tonsil extending 5 mm or more below the foramen magnum on MRI. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients (72% female) with a mean age of 11 years (range 1-16) at scoliosis diagnosis were included. The average initial curve was 30.3° ± SD 16.3. The mean initial Chiari size was 9.6 mm SD ± 4.0. Fifteen (46.9%) experienced Chiari-related symptoms, and three (9%) patients underwent Posterior Fossa Decompression (PFD) to treat these symptoms. 10 (31%) patients went on to fusion, progressing on average 13.6° (95% CI 1.6-25.6°). No association was detected between decompression and either curve progression or fusion (p = 0.46, 0.60). For those who did not undergo fusion, curve magnitude progressed on average 1.0° (95% CI - 4.0 to 5.9°). There was no association between age, Chiari size, presence of symptoms, initial curve shape, or bracing treatment and fusion. CONCLUSION: Patients with CM-I and scoliosis may not require surgical treatment, including PFD and fusion. Scoliosis curvature stabilized in the non-surgical population at an average progression of 1.0°. These results suggest that CM-I with no syringomyelia has minimal effect on scoliosis progression.

13.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 103(8): 715-726, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a condition that describes neonates born with ≥2 distinct congenital contractures. Despite spinal deformity in 3% to 69% of patients, inadequate data exist on growth-friendly instrumentation (GFI) in AMC. Our study objectives were to describe current GFI trends in children with AMC and early-onset scoliosis (EOS) and to compare long-term outcomes with a matched idiopathic EOS (IEOS) cohort to determine whether spinal rigidity or extremity contractures influenced outcomes. METHODS: Children with AMC and spinal deformity of ≥30° who were treated with GFI for ≥24 months were identified from a multicenter EOS database (1993 to 2017). Propensity scoring matched 35 patients with AMC to 112 patients with IEOS with regard to age, sex, construct, and curve. Multivariable linear mixed modeling compared changes in spinal deformity and the 24-item Early Onset Scoliosis Questionnaire (EOSQ-24) across cohorts. Cohort complications and reoperations were analyzed using multivariable Poisson regression. RESULTS: Preoperatively, groups did not differ with regard to age (p = 0.87), sex (p = 0.96), construct (p = 0.62), rate of nonoperative treatment (p = 0.54), and major coronal curve magnitude (p = 0.96). After the index GFI, patients with AMC had reduced percentage of coronal correction (35% compared with 44%; p = 0.01), larger residual coronal curves (49° compared with 42°; p = 0.03), and comparable percentage of kyphosis correction (17% compared with 21%; p = 0.52). In GFI graduates (n = 81), final coronal curve magnitude (55° compared with 43°; p = 0.22) and final sagittal curve magnitude (47° compared with 47°; p = 0.45) were not significantly different at the latest follow-up after definitive surgery. The patients with AMC had reduced T1-S1 length (p < 0.001), comparable T1-S1 growth velocity (0.66 compared with 0.85 mm/month; p = 0.05), and poorer EOSQ-24 scores at the time of the latest follow-up (64 compared with 83 points; p < 0.001). After adjusting for ambulatory status and GFI duration, patients with AMC developed 51% more complications (incidence rate ratio, 1.51 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11 to 2.04]; p = 0.009) and 0.2 more complications/year (95% CI, 0.02 to 0.33 more; p = 0.03) compared with patients with IEOS. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AMC and EOS experienced less initial deformity correction after the index surgical procedure, but final GFI curve magnitudes and total T1-S1 growth during active treatment were statistically and clinically comparable with IEOS. Nonambulatory patients with AMC with longer GFI treatment durations developed the most complications. Multidisciplinary perioperative management is necessary to optimize GFI and to improve quality of life in this complex population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Escoliose/cirurgia , Artrogripose/complicações , Artrogripose/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/instrumentação , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/congênito , Escoliose/etiologia , Escoliose/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 31(2): 178-185, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with cerebral palsy often suffer from increased tone, which can be treated with intrathecal baclofen via implanted pump. Additionally, they often require major orthopedic surgery for hip reconstruction; however, the presence of an intrathecal baclofen pump is a relative contraindication to regional anesthesia due to concerns about damaging the intrathecal baclofen pump system. AIMS: (a) To evaluate adverse events related to placing epidural catheters in children with intrathecal baclofen pumps and (b) describe our multidisciplinary approach to the care of these complex patients. METHODS: Children with cerebral palsy and intrathecal baclofen pump in situ who underwent hip reconstruction between 2010 and 2019 and had a perioperative epidural placed were reviewed retrospectively. Charts were assessed for adverse events or intrathecal baclofen complications. Fluoroscopic images were reviewed to evaluate the proximity between epidural and intrathecal baclofen catheters. The process of coordinating multiple services was examined. RESULTS: Sixteen children met the inclusion criteria. There were no major complications following epidural placement. Postoperative pump interrogation was normal for all patients. Fluoroscopy was utilized for 9/16 (56%) epidural procedures. Epidurogram was used to confirm 11/16 catheters (68%). Children with an intrathecal baclofen pump were identified by orthopedic surgeons at the time of surgical booking and referred to the regional anesthesia team for review. The neurosurgical, pain, and regional anesthesia teams determined the appropriateness and safety of approaching the neuraxis. Pain and/or regional anesthesiologists with competency in spine fluoroscopy were scheduled on the day of surgery for fluoroscopically guided epidural placement. Postoperatively, catheters were managed by the acute pain team. Intrathecal baclofen pumps were interrogated by the baclofen pump team prior to patient discharge. DISCUSSION: In this case series, not only was epidural placement feasible but also there were no observed complications. This work highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to complex regional anesthetic techniques, as well as the importance of basic competency in spine fluoroscopy for regional anesthesiologists.

15.
J Pediatr Orthop B ; 30(2): 174-179, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371652

RESUMO

A 2012 publication regarding the surgical management of pediatric lateral humeral condyle fractures (PLHCF) found that leaving pins exposed produced an average savings of $3442 per patient compared to burying pins, with fewer complications. The primary objective of this present study was to determine the impact of this cost analysis on surgeons' treatment preferences at the same hospital. The secondary aim was to verify that leaving pins exposed continued to be a cost-effective and safe treatment strategy. We reviewed all PLHCF treated with open reduction and internal fixation at our institution between 2004 and 2017. The Clavien-Dindo Classification was used to grade complications. Variations in treatment course were evaluated using a chi-squared test to compare the proportions of buried and exposed pins, pre- and postcost analysis report publication. Two hundred forty-eight patients were included. The mean age was 5.9 years (range 1-12 years). In 174 (70%) cases, the pins were buried and in the remaining 30% the pins were exposed. Between 2004 and 2012, the majority of pins were buried (90%) compared to between 2013 and 2017, when the majority of pins were exposed (62%) (P < 0.001). There was no difference detected in complication rate (P = 0.75) or complication severity (P = 0.61) across groups. The demonstrated cost-effectiveness of exposing the pins in the treatment of PLHCF has had a statistically significant impact on surgeon behavior at our institution. Publishing cost analysis research can change physician practice to improve quality, safety and value of care delivery.

16.
Spine Deform ; 9(2): 567-578, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201495

RESUMO

DESIGN: Prospective cerebral palsy (CP) registry review. OBJECTIVES: (1) Evaluate the incidence/risk factors of gastrointestinal (GI) complications in CP patients after spinal fusion (SF); and (2) investigate the validity of the modified Clavien-Dindo-Sink classification. BACKGROUND: Perioperative GI complications result in increased length of stay (LOS) and patient morbidity/mortality. However, none have analyzed the outcomes of GI complications using an objective classification system. METHODS: A prospective/multicenter CP database identified 425 children (mean, 14.4 ± 2.9 years; range, 7.9-21 years) who underwent SF. GI complications were categorized using the modified Clavien-Dindo-Sink classification. Grades I-II were minor complications and grades III-V major. Patients with and without GI complications were compared. RESULTS: 87 GI complications developed in 69 patients (16.2%): 39 minor (57%) and 30 major (43%). Most common were pancreatitis (n = 45) and ileus (n = 22). Patients with preoperative G-tubes had 2.2 × odds of developing a GI complication compared to oral-only feeders (OR 2.2; 95% CI 0.98-4.78; p = 0.006). Similarly, combined G-tube/oral feeders had 6.7 × odds compared to oral-only (OR 6.7; 95% CI 3.10-14.66; p < 0.001). The likelihood of developing a GI complication was 3.4 × with normalized estimated blood loss (nEBL) ≥ 3 ml/kg/level fused (OR 3.41; 95% CI 1.95-5.95; p < 0.001). Patients with GI complications had more fundoplications (29% vs. 17%; p = 0.03) and longer G-tube fasting periods (3 days vs. 2 days; p < 0.001), oral fasting periods (5 days vs. 2 days; p < 0.001), ICU admissions (6 days vs. 3 days; p = 0.002), and LOS (15 days vs. 8 days; p < 0.001). LOS correlated with the Clavien-Dino-Sink classification. CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal complications such as pancreatitis and ileus are not uncommon after SF in children with CP. This is the first study to investigate the validity of the modified Clavien-Dindo-Sink classification in GI complications after SF. Our results suggest a correlation between complication severity grade and LOS. The complexity of perioperative enteral nutritional supplementation requires prospective studies dedicated to enteral feeding protocols. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic-level III.

17.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 479(5): 947-959, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although femoral retroversion has been linked to the onset of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), and may result from a rotation of the femoral epiphysis around the epiphyseal tubercle leading to femoral retroversion, femoral version has rarely been described in patients with SCFE. Furthermore, the prevalence of actual femoral retroversion and the effect of different measurement methods on femoral version angles has yet to be studied in SCFE. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Do femoral version and the prevalence of femoral retroversion differ between hips with SCFE and the asymptomatic contralateral side? (2) How do the mean femoral version angles and the prevalence of femoral retroversion change depending on the measurement method used? (3) What is the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of these measurement methods? METHODS: For this retrospective, controlled, single-center study, we reviewed our institutional database for patients who were treated for unilateral SCFE and who had undergone a pelvic CT scan. During the period in question, the general indication for obtaining a CT scan was to define the surgical strategy based on the assessment of deformity severity in patients with newly diagnosed SCFE or with previous in situ fixation. After applying prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included 79 patients. The mean age was 15 ± 4 years, 48% (38 of 79) of the patients were male, and 56% (44 of 79) were obese (defined as a BMI > 95th percentile (mean BMI 34 ± 9 kg/m2). One radiology resident (6 years of experience) measured femoral version of the entire study group using five different methods. Femoral neck version was measured as the orientation of the femoral neck. Further measurement methods included the femoral head's center and differed regarding the level of landmarks for the proximal femoral reference axis. From proximal to distal, this included the most-proximal methods (Lee et al. and Reikerås et al.) and most-distal methods (Tomczak et al. and Murphy et al.). Most proximally (Lee et al. method), we used the most cephalic junction of the greater trochanter as the landmark and, most distally, we used the center base of the femoral neck superior to the lesser trochanter (Murphy et al.). The orientation of the distal femoral condyles served as the distal reference axis for all five measurement methods. All five methods were compared side-by-side (involved versus uninvolved hip), and comparisons among all five methods were performed using paired t-tests. The prevalence of femoral retroversion (< 0°) was compared using a chi-square test. A subset of patients was measured twice by the first observer and by a second orthopaedic resident (2 years of experience) to assess intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability; for this assessment, we used intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: The mean femoral neck version was lower in hips with SCFE than in the contralateral side (-2° ± 13° versus 7° ± 11°; p < 0.001). This yielded a mean side-by side difference of -8° ± 11° (95% CI -11° to -6°; p < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of femoral retroversion in hips with SCFE (58% [95% CI 47% to 69%]; p < 0.001) than on the contralateral side (29% [95% CI 19% to 39%]). These differences between hips with SCFE and the contralateral side were higher and ranged from -17° ± 11° (95% CI -20° to -15°; p < 0.001) based on the method of Tomczak et al. to -22° ± 13° (95% CI -25° to -19°; p < 0.001) according to the method of Murphy et al. The mean overall femoral version angles increased for hips with SCFE using more-distal landmarks compared with more-proximal landmarks. The prevalence of femoral retroversion was higher in hips with SCFE for the proximal methods of Lee et al. and Reikerås et al. (91% [95% CI 85% to 97%] and 84% [95% CI 76% to 92%], respectively) than for the distal measurement methods of Tomczak et al. and Murphy et al. (47% [95% CI 36% to 58%] and 60% [95% CI 49% to 71%], respectively [all p < 0.001]). We detected mean differences ranging from -19° to 4° (all p < 0.005) for 8 of 10 pairwise comparisons in hips with SCFE. Among these, the greatest differences were between the most-proximal methods and the more-distal methods, with a mean difference of -19° ± 7° (95% CI -21° to -18°; p < 0.001), comparing the methods of Lee et al. and Tomczak et al. In hips with SCFE, we found excellent agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] > 0.80) for intraobserver reproducibility (reader 1, ICC 0.93 to 0.96) and interobserver reliability (ICC 0.95 to 0.98) for all five measurement methods. Analogously, we found excellent agreement (ICC > 0.80) for intraobserver reproducibility (reader 1, range 0.91 to 0.96) and interobserver reliability (range 0.89 to 0.98) for all five measurement methods in healthy contralateral hips. CONCLUSION: We showed that femoral neck version is asymmetrically decreased in unilateral SCFE, and that differences increase when including the femoral head's center. Thus, to assess the full extent of an SCFE deformity, femoral version measurements should consider the position of the displaced epiphysis. The prevalence of femoral retroversion was high in patients with SCFE and increased when using proximal anatomic landmarks. Since the range of femoral version angles was wide, femoral version cannot be predicted in a given hip and must be assessed individually. Based on these findings, we believe it is worthwhile to add evaluation of femoral version to the diagnostic workup of children with SCFE. Doing so may better inform surgeons as they contemplate when to use isolated offset correction or to perform an additional femoral osteotomy for SCFE correction based on the severity of the slip and the rotational deformity. To facilitate communication among physicians and for the design of future studies, we recommend consistently reporting the applied measurement technique. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, prognostic study.


Assuntos
Retroversão Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Escorregamento das Epífises Proximais do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Retroversão Óssea/fisiopatologia , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Epífises/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Escorregamento das Epífises Proximais do Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 40(10): e972-e977, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between preoperative comorbidities, surgical complications, and length of stay (LOS) after hip reconstruction in nonambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study included 127 patients undergoing hip surgery between 2007 and 2016 who were diagnosed with CP (GMFCS IV/V). The cohort was 54% Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) V with an average age at surgery of 9 years (range, 3-19 y). Preoperative comorbidities included: presence of a gastrostomy tube, respiratory difficulty requiring positive-pressure ventilation or tracheostomy, history of seizures, and nonverbal status. Complications were dichotomized into major and minor complications according to severity. Multivariable general linear modeling was used to identify factors associated with complications and prolonged LOS. RESULTS: The median LOS in the hospital was 6 days (intequartile range, 5-9 d). The majority of procedures (72%) involved both the femur and acetabulum and 82% of surgeries were performed bilaterally. Patients who experienced a major complication were mostly GMFCS level V and were more likely to spend time in intensive care unit than postanesthetic care unit (P=0.001). Multivariable analysis for a major complication determined that the addition of each comorbid risk fact increased the odds of developing a major complication by 2.6 times (odds ratio, 2.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-4.47; P<0.001) regardless of GMFCS level. Multivariable analysis for prolonged LOS determined that major complications (P<0.001), bilaterality (P=0.01), age (P=0.02), female sex (P=0.01), and GMFCS V (P<0.001) were all factors that increased LOS. Migration percentage, acetabular index odds ratio, and pelvic obliquity were not associated with prolonged LOS or the presence of a major complication. CONCLUSIONS: From our analysis, the authors found that a patient's premorbid comorbidities were more predictive of the likelihood of sustaining a major complication than their GMFCS level. Identifying high-risk patients preoperatively may help reduce complications and LOS, which ultimately will improve the quality of care the authors deliver to nonambulatory children with CP undergoing hip reconstruction surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-retrospective cohort study.


Assuntos
Artroplastia/efeitos adversos , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Luxação do Quadril/cirurgia , Tempo de Internação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Acetábulo/cirurgia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Paralisia Cerebral/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Insuficiência Respiratória/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Convulsões/complicações , Fatores Sexuais , Distúrbios da Fala/complicações , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
19.
Circulation ; 142(20): 1905-1924, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whereas regular exercise is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality, mechanisms of exercise-mediated health benefits remain less clear. We used metabolite profiling before and after acute exercise to delineate the metabolic architecture of exercise response patterns in humans. METHODS: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and metabolite profiling was performed on Framingham Heart Study participants (age 53±8 years, 63% women) with blood drawn at rest (n=471) and at peak exercise (n=411). RESULTS: We observed changes in circulating levels for 502 of 588 measured metabolites from rest to peak exercise (exercise duration 11.9±2.1 minutes) at a 5% false discovery rate. Changes included reductions in metabolites implicated in insulin resistance (glutamate, -29%; P=1.5×10-55; dimethylguanidino valeric acid [DMGV], -18%; P=5.8×10-18) and increases in metabolites associated with lipolysis (1-methylnicotinamide, +33%; P=6.1×10-67), nitric oxide bioavailability (arginine/ornithine + citrulline, +29%; P=2.8×10-169), and adipose browning (12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid +26%; P=7.4×10-38), among other pathways relevant to cardiometabolic risk. We assayed 177 metabolites in a separate Framingham Heart Study replication sample (n=783, age 54±8 years, 51% women) and observed concordant changes in 164 metabolites (92.6%) at 5% false discovery rate. Exercise-induced metabolite changes were variably related to the amount of exercise performed (peak workload), sex, and body mass index. There was attenuation of favorable excursions in some metabolites in individuals with higher body mass index and greater excursions in select cardioprotective metabolites in women despite less exercise performed. Distinct preexercise metabolite levels were associated with different physiologic dimensions of fitness (eg, ventilatory efficiency, exercise blood pressure, peak Vo2). We identified 4 metabolite signatures of exercise response patterns that were then analyzed in a separate cohort (Framingham Offspring Study; n=2045, age 55±10 years, 51% women), 2 of which were associated with overall mortality over median follow-up of 23.1 years (P≤0.003 for both). CONCLUSIONS: In a large sample of community-dwelling individuals, acute exercise elicits widespread changes in the circulating metabolome. Metabolic changes identify pathways central to cardiometabolic health, cardiovascular disease, and long-term outcome. These findings provide a detailed map of the metabolic response to acute exercise in humans and identify potential mechanisms responsible for the beneficial cardiometabolic effects of exercise for future study.

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