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1.
Exp Psychol ; 67(4): 246-254, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111655

RESUMO

Visual input of a face appears to influence the ability to selectively attend to one voice over another simultaneous voice. We examined this crossmodal effect, specifically the role face gender may have on selective attention to male and female gendered simultaneous voices. Using a within-subjects design, participants were presented with a dynamic male face, female face, or fixation cross, with each condition being paired with a dichotomous audio stream of male and female voices reciting different lists of concrete nouns. In Experiment 1a, the female voice was played in the right ear and the male voice in the left ear. In Experiment 1b, both voices were played in both ears with differences in volume mimicking the interaural intensity difference between disparately localized voices in naturalistic situations. Free recall of words spoken by the two voices immediately following stimulus presentation served as a proxy measure of attention. In both sections of the experiment, crossmodal congruity of face gender enhanced same-gender word recall. This effect indicates that crossmodal interaction between voices and faces guides auditory attention. The results contribute to our understanding of how humans navigate the crossmodal relationship between voices and faces to direct attention in social interactions such as those in the cocktail party scenario.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino
2.
J Exp Psychol Anim Learn Cogn ; 46(4): 443-459, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030955

RESUMO

Following cue-outcome (X-O) pairings, 2 procedures that reduce conditioned responses to X are extinction, in which X is presented by itself, and counterconditioning, in which X is paired with a different outcome typically of valence opposite that of training. Although studies with animals have generally found counterconditioning more efficient than extinction in reducing responding, data from humans are less clear. They suggest counterconditioning is more efficient than extinction at interfering with emotional processing, but there is little difference between the two procedures regarding their impact on the verbal assessment of the probability of the outcome given the cue. However, issues of statistical power leave conclusions ambiguous. We compared counterconditioning and extinction in highly powered experiments that exploited a novel procedure. A rapid streamed-trial procedure was used in which participants were asked to rate how likely a target outcome was to accompany a target cue after being exposed to acquisition trials followed by extinction, counterconditioning, or neither. In Experiments 1 and 2, evaluative conditioning was assessed by asking participants to rate the pleasantness of the cues after treatment. These studies found counterconditioning more efficient than extinction at reducing evaluative conditioning but less efficient at decreasing the assessment of the conditional probability of the outcome given the cue. The latter effect was replicated with neutral outcomes in Experiments 3 and 4, but the effect was inverted in Experiment 4 in conditions designed to preclude reinstatement of initial training by the question probing the conditional probability of the outcome given the cue. Effect sizes were small (Cohen's d of 0.2 for effect on evaluative conditioning, Cohen's d of 0.3 for effect on the outcome expectancy). If representative, this poses a serious constraint in terms of statistical power for further investigations of differential efficiency of extinction and counterconditioning in humans. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
J Cogn Psychol (Hove) ; 32(7): 598-614, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101646

RESUMO

Memory for an event is influenced by many factors including retention interval, frequency of assessment, and type of information assessed concerning the event. We examined the usefulness of observer memory for contextual information in assessing accuracy of memory for central information. Participants viewed a video of a purse being stolen and were asked questions concerning the perpetrator and surrounding context of the event, including where and when the event occurred and who else was present. Participants tested immediately after seeing the video exhibited better memory than those tested for the first time 48-hour after the event. Additionally, testing immediately after viewing the video reduced forgetting over the 48-hour delay (i.e., early testing attenuated subsequent forgetting). Moreover, memory for the context of the event correlated positively with memory of the central information (i.e., perpetrator), and memory concerning other people at the event tended to have the highest correlation with perpetrator memory.

4.
Learn Motiv ; 702020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296250

RESUMO

Renewal is the recovery of extinguished responding to a conditioned stimulus when testing occurs outside the extinction context. Renewal has been explained as the extinction context becoming a negative occasion setter during extinction. However, other mechanisms may contribute. Two recent studies showed (a) after extinction of a discrete cue, the extinction context can serve as a conditioned inhibitor, and (b) in some circumstances operational extinction of a conditioned inhibitor can reduce inhibition with respect to a transfer excitor while retaining inhibition with respect to the excitor used in inhibitory training. Here we examine the potential contribution of these phenomena to renewal. In the present experiment, all rats received fear-conditioning with a target cue in one context and extinction of that cue in a second context. Then half of the subjects received massive extinction of the extinction context (i.e., 24 h) while the other half received only handling. Finally, some subjects in each condition were tested for responding to the target cue in the extinction context, others in a second familiar context, and yet others in a third transfer context in which another fear cue had been extinguished. The results showed ABC renewal independent of whether subjects had or had not received context extinction. However, transfer of the inhibitory potential of the extinction context was observed only in subjects that did not receive context extinction. These results suggest an extinction context can serve as a stimulus-specific conditioned inhibitor, thereby contributing to renewal by decreasing responding to the target cue in an ABB control condition.

5.
Learn Behav ; 48(2): 234-245, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721098

RESUMO

Conditioned inhibitors have been shown to be largely unaffected by non-reinforced exposure (i.e., extinction treatment). Although excitatory associations are readily diminished by extinction treatment, so-called inhibitory associations appear to be largely immune to them. In two fear-conditioning experiments with rats, it was found that a decrease in inhibitory control can result from a massive number of extinction exposures to the inhibitor. Experiment 1 provided evidence that extinction treatment attenuated negative summation between the potential inhibitor and a transfer excitor. However, the extinction treatment had no influence on responding to the original training compound, indicating that some stimulus-specific inhibitory potential remained even after massive extinction. Experiment 2 indicated that retarded excitatory acquisition to the inhibitory stimulus observed after extinction treatment of the inhibitor is no greater than that following a similar amount of stimulus pre-exposure without prior inhibition training (i.e., latent inhibition). The findings indicate that inhibitory associations can be extinguished with large numbers of extinction trials, but they appear to be much more resistant to extinction than excitatory associations.


Assuntos
Extinção Psicológica , Inibição Psicológica , Animais , Medo , Ratos
6.
Learn Behav ; 47(2): 166-176, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421123

RESUMO

Exposure to a set of complex stimuli yields an enhanced ability to discriminate between these stimuli. In previous experimental studies, two distinguishable stimuli, X and A, were each repeatedly paired with a common Stimulus B to create compound Stimuli XB and AB. Prior evidence suggests that unique Features X and A form mutually inhibitory associations. This was evidenced by pairing Feature A with a biologically relevant stimulus (i.e., an unconditioned stimulus [US]) and observing that Stimulus X alone later serves to inhibit anticipatory behaviors for that US. These observations may reflect the mutually inhibitory nature of the two Features X and A. However, by assessing the influence of X on behavior that anticipates the US rather than Feature A, these experiments tested inhibition only indirectly. In the present experiments, a more direct measure of inhibition is proposed and tested with rats. We found evidence of retardation and negative summation of associations between unique Features X and A in their capacity to serve as competing cues during overshadowing treatments. Stimulus X was less susceptible to overshadowing by A (which is indicative of retardation of the establishment of an X-A within-compound association) and was able to suppress overshadowing by A of another stimulus (Y) when X was presented with Y at test (which is indicative of negative summation of the representation of A by X). Thus, XB/AB trials were seen to establish an inhibitory relationship between X and A.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Animais , Condicionamento Operante , Sinais (Psicologia) , Masculino , Ratos
7.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(6): 1453-1465, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041571

RESUMO

Prével and colleagues reported excitatory learning with a backward conditioned stimulus (CS) in a conditioned reinforcement preparation. Their results add to existing evidence of backward CSs sometimes being excitatory and were viewed as challenging the view that learning is driven by prediction error reduction, which assumes that only predictive (i.e., forward) relationships are learned. The results instead were consistent with the assumptions of both Miller's Temporal Coding Hypothesis and Wagner's Sometimes Opponent Processes (SOP) model. The present experiment extended the conditioned reinforcement preparation developed by Prével et al. to a backward second-order conditioning preparation, with the aim of discriminating between these two accounts. We tested whether a second-order CS can serve as an effective conditioned reinforcer, even when the first-order CS with which it was paired is a backward CS that elicits no responding. Evidence of conditioned reinforcement was found, despite no conditioned response (CR) being elicited by the first-order backward CS. The evidence of second-order conditioning in the absence of excitatory conditioning to the first-order CS is interpreted as a challenge to SOP. In contrast, the present results are consistent with the Temporal Coding Hypothesis and constitute a conceptual replication in humans of previous reports of excitatory second-order conditioning in rodents with a backward CS. The proposal is made that learning is driven by "discrepancy" with prior experience as opposed to " prediction error."


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Reforço Psicológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Exp Psychol Anim Learn Cogn ; 44(2): 194-208, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29683697

RESUMO

This series examines the associative basis of inhibitory perceptual learning. Four experiments demonstrate that inhibitory perceptual learning, like Pavlovian conditioned inhibition, is affected by manipulating the number of training trials. Specifically, many interspersed XB/AB training trials (in which letters represent initially neutral stimuli such as tones, clicks, and flashing lights) followed by A-US pairings caused X to act like a conditioned inhibitor (Experiment 1), which is presumed to suggest that an inhibitory association between conditioned stimuli X and A had been formed (i.e., inhibitory perceptual learning). Conversely, few XB/AB training trials followed by A-US pairings produced conditioned responding to X (Experiment 2), which suggests that an excitatory association between X and A had been formed. Additionally, associations with the common element, B, appear to play an inconsistent role across inhibitory and excitatory perceptual learning situations, as extinction of B attenuated excitatory (Experiment 3) but failed to have an influence after inhibitory (Experiment 4) pretraining. The viability of several different accounts of perceptual learning is discussed in light of these observations. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Ratos Sprague-Dawley/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos
9.
Learn Behav ; 46(3): 265-280, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29313238

RESUMO

This report is part of a larger project examining associative interference as a function of the nature of the interfering and target associations. Lick suppression experiments with rats assessed the effects of context shifts on proactive outcome interference by latent inhibition (LI) and Pavlovian conditioned inhibition (CI) treatments on subsequently trained Pavlovian conditioned excitation treatment. LI and CI were trained in Context A during Phase 1, and then excitation treatment was administered in Context B during Phase 2, followed by tests for conditioned excitation in Contexts A, B, or C. Experiment 1 preliminarily established our LI and CI treatments and resulted in equally retarded acquisition of behavioral control when the target cue was subsequently trained as a conditioned excitor and tested in Context A. However, only CI treatment caused the target to pass a summation test for inhibition. Centrally, Experiment 2 consisted of LI and CI treatments in Context A followed by excitatory training in Context B. Testing found low excitatory control by both LI and CI cues in Context A relative to strong excitatory control in Context B, but CI treatment transferred to Context C more strongly than LI treatment. Experiment 3 determined that LI treatment failed to transfer to Context C even when the number of LI trials was greatly increased. Thus, first-learned LI appears to be relatively context specific, whereas first-learned CI generalizes to a neutral context. These observations add to existing evidence that LI and CI treatments result in different types of learning that diverge sharply in transfer to a novel test context.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia
10.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(10): 1189-1197, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059409

RESUMO

Introduction: Varenicline reduces smoking satisfaction during the pre-cessation run-in period, which may contribute to extinction of cravings and smoking behavior. Research indicates that efficacy is enhanced when the run-in period is increased from 1 to 4 weeks, providing a longer extinction opportunity. We hypothesized that efficacy could be further enhanced by harnessing basic and applied research on extinction. We developed a pre-cessation extinction-facilitating intervention and tested its feasibility in a pilot trial. Methods: The facilitated extinction (FE) intervention comprised brief counseling and workbook-recommending strategies to maximize extinction processes during the run-in, including instructions to smoke at a normal rate across contexts and cues, and use of an extinction cue to enhance generalization. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three varenicline interventions: standard (1-week run-in), extended (4-week run-in), and extended + FE. Interventions were delivered prior to the target quit date (TQD). Assessments were conducted in weeks 1 and 4 pre-TQD and 1 and 3 months post-TQD, with focus on feasibility indices. Results: Recruitment and retention goals were met (N = 58). Treatment satisfaction was high across groups. The majority of FE participants adhered to instructions and maintained their usual smoking rate during the run-in period. Greater decreases in craving and smoking satisfaction were observed among participants in both extended groups versus the standard group (p < .005). Conclusions: Feasibility was demonstrated. Participants adhered to the FE intervention, thereby optimizing the number and variety of extinction trials. Findings support testing the novel FE smoking cessation intervention in a fully powered trial. Implications: This study expands the research on the clinical benefits of extending the pre-cessation run-in period of varenicline. It introduces the hypothesis that further benefit might be achieved by translating basic behavioral research, as well as cue-exposure research and therapy for other disorders, to improve the extinction and generalization processes thought to underlie much of varenicline's effect. A FE intervention was developed and found acceptable to smokers and feasible to implement in a research setting. The study sets the stage for a subsequent randomized controlled trial.


Assuntos
Extinção Psicológica , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/uso terapêutico , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/terapia , Adulto , Aconselhamento/métodos , Extinção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/farmacologia , Vareniclina/uso terapêutico
11.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 44(8): 1167-1179, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239625

RESUMO

Like all biological systems, human memory is likely to have been influenced by evolutionary processes, and its abilities have been subjected to selective mechanisms. Consequently, human memory should be primed to better remember information relevant to one's evolutionary fitness. Supporting this view, participants asked to rate words based on their relevance to an imaginary survival situation better recall those words (even the words rated low in relevancy) than the same words rated with respect to non-survival situations. This mnemonic advantage is called the "survival-processing effect," and presumably it was selected for because it contributed to evolutionary fitness. The same reasoning suggests that there should be an advantage for recall of information that has been rated for relevancy to reproduction and/or mate seeking, although little evidence has existed to assess this proposition. We used an experimental design similar to that in the original survival-processing effect study (Nairne, Thompson, & Pandeirada, 2007) and across 3 experiments tested several newly designed scenarios to determine whether a reproduction-processing effect could be found in an ancestral environment, a modern mating environment, and an ancestral environment in which the emphasis was on raising offspring as opposed to finding a mate. Our results replicated the survival-processing effect but provided no evidence of a reproduction-processing effect when the scenario emphasized finding a mate. However, when rating items on their relevancy to raising one's offspring in an ancestral environment, a mnemonic advantage comparable to that of the survival-processing effect was found. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Evolução Biológica , Memória , Reprodução , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicolinguística , Testes Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Behav Processes ; 154: 4-12, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274378

RESUMO

A basic assumption of most researchers is that behavior is generally functional, and indeed, in most instances the function is obvious. But in a number of cases, some behaviors of neurophysiologically 'normal' organisms appear to be maladaptive. Considerable research has been conducted to understand the basis of such behavior as well as how the frequency of such behavior can be reduced. Here we provide a brief panoramic review of the major sources of maladaptive behavior in neurophysiologically 'normal' organisms: a) altered environmental contingencies relative to those faced by ancestral generations in their environment of evolutionary adaptation, b) altered environmental contingencies within the lifespan of the animal, c) linked behaviors in which the dysfunctional behavior is a linked companion of a more valuable beneficial trait, and d) the labeling of some behaviors as 'maladaptive' when more careful examination finds that they provide net benefit. Most of our attention is on the consequences of altered contingencies across and within a generation, with altered contingencies within a generation constituting a form of associative interference. The central issue in these two cases can be framed in terms of insufficient or excessive transfer of training resulting in maladaptive behavior. We discuss the functional basis of successful and unsuccessful near transfer (i.e., stimulus and response generalization) and far transfer (including rule learning and abstraction).


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Evolução Biológica , Meio Ambiente , Transferência de Experiência , Animais
13.
Learn Behav ; 46(2): 171-181, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101727

RESUMO

Second-order conditioning (SOC; i.e., conditioned responding to S2 as a result of S1-US pairings followed by S2-S1 pairings) is generally explained by either a direct S2→US association or by an associative chain (i.e., S2→S1→US). Previous research found that differences in responses to S2 after S1 was extinguished often depended on the nature of the S2-S1 pairings (i.e., sequential or simultaneous). In two experiments with human participants, we examined the possibility that such differences result from S1 evoking S2 during extinction of S1 following simultaneous but not sequential S2-S1 pairings. This evocation of S2 by S1 following simultaneous pairings may have paired the evoked representation of S2 with absence of the outcome, thereby facilitating mediated extinction of S2. Using sequential S2-S1 pairings, both Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support this account of how extinction of S1 reduced responding to S2. Experiment 1 found that extinguishing S1 reduced responding to S2, while extinguishing S2 had little effect on responses to S1, although forward evocation of S1 during extinction of S2 paired the evoked representation of S1 with absence of the outcome. In Experiment 2, evocation of S2 during S1 nonreinforced trials was prevented because S2-S1 pairings followed (rather than proceeded) S1-alone exposures. Nevertheless, responding to S2 at test mimicked S1 responding. Responding to S2 was high in the context in which S1 had been reinforced and low in the context in which S1 had been nonreinforced. Collectively, these experiments provide additional support for the associative-chain account of SOC.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Reforço Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Behav Processes ; 144: 20-32, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28827119

RESUMO

Contemporary theories of associative learning are increasingly complex, which necessitates the use of computational methods to reveal predictions of these models. We argue that comparisons across multiple models in terms of goodness of fit to empirical data from experiments often reveal more about the actual mechanisms of learning and behavior than do simulations of only a single model. Such comparisons are best made when the values of free parameters are discovered through some optimization procedure based on the specific data being fit (e.g., hill climbing), so that the comparisons hinge on the psychological mechanisms assumed by each model rather than being biased by using parameters that differ in quality across models with respect to the data being fit. Statistics like the Bayesian information criterion facilitate comparisons among models that have different numbers of free parameters. These issues are examined using retrospective revaluation data.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Humanos
15.
Behav Processes ; 142: 141-145, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720404

RESUMO

The present study demonstrates the contribution of spatial contiguity in the formation of associations between two neutral stimuli. Using human participants, we used visual conditioned stimuli (CSs) in a sensory preconditioning design in which simultaneous CS2-CS1 pairings and CS4-CS3 pairings were interspersed during Phase 1, followed by sequential CS1-US+ (i.e., CS1-pleasant US) and CS3-US-- (i.e., CS3-unpleasant US) pairings during Phase 2. The conditioned response was a shift in the gaze of the participants to the location where the US+ (i.e., short video clip) appeared. Distances between CS2 and CS1 and between CS4 and CS3 were manipulated. Our results showed a greater response to CS2 when the Phase 1 stimuli were adjacent rather than separated by 100 pixels. Implications for the role of spatial contiguity in associative learning are discussed.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa
16.
J Exp Psychol Anim Learn Cogn ; 43(2): 183-196, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383940

RESUMO

Superconditioning refers to supernormal responding to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that sometimes occurs in classical conditioning when the CS is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US) in the presence of a conditioned inhibitor for that US. In the present research, we conducted 4 experiments to investigate causal superlearning, a phenomenon in human causal learning analogous to superconditioning. Experiment 1 demonstrated superlearning relative to appropriate control conditions. Experiment 2 showed that superlearning wanes when the number of cues used in an experiment is relatively large. Experiment 3 determined that even when relatively many cues are used, superlearning can be observed provided testing is conducted immediately after training, which is problematic for explanations by most contemporary learning theories. Experiment 4 found that ratings of a superlearning cue are weaker than those to the training excitor which gives basis to the conditioned inhibitor-like causal preventor used during causal superlearning training. This is inconsistent with the prediction by propositional reasoning accounts of causal cue competition, but is readily explained by associative learning models. In sum, the current experiments revealed some weaknesses of both the associative and propositional reasoning models with respect to causal superlearning. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação , Sinais (Psicologia) , Condicionamento Clássico , Condicionamento Psicológico , Humanos , Aprendizagem
17.
Behav Processes ; 141(Pt 1): 128-136, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28323076

RESUMO

Historically, there has been considerable interest in a large variety of forms of associative interference. However, various factors including interest in clinical application and perhaps recent funding priorities have resulted in a narrowed focus on one particular instance of interference, extinction, with relative neglect of other types of interference. We have been using the existing literature and conducting new experiments to determine whether there is a consistent set of rules governing the occurrence and persistence of two-phase associative interference across (a) proactive and retroactive interference, (b) cue and outcome interference, (c) the type of training in phase 1 (excitatory, inhibitory, or simple nonreinforcement), and (d) the type of training in phase 2 (excitatory, inhibitory, or simple nonreinforcement). Our hope is that a return to more general questions concerning associative interference might reveal broad truths concerning the nature of forgetting. Identifying global principles of associative interference may also help us better appreciate the nature of extinction, including how it can be enhanced and made more enduring, as well as how it can be minimized and made more fleeting.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Memória/fisiologia , Recidiva
18.
Behav Modif ; 40(6): 901-921, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27118054

RESUMO

Prior studies indicate extinguished fear often partially returns when participants are later tested outside the extinction context. Cues carried from the extinction context to the test context sometimes reduce return of fear, but it is unclear whether such extinction cues (ECs) reduce return of fear of public speaking. Here we assessed return of fear of public speaking, and whether either of two types of ECs can attenuate it. Participants gave speeches of increasing difficulty during an exposure practice session and were tested 2 days later in a different context. Testing occurred in the presence of physical ECs, after mentally rehearsing the exposure session, or without either reminder. Practice reduced fear of public speaking, but fear partially returned at test. Neither physical nor mental ECs reduced partial return of fear of public speaking. The return of extinguished fear of public speaking, although small, was reliable, but not appreciably sensitive to presence of ECs.


Assuntos
Extinção Psicológica , Medo/psicologia , Fala , Adolescente , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prática Psicológica , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 164: 136-43, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26799984

RESUMO

People can form opinions of other individuals based on information about their good or bad behavior. The present study investigated whether this affective learning might depend on memory links formed between initially neutral people and valenced information. First, participants viewed neutral faces paired with sentences describing prosocial or antisocial behaviors. Second, memory suppression manipulations with the potential to aid in the forgetting of valenced information were administered. Using the Think/No think paradigm, the effectiveness of four different suppression instructions was compared: Unguided Suppression, Guided Suppression, Distraction, and Thought Substitution. Overall, all the tasks appreciably reduced affective learning based on prosocial information, but only the Guided Suppression and Thought Substitution tasks reduced affective learning based on antisocial information. These results suggest that weakening the putative memory link between initially neutral people and valenced information can decrease the effect of learned associations on the evaluation of other people. We interpreted this as indicative that social affective learning may rely on declarative memories.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Atitude , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 42(3): 366-78, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26389628

RESUMO

Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) is the observation that retrieval of target information causes forgetting of related nontarget information. A number of accounts of this phenomenon have been proposed, including a context-shift-based account (Jonker, Seli, & Macleod, 2013). This account proposes that RIF occurs as a result of the context shift from study to retrieval practice, provided there is little context shift between retrieval practice and test phases. We tested both claims put forth by this context account. In Experiment 1, we degraded the context shift between study and retrieval practice by implementing a generative study condition that was highly similar to retrieval practice. We observed no degradation of RIF for these generated exemplars relative to a conventional study control. In Experiment 2, we conceptually replicated the finding of RIF following generative study, and tested whether context differences between each of the three phases affected the size of RIF. Our findings were again contrary to the predictions of the context account. Conjointly, the 2 experiments refute arguments about the potential inadequacy of our context shifts that could be used to explain either result alone. Overall, our results are most consistent with an inhibitory account of RIF (e.g., Anderson, 2003).


Assuntos
Memória , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Testes Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
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