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1.
Health Care Women Int ; : 1-15, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030977

RESUMO

Rapid dissemination of mobile technology provides substantial opportunity for overcoming challenges reaching rural and marginalized populations. We assessed feasibility and acceptability of longitudinal mobile data capture among women undergoing fistula surgery in Uganda (n = 60) in 2014-2015. Participants were followed for 12 months following surgery, with data captured quarterly, followed by interviews at 12 months. Participant retention was high (97%). Most respondents reported no difficulty with mobile data capture (range 93%-100%), and preferred mobile interview (88%-100%). Mobile data capture saved 1000 person-hours of transit and organizational time. Phone-based mobile data collection provided social support. Our results support this method for longitudinal studies among geographically and socially marginalized populations.

3.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 112, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703250

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

4.
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol ; 67: 113-126, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245630

RESUMO

Respectful maternity care is recommended by the World Health Organization and refers to care that maintains dignity, privacy, confidentiality, ensures freedom from harm and mistreatment, and enables informed choice and continuous support during labour and childbirth. In this paper, we review the evidence of respectful maternity care and discuss considerations for professional practice for health care providers. While there is limited evidence on what type of interventions can improve respectful maternity care, promising skills development for providers has included training on values, transforming attitudes, and interpersonal communication. Within a health facility, enabling environments may be created by setting up quality improvement teams, monitoring experiences of poor treatment, mentorship, and improved working conditions for staff. In order to provide respectful care, health facilities and health systems must be structured in a way that supports and respects providers, and ensures adequate infrastructure and organisation of the maternity ward.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Respeito , Parto Obstétrico/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/ética , Gravidez
7.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 148(3): 290-299, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically develop evidence-based bundles for care of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). METHODS: An international technical consultation was conducted in 2017 to develop draft bundles of clinical interventions for PPH taken from the WHO's 2012 and 2017 PPH recommendations and based on the validated "GRADE Evidence-to-Decision" framework. Twenty-three global maternal-health experts participated in the development process, which was informed by a systematic literature search on bundle definitions, designs, and implementation experiences. Over a 6-month period, the expert panel met online and via teleconferences, culminating in a 2-day in-person meeting. RESULTS: The consultation led to the definition of two care bundles for facility implementation. The "first response to PPH bundle" comprises uterotonics, isotonic crystalloids, tranexamic acid, and uterine massage. The "response to refractory PPH bundle" comprises compressive measures (aortic or bimanual uterine compression), the non-pneumatic antishock garment, and intrauterine balloon tamponade (IBT). Advocacy, training, teamwork, communication, and use of best clinical practices were defined as PPH bundle supporting elements. CONCLUSION: For the first response bundle, further research should assess its feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness; and identify optimal implementation strategies. For the response to refractory bundle, further research should address pending controversies, including the operational definition of refractory PPH and effectiveness of IBT devices.


Assuntos
Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Gravidez , Organização Mundial da Saúde
8.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(18): 3086-3090, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632844

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this article was to compare hemodynamic and perfusion parameters as well as the clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) who received treatment with a nonpneumatic antishock garment (NASG) as part of an intervention package, with a group of patients in similar conditions who did not receive an NASG.Methods: This observational study analyzed a historic cohort of 154 patients with PPH, secondary hypovolemic shock and signs of hypoperfusion who were admitted to this institution from 2012 to 2015. Group 1 (n= 77) was managed with NASG and Group 2 (n = 77) received interventions other than NASG. Hypoperfusion markers and maternal outcomes were compared in both groups.Results: Of 154 patients included in the analysis, 36.4% required a total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) to achieve hemorrhage control, 98.2% of whom belonged to Group 2 and 1.8% to Group 1 (p = .001). The use of blood products was more common in Group 2 (p < .001), as was the administration of vasoactive agents. The mean number of days of hospitalization at the Obstetric High Dependency Unit (OHDU) was significantly lower in Group 1 and reached a statistically significant p value. Only two cases of maternal death occurred in Group 2.Discussion: The use of NASG in the management of PPH is a cost-effective strategy for patients with severe shock and signs of hypoperfusion and is optimal in a limited-resource scenario. In this study, the use of NASG was related to better outcomes in a statistically significant manner with better results regarding maternal outcomes such as uterine preservation and decreased transfusion requirements and hospital days.Conclusions: NASG, associated with the use of uterotonic agents and other strategies for PPH control, is a safe tool that helps reduce morbimortality in critically ill patients with PPH.

9.
Cult Health Sex ; 22(3): 352-367, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035913

RESUMO

Fistula-related stigma is common. The absence of a unifying conceptual framework prevents a nuanced understanding of the nature of fistula-related stigma, comparison across contexts and the ability to contrast with other stigmas. It also hinders intervention development. We conducted in-depth interviews or focus groups with 60 women who had undergone fistula surgery 6-24 months prior at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda in 2014. Transcripts were analysed for experiences and consequences of enacted, anticipated and internalised stigma. Narratives revealed experiences with enacted stigma, including gossip, verbal abuse and social exclusion. Women also anticipated and feared stigma in the future. Internalised stigma reports revealed shame and low self-esteem: self-worth reduction, feeling disgraced and envisioning no future. Consequences included social isolation, changes to normal activities, non-disclosure and poor mental health. Refining stigma theory to specific conditions has resulted in a more nuanced understanding of stigma dimensions, manifestations, mechanisms and consequences, permitting comparison across contexts and populations and the development of stigma-reduction interventions. These lessons should be applied to fistula, acknowledging unique features: concealability, the potential for treatment, lack of community awareness and the social consequences of stillbirth. Reducing fistula-related stigma requires timely surgery and supportive care, stigma-reduction interventions and addressing the complex societal structures that perpetuate fistula.

10.
Stud Fam Plann ; 50(4): 375-393, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506958

RESUMO

Complications from unsafe abortion are among the major causes of preventable maternal morbidity and mortality, which may be compounded by delays and disparities in treatment. We conducted a secondary analysis of women with symptoms of hypovolemic shock secondary to severe obstetric hemorrhage in Tanzania. We compared receipt of three lifesaving interventions among women with abortions versus other maternal hemorrhage etiologies. Interventions included: non-pneumatic anti-shock garment (NASG) (N = 393), blood transfusion (N = 249), and referral to a higher-capacity facility (N = 131). After controlling for severity of disease and other confounders, women with abortion-related hemorrhage and shock had 78 percent decreased odds of receiving NASG (p < 0.001) and 77 percent decreased odds of receiving a blood transfusion (p < 0.001) compared to women with hemorrhage and shock from other etiologies. Our findings suggest that, in Tanzania, women with abortion-related hemorrhage received lower quality of care than women with other hemorrhage etiologies.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Choque/etiologia , Choque/terapia , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia , Transfusão de Sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tanzânia , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia , Saúde da Mulher
11.
Trop Med Int Health ; 24(1): 53-64, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore trajectories of physical and psychosocial health, and their interrelationship, among women completing fistula repair in Uganda for 1 year post-surgery. METHODS: We recruited a 60-woman longitudinal cohort at surgical hospitalisation from Mulago Hospital in Kampala Uganda (Dec 2014-June 2015) and followed them for 1 year. We collected survey data on physical and psychosocial health at surgery and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months via mobile phone. Fistula characteristics were abstracted from medical records. All participants provided written informed consent. We present univariate analysis and linear regression results. RESULTS: Across post-surgical follow-up, most women reported improvements in physical and psychosocial health, largely within the first 6 months. By 12 months, urinary incontinence had declined from 98% to 33% and general weakness from 33% to 17%, while excellent to good general health rose from 0% to 60%. Reintegration, self-esteem and quality of life all increased through 6 months and remained stable thereafter. Reported stigma reduced, yet some negative self-perception remained at 12 months (mean 17.8). Psychosocial health was significantly impacted by the report of physical symptoms; at 12 months, physical symptoms were associated with a 21.9 lower mean reintegration score (95% CI -30.1, -12.4). CONCLUSIONS: Our longitudinal cohort experienced dramatic improvements in physical and psychosocial health after surgery. Continuing fistula-related symptoms and the substantial differences in psychosocial health by physical symptoms support additional intervention to support women's recovery or more targeted psychosocial support and reintegration services to ensure that those coping with physical or psychosocial challenges are appropriately supported.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autoimagem , Estigma Social , Fístula Vaginal/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher , Adaptação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fístula Retovaginal/psicologia , Uganda , Fístula Vaginal/cirurgia , Fístula Vesicovaginal/psicologia
12.
Reprod Health ; 15(1): 177, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstetric hemorrhage (OH) remains one of the leading causes of maternal mortality, particularly in rural Africa. Tanzania has a high maternal mortality ratio, and approximately 80% of the population accesses health care lower level facilities, unable to provide Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care (CEmOC). The non-pneumatic anti-shock garment (NASG) has been demonstrated to reduce mortality as it buys time for women in shock to be transported to or to overcome delays at referral facilities. METHODS: This report describes one component of an ongoing maternal health improvement project, Empower, implemented in 280 facilities in four regions in rural Tanzania. The NASG along with a Closed User Group (CUG) mobile phone network were implemented within the overall EmOC project. Simulation trainings, repeated trainings, and close hands-on supportive supervision via site visits and via the CUG network were the training/learning methods. Data collection was conducted via the CUG network, with a limited data collection form, which also included free text options for project improvement. One-to-one interviews were also conducted. Outcome Indicators included appropriate use of NASG for women with hypovolemic shock We also compared baseline case fatality rates (CFR) from OH with endline CFRs. Data were analyzed using cohort study Risk Ratio (RR). Qualitative data analysis was conducted by content analysis. RESULTS: Of the 1713 women with OH, 419 (24.5%) met project hypovolemic shock criteria, the NASG was applied to 70.8% (n = 297), indicating high acceptability and utilization. CFR at baseline (1.70) compared to CFR at endline (0.76) showed a temporal association of a 67% reduced risk for women during the project period (RR: 0.33, 95% CI = .19, .60). Qualitative feedback was used to make course corrections during the project to enhance training and implementation. CONCLUSIONS: This implementation project with 280 facilities and over 1000 providers supported via CUG demonstrated that NASG can have high uptake and appropriate use for hypovolemic shock secondary to OH. With the proper implementation strategies, NASG utilization can be high and should be associated with decreased mortality among mothers at risk of death from obstetric hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Saúde Materna , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Choque/terapia , Adulto , Vestuário , Tratamento de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/mortalidade , Gravidez , Choque/mortalidade , Tanzânia
14.
Reprod Health ; 14(1): 109, 2017 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstetric fistula is a debilitating and traumatic birth injury affecting 2-3 million women globally, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Affected women suffer physically, psychologically and socioeconomically. International efforts have increased access to surgical treatment, yet attention to a holistic outcome of post-surgical rehabilitation is nascent. We sought to develop and pilot test a measurement instrument to assess post-surgical family and community reintegration. METHODS: We conducted an exploratory sequential mixed-methods study, beginning with 16 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with 17 women who underwent fistula surgery within two previous years to inform measure development. The draft instrument was validated in a longitudinal cohort of 60 women recovering from fistula surgery. Qualitative data were analyzed through thematic analysis. Socio-demographic characteristics were described using one-way frequency tables. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine the latent structure of the scale, then tested the fit of a single higher-order latent factor. We evaluated internal consistency and temporal stability reliability through Raykov's ρ and Pearson's correlation coefficient, respectively. We estimated a series of linear regression models to explore associations between the standardized reintegration measure and validated scales representing theoretically related constructs. RESULTS: Themes central to women's experiences following surgery included resuming mobility, increasing social interaction, improved self-esteem, reduction of internalized stigma, resuming work, meeting their own needs and the needs of dependents, meeting other expected and desired roles, and negotiating larger life issues. We expanded the Return to Normal Living Index to reflect these themes. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a four-factor structure, titled 'Mobility and social engagement', 'Meeting family needs', 'Comfort with relationships', and 'General life satisfaction', and goodness of fit statistics supported a higher-order latent variable of 'Reintegration.' Reintegration score correlated significantly with quality of life, depression, self-esteem, stigma, and social support in theoretically expected directions. CONCLUSION: As more women undergo surgical treatment for obstetric fistula, attention to the post-repair period is imperative. This preliminary validation of a reintegration instrument represents a first step toward improving measurement of post-surgical reintegration and has important implications for the evidence base of post-surgical reintegration epidemiology and the development and evaluation of fistula programming.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Apoio Social , Fístula Vaginal/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda , Fístula Vaginal/psicologia
15.
16.
Reprod Health ; 14(1): 58, 2017 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28499381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this case series is to describe the experience of using the non-pneumatic anti-shock garment (NASG) in the management of severe Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and shock, and the value of implementing this concept in high-complexity obstetric hospitals. METHODS: Descriptive case series of 77 women that received NASG in the management of PPH with severe hypovolemic shock from June 2014 to December 2015. Vital signs, shock index (SI), the lactic acid value and the base deficit were compared before and after NASG application. RESULTS: Fifty-six (77%) women had an SI > 1.1 at the time shock management was initiated; 96% had uterine atony. All women received standard does of uterotonics. The average time between the birth and NASG applications was 20 min. Forty-eight percent of women recovered haemodynamic variables in the first hour and 100% within the first 6 h; 100% had a SI < 1.0 in the first hour. The NASG was not removed until definitive control of bleeding was achieved, with an average time of use of 24 h. There were no mortalities. CONCLUSIONS: In this case series of women in severe shock, the NASG was an effective management device for the control of severe hypovolemic shock. It should be considered a first-line option for shock management.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Trajes Gravitacionais , Hipovolemia/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Obstétricos/instrumentação , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Choque/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Hipovolemia/epidemiologia , Terapia Passiva Contínua de Movimento/instrumentação , Terapia Passiva Contínua de Movimento/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Obstétricos/métodos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lancet ; 388(10056): 2176-2192, 2016 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27642019

RESUMO

On the continuum of maternal health care, two extreme situations exist: too little, too late (TLTL) and too much, too soon (TMTS). TLTL describes care with inadequate resources, below evidence-based standards, or care withheld or unavailable until too late to help. TLTL is an underlying problem associated with high maternal mortality and morbidity. TMTS describes the routine over-medicalisation of normal pregnancy and birth. TMTS includes unnecessary use of non-evidence-based interventions, as well as use of interventions that can be life saving when used appropriately, but harmful when applied routinely or overused. As facility births increase, so does the recognition that TMTS causes harm and increases health costs, and often concentrates disrespect and abuse. Although TMTS is typically ascribed to high-income countries and TLTL to low-income and middle-income ones, social and health inequities mean these extremes coexist in many countries. A global approach to quality and equitable maternal health, supporting the implementation of respectful, evidence-based care for all, is urgently needed. We present a systematic review of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for routine antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal care, categorising them as recommended, recommended only for clinical indications, and not recommended. We also present prevalence data from middle-income countries for specific clinical practices, which demonstrate TLTL and increasing TMTS. Health-care providers and health systems need to ensure that all women receive high-quality, evidence-based, equitable and respectful care. The right amount of care needs to be offered at the right time, and delivered in a manner that respects, protects, and promotes human rights.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/economia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/provisão & distribução , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez
20.
Reprod Health ; 13: 44, 2016 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27091122

RESUMO

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) comprises different practices involving cutting, pricking, removing and sometimes sewing up external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. The practice of FGM/C is highly concentrated in a band of African countries from the Atlantic coast to the Horn of Africa, in areas of the Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen, and in some countries in Asia like Indonesia. Girls exposed to FGM/C are at risk of immediate physical consequences such as severe pain, bleeding, and shock, difficulty in passing urine and faeces, and sepsis. Long-term consequences can include chronic pain and infections. FGM/C is a deeply entrenched social norm, perpetrated by families for a variety of reasons, but the results are harmful. FGM/C is a human rights issue that affects girls and women worldwide. The practice is decreasing, due to intensive advocacy activities of international, national, and grassroots agencies. An adolescent girl today is about a third less likely to be cut than 30 years ago. However, the rates of abandonment are not high enough, and change is not happening as rapidly as necessary. Multiple interventions have been implemented, but the evidence base on what works is lacking. We in reproductive health must work harder to find strategies to help communities and families abandon these harmful practices.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Circuncisão Feminina/efeitos adversos , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Prioridades em Saúde , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/prevenção & controle , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Circuncisão Feminina/ética , Circuncisão Feminina/legislação & jurisprudência , Circuncisão Feminina/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/ética , Violência Doméstica/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Feminino , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/ética , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/psicologia , Humanos , Papel Profissional , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Recursos Humanos
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