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1.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis ; 27(5): 434-441, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308510

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019, the disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus, was first identified in the Hubei Province of China in late 2019. Currently, the only role for therapy is treatment of the disease, as opposed to postexposure prophylaxis, however multiple clinical trials are currently ongoing for both treatment and prophylaxis. Treating coronavirus disease 2019 relies on two components; the first is inhibition of the viral entrance and replication within the body and the second is inhibition of an exacerbated immune response which can be seen in patients with severe disease. Many drugs have shown in vitro antiviral activity; however, clinical trials have not been as promising. This review summarizes the current data for the most commonly used drugs for coronavirus disease 2019 and will cover the unique factors that may affect the dosing of these medications in patients with CKD. While clinical trials are ongoing, most are in patients with normal kidney function. During a pandemic, when patients with CKD are at higher risk of both infection and death, it is imperative to include patients these patients in the clinical trials.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , /prevenção & controle , /uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Creatinina/metabolismo , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Citidina/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hidroxilaminas/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Eliminação Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico
2.
Cell Rep ; 31(12): 107784, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579916

RESUMO

Pregnancy necessitates physiological exposure, and often re-exposure, to foreign fetal alloantigens. The consequences after pregnancy are highly varied, with evidence of both alloimmunization and expanded tolerance phenotypes. We show that pregnancy primes the accumulation of fetal-specific maternal CD8+ T cells and their persistence as an activated memory pool after parturition. Cytolysis and the potential for robust secondary expansion occurs with antigen re-encounter in non-reproductive contexts. Comparatively, CD8+ T cell functional exhaustion associated with increased PD-1 and LAG-3 expression occurs with fetal antigen re-stimulation during subsequent pregnancy. PD-L1/LAG-3 neutralization unleashes the activation of fetal-specific CD8+ T cells, causing fetal wastage selectively during secondary but not primary pregnancy. Thus, CD8+ T cells with fetal alloantigen specificity persist in mothers after pregnancy, and protection against fetal wastage in subsequent pregnancies is maintained by their unique susceptibility to functional exhaustion. Together, distinct mechanisms whereby fetal tolerance is maintained during primary compared with subsequent pregnancies are demonstrated.

3.
Clin Transplant ; 32(5): e13247, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603431

RESUMO

Since hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine implementation, HBV infection has significantly decreased. However, adult renal transplant recipients show a higher rate of seroreversion compared to the general population, leading to HBV infection risk. Data are limited in pediatric renal transplant recipients. Retrospective data were collected to determine the seroprotection and durability of HBV vaccination in pediatric renal transplant patients from 2004 to 2014. One hundred subjects were categorized based on pre- and post-transplant hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb). Pretransplant, 85 recipients (85%) had a positive HBsAb compared to 15 (15%) with negative HBsAb. In univariable analyses, other than age (P < .05) no significant differences existed pretransplant by demographics, pretransplantation dialysis, or number of vaccinations. Of the 85 pretransplantation responders, 53 (62%) remained HBsAb positive post-transplantation, 28 (32%) seroreverted, and 4 developed indeterminate titers. All seroreversions occurred within 5 years post-transplant. Receipt of a living donor organ had higher risk of reversion (P = .005). No significant differences were found in demographics, pretransplantation dialysis, vaccination number, or acute rejection. Despite vaccination, 15% of pediatric renal transplant candidates were seronegative, and an additional 32% lost seroprotection within 5 years post-transplantation leaving nearly half of transplant recipients at risk for HBV infection.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/imunologia , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vacinação
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